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sionally even in expression, from another copy, in the 
library of the late Lord Hailes, which has been used in 
revising the proof-sheets. These copies contain no inter- 
nal evidence of the precise dates of their publication, which 
must, however, have been very near to the periods as- 
signed by Herbert. Davidson was appointed Royal Print- 
er in 1540, and the Statutes of James the Fifth, which he 
printed at the command of that monarch, bear the date 
of 1541.^ 

There is no information to be obtained respecting the 
engraver of the curious wood-cut which ornaments the last 
leaf of Bellenden's work, and of which a fac-simile has been 
executed, for the present reprint, by ISIr Lizars. We can 
scarcely venture to attribute the original to a Scottish, or 
even to an English artist, among whose works, at this time, 
we rarely discover either tolerable design or careful exe- 
cution. It is more than probable that Davidson procured 
the block from Germany, where the Formschneiders had 
made considerable progress in the art of engraving upon 
wood, at an early period. The copy of the Acts of two 
Parliaments of James the Ffth, printed upon vellum by 
him, in 1541, and preserved in the Advocates' Library, 
contains a fine impression of the same print, to which is 
subjoined the following monkish distich : 

En ego, justicie typus atq. figura, tribunal 
Sic ascendo nieuni : dextra assertoribus alta 
Astipulor veri, quibus hec mea lilia merces ; 
At si quis contra sentit, demissa sinistra 
In stygios jubet ire lacus, gladioq. feriri. 

' The only copy of this book knoMn to exist, is printed upon vellum, 
and preserved in the Advocates' Library. 


The subject of the print scarcely requires any descrip- 
tion. Within a circle of roses are the ordinary emblems 
of the Trinity ; on the right and left appear the Virgin, 
with an infant Jesus in her arms ; Moses, and the Royal 
Psalmist ; St Peter, with the keys of heaven ; St Paul, 
and the Lion of St Mark ; with a large assembly of pro- 
phets, apostles, martyrs, pilgrims, popes, cardinals, vir- 
gins, and matrons. The lower part of the engraving ex- 
hibits a scene in purgatory. A more minute descrip- 
tion may be found in Herbert's edition of Ames's Typo- 
graphical Antiqidties. The general design is full of spi- 
rit; and the execution of the engraving has not been 
surpassed by the most skilful of modern Xylographers. 

The original title-page has also been accurately copied 
upon a reduced scale, for this Work. It exhibits a rude 
engraving of the Arms of Scotland, a favourite ornament 
with our early printers. The original may have been exe- 
cuted in Scotland, and its merit is not diminished in the 
copy by !Mr Lizars. The blooming letters used in the 
course of these volumes were designed and engraved by 
this ingenious artist. The two small wood-cuts which 
occur in the fourth and twelfth Books were executed by 
Mr Bewick.^ 

^ There are in Scotland two copies of Bellenden's Boece, printed upon 
vellxim. One of these is preserved in the library of the Duke of Hamil- 
ton ; and a more splendid specimen of early typography, and of antique 
binding, cannot well be imagined. The vellum upon which it is printed 
is stainless — and the breadth of the margin would satisfy the most fasti- 
dious and princely Collector. The boards bear the following inscription. 
Jacobus Quintus Rex Scotorum — and on the title-page, the initials 
J. R'^ appear in manuscript. They are, in all probability, in the hand- 
wi'iting of that monarch, to whom the volume appears to have belonged. The 


There are several manuscript copies extant of Bellen- 
den's Translation of Boece. The most ancient and au- 
thentic of these belongs to Sir Alexander Boswell of 
Auchinleck. It differs materially from the printed work; 
and the Editor regrets extremely that the arrangement^ 
for the present publication did not admit of collating 
them. The earlier part, as far as the end of the table 
to the fourth Book, is wanting. What remains of the 
table differs in many respects from the printed copy. 
Then follows the list of Kings, which is a fuller transla- 
tion of Boece's catalogue. This is succeeded by " Ane 
Ballat," which is the same with the " Prohem of the 
History ;" but concludes, " Heir endis the ballat, and 
" beginnis the Preface direkkit to our Soverane Lord 
" King James the Fyft." The preface occupies four pages 
and a half of the IMS. It is just the Epistle which con- 
cludes the printed volume under the title of" The Epis- 
" tie direckit be the translatour to the Kingis grace ;" but 
concludes with the following date, which is material, as 
ascertaining the period at which the translation must have 
been executed : " At Edinburgh, the last day of August, 
" the year of God, one thousand five hundreth and 
" thretty-ane yeiris." 

It would be vain to attempt an enumeration of the dis- 
crepancies that occur in the historical part of the narrative ; 

other, which is inferior, belongs to the library of the University of Edin- 
burgh. The title-page bears the following quaint inscription : " Thomas 
" Willson Mercator, me Bibliothecae Edinburgensse done dedit, Auo-dom. 
" 1669." This valuable volume seems to have been heedlessly committed 
to the hands of a tasteless bookbinder, and has, in consequence, suffered 
much from those operations known by the name of cobbling. 


but a few of them may be noticed. In the third chapter of 
the Fourteentli Book, the passage beginning, " It was said 
" be thame that followit the opinion of Ballial," runs thus 
in the IMS. : " It is said that Robert Bruse wes the causs of 
" the discomfit of this last feild at Dunbar ; for in the be- 
" ginning of the battel, he permittit to King Edward to 
" come from King Balial, with all his freindis and kynnis- 
" men," and then he goes for his reward to the English 
monarch. A very remarkable variation occurs in the fifth 
chapter of the same Book. In the MS., Wallace's speech 
to Bruce is literally translated from Boece ; while, in the 
printed copy, all his abuse of Bruce is omitted, and an 
apology introduced. 

In the printed work, the Fifteenth Book commences 
with an account of the proceedings of Sir James Douglas, 
which is omitted in the MS., where this Book begins 
as follows : — 

" A7id hegy7iis ye xv Buke of ye samyne. How David 
*' Bruse was maid King of Scotland ; and hoiv Erie 
" Thomas Randaill was maid Governor yairof. Of his 
^* gret justice ; and of his deith. Ca. Primo. 

" QuHEN King Robert was deceissit in yis maner, his 
" sone, David Bruse, was maid king ; and becaus he was 
" unable to govern ye realme for his non age, Erie Tho- 
" mas Randaill was maid governor ; for nane was yat 
" day compair to him in manheid and prudence, except 
" Schir James Douglass, quhilk was, as we have schawin, 
** votit to ye Haly Land. Erie Thomas was governour 

VOL. I. b 


'' als, iiij zeris, during ye infirmite of King Robert ; 
" and becaus ye peple was brokin with lang warris, he 
" thocht best, quhill yai war refreschit, to mak peace 
" with Ingland. Sic thingis done, he set his besiness to 
" governe ye reahne in peace, comanding his officiar to 
" do justice in all partis. And yat yai suld not remane 
" unmyndfull of yair warris, he comandit yame to have 
" yair wappynnis & harnes ay reddy to battell ; foryer, to 
•'• nuriss gud men injustice, and to puniss ewill men, 
•' (quhilks repugnant yairto.) He comandit yat saidillis, 
" bridillis, and all uyer instruments pertenand to ye use of 
" husbandry, suld ly yairfurth bayth day and nycht ; and 
" gif ony thing war tane away, yat ye shereff of ye schir 
" suld outher causs it to be restorit to ye aunaris, or ellis 
" to pay it one his awin burss. Finalie, sic extreme puni- 
" tionis was maid one thevis, yat baith thift and pikry 
" war dantit in all partis ; and mony broken men* dantit 
" of yair wild insolence, howbeid yai beleiffit to use sic 
*' oppressionis one ye peple in tyme of peace, as yai usit 
" afore, quhen ye cuntre was troublit be civill conten tionis. 
" Attour, yat vertue suld be autorist in yis realm e, he 
" comandit yat na vagabound peple, menstralis, nor jug- 
" gillouris, be ressavit in ony touns, without yai had sum 
" craft to debait yair leving, (becaus yai war proffitable 
" allanerlie in tyme of battell.) Be yis way, he purgit ye 
" realme of mony ydill lymaris." 

The corresponding passage in the printed copy is ma- 
terially different. If Bellenden personally superintended 
the publication, he must have had some purpose, which 
cannot now be detected, in garbling his original composi- 
tion. In the Auchinleck MSS. there is considerably more 


of the vernacular language of Scotland than in the printed 

The Editor is indebted to Sir Alexander Boswell for 
these collations. He is also indebted to Mr George Chal- 
mers for a variety of particulars relative to Boece and 
Bellenden ; extracted by that gentleman from an unpub- 
lished work of his own, on the Printing and Printers of 
Scotland, which, it is hoped, he will not long withhold 
from the world. 


He early part of the Literary History 
of Scotland is involved in much ob- 
scurity, and has not been investigated 
with a due share either of care or of 
candour. Many eminent writers who 
adorned the reigns of the Stuarts du- 
ring the fifteenth and sixteenth centu- 
ries, are now in a great measure unknown or forgotten. 
The difficulties these early writers had to encounter, from 
the limited sources of information which they possessed, 
—-the absence of authentic records to guide them in their 
researches,— the romantic and fabulous times of which they 
wrote, and the want of science to operate as a check up- 
on credulity, seem entirely to have escaped those critics 
by whom their labours have been depreciated, and their 
claims to the gratitude of posterity denied. 

John Barbour, the father of Scottish Historians, com- 
posed his celebrated historical poem upon the exploits of 


Robert the Great, about the year 1375 ; and, looking to 
the remote period at which it was written, it is a work of 
great merit. The subject is well selected and skilfully 
managed. TJie Bruce was truly the hero of Scottish chi- 
valry ; and Barbour relates his mighty deeds with all the 
enthusiasm of a Scottish poet. His narrative is remark- 
able for simplicity, and his style is by no means deficient 
in fancy. He appears to have been acquainted with an- 
cient literature ; but it is to be regretted, that the taste 
of the age should have led him to study Statius and Clau- 
dian, rather than Virgil and Horace. He certainly, how- 
ever, improved the language of his country, " by a strain 
of versification, expression, and poetical images, far supe- 
rior to the age in which he lived." ' It is difficult to ar- 
rive at any satisfactory conclusion as to the credit due to 
his historical details, but the researches of Lord Hailes 
leave a favourable impression of their accuracy. 

The Scotichronico7i, the earliest general history of Scot- 
land that has reached our time, was compiled during the 
reign of Robert the Second, by John of Foiidun, — so 
named from the supposed place of his birth, a village in 
Kincardineshire. This venerable Chronicler flourished 
about the year 1380. His Latinity is barbarous ; but he is 
admitted to have been a useful compiler of history, by a 
writer" who is never disposed to bestow unmerited com- 
mendation upon the early historians of Scotland. Lord 
Hailes, too, avails himself liberally of the materials fur- 

' Warton's History of English Poetry, I. 318. 
^ Pinkerton. 


iiished by Fordun, and appears to have set considerable 
value upon them. 

The Scotkhronicon was continued by Walter Bo- 
war, Abbot of St Colm, to the end of the reign of James 
the First. His materials are valuable and authentic, but 
they are ill- digested, and his style possesses no attraction. 

Andrew Winton, Prior of Lochleven, was a con- 
temporary of Bowar. He composed his Metrical Chro- 
nicle of Scotland about the year 1420, during the regen- 
cy of Murdoc, Duke of Albany. This curious work re- 
mained in manuscript, till that part of it which relates to 
the affairs of Scotland was introduced to the notice of the 
world by the late Mr David ;M'Pherson, in a publication 
which appeared in 1795. It contains much genealogical 
information relating to many of the noble families of 

The period during which Bowar and Winton flourished, 
was followed by a long pause in the progress of historical 
writing in Scotland, while considerable advancement was 
made in the fine arts. James the First, who had not ne- 
glected the culture of his mind during the gloom of his 
tedious captivity, indulged with great success in poetical 
composition. His grandson was devoted to architecture 
and painting ; and the great hall in the Castle of Stirling, 
with Roslyii's proud ChapeUe, attest the taste of the mo- 
narch and of the age. The unfortunate hero of Flodden 
Field was fonder of the ways of strife than of the paths 
of peace ; yet, true to the character of his race, he was 
not regardless of the interests of literature. His famous 


statute relative to Education ^ deserves to be commemo 
rated, as an enactment worthy of an enlightened legislator. 
Although it related only to the children of the higher 
orders, it may be viewed as in some measure the com- 
mencement of that system which ultimately resulted in 
the establishment of Parish Schools, by an act of the 
Privy Council, in I6l6. It was under the auspices of 
James the Fourth, too, that the typographical art was in- 
troduced into Scotland, and that the excellent Bishop 
Elphinston founded the University of Aberdeen. 

With the reign of James the Fifth commenced the 
golden age of the early literature of Scotland. The cha- 
racter of this monarch is familiar to every reader of his- 
tory. Eminent as a poet, and remarkable for his love of 
learning, his court was filled with accomplished scholars, 
and his praises were sung by the poets of his own as 
well as of foreign lands. 

And ye, my soverenej be lyne coutinuall. 
Ay come of kingis your progenitouris. 
And writis in ornate style poetically 
Quick-flowand vers of rhethorik cullouris, 
Sa freschlie springand in youre lusty flouris. 
To the grete comforte of all trew Scottismeu — 

was the address of a Scottish poet to James ; and it is sup- 
posed that Ariosto " glaunceth at his worth in the per^ 
son of Zerhino, whom he nameth Prince of Scotland" 

1 1494, c. 54. 

2 Drummond's History of Scotland, Edin. l682, p. 348. 


The earliest historian during this reign, whose writ- 
ings have come down to us, is John Mair. His work, 
De Gestis Scotorum, was written in 1518, and first print- 
ed at Paris, in 1521, by Badius Ascensius, with the 
usual elegance which distinguished his press. JMair was 
less credulous than the historians who preceded him, 
and corrected many of the figments^ as he calls them, 
of Scottish history. His narrative closes with the mar- 
riage of James the Fourth, in 1495. *• He wrote," says 
Archbishop Spottiswood, " howbeit in a sorhonkJc and 
*' barbarous style, yet very truly, and with a great liberty 
*• of spirit." ^ He was followed by a writer of distinguish- 
ed talents, and unquestionably one of the most accom- 
plished scholars of his age. 

Hector Boece ^ 

was descended from an honourable family in the county 
of Angus, who possessed the barony of Panbride for a 
long period of years. David the Second, having appointed 
a council to meet at Perth, commanded the names of all 
those who had done good service to their country, or 
whose fathers had been slain at the battles of Duplin and 
Halydonhill, to be communicated to him, in order that 
he might have an opportunity of rewarding them. His 

^ History of Church of Scotland, p. 68. 

2 The name is variously written, Boyis, Boyes, Boiss, Boice, and Boece. 
The last has been adopted as the more usual orthography. It came origi- 
nally from France, and never appears to have been common in Scotland. 
It occurs only once in the General Index to the Retours— .Bariarf/o 
Boyes hicola in Dundee. Inquis. Generales, 7528. 

VOL. I. C 


rewards consisted chiefly of gold, silver, and jewels ; but 
Boece informs us, that the heiress and barony of Pan- 
bride, or Balbride, were bestowed upon Hugh Boece, his 
grandfather, in consequence of his father having fallen at 
the battle of Duplin. This property still belonged to the 
family, during the reign of James the Fifth. 

Boece was born at Dundee, about the year 1465-6; 
and hence he assumed the sirname of Deidonanus. His 
education commenced at his native place. It was con- 
tinued at Aberdeen, and afterwards completed at Paris, 
where, in 1497, he became a Professor of Philosophy in 
the college of JNIontacute. During his residence in that 
university, he had an opportunity of forming an intimacy 
with many of the most eminent scholars of the time. 
Among these was Erasmus, with whom, during the after- 
part of his life, he maintained a regular correspondence. 
As a mark of his esteem, Erasmus dedicated a Catalogue 
of his works to Boece, and accompanied the transmission 
of it with a very eloquent and affectionate letter, in which 
he reflects, with much complacency, upon his intellectual 
intercourse with him at Paris, when they were both ac- 
tively engaged in literary pursuits. ^ 

^ This letter was in answer to one which Erasmus had previously re- 
ceived from the Scottish historian, dated at Aberdeen, on the 7th of June 
1528. By some accident, it appears not to have reached him till the month 
of February, 1530. After assigning this circumstance as the cause of his 
apparent long delay in replying to Boece's communication, Erasmus pro- 
ceeds, — " Quam, mihi tua consuetudo jucuuda fuit Hector eruditissime, 
" quum ante annos triginta duo Lutetiae in literarum stadio pariter cur- 
" reremus, licet te pro ingenii tui singulari felicitate multis passibus prse- 


In 1500, Boece was invited, by Bishop Elphinston, to 
become Principal of King's College, Aberdeen, which he 
had a short time before founded, under the patronage of 
James the Fourth. This invitation was at first unfavour- 
ably received, but, allured by " gifts and promises,"^ Boece 
at last yielded to the solicitations of his countryman. He 
left Paris and his learned friends with regret. Upon 
returning to his native country, he experienced a kind 
reception from the Canons of Aberdeen, and immediate- 
ly entered upon the discharge of his professorial du- 
ties. His associate in these was William Hay, a person 
of whom he speaks with respect and affection. They 
were both natives of Angus; they had spent their youth 
together in Dundee ; and they had afterwards stu- 
died at Paris, under the same masters. By their joint 
exertions. King's College acquired great celebrity, and 
became a nursery of excellent scholars. Boece discharged 
the duties of Principal and Professor with zeal and fide- 
lity. His annual revenue, at this period, amounted to 
40 Scottish marks, about L.2, 4s. 6d. of Sterling money, 
— a sum which, as Dr Johnson observes, was then pro- 
bably equal, not only to the needs, but to the rank of the 
President of King's College." 

" ciirrente : tam mihi gratum fuit earn voluptatem ex tanto intervallo 
" mihi tuis Uteris refricari." At the close of the letter, Erasmus expresses 
great satisfaction in learning that Scotland was making rapid progress in 
the liberal arts. For this she was indebted, in no inconsiderable degree^, 
to Hector Boece. 

* Muneribus et pollicitationibus. Fitce Episc. Murth. et Aberd. fol. 27. 

^ Tour to the Hebrides. 


After the death of Bishop Elphinston, in 1514, Boece 
undertook a work, intended, chiefly, to give an account 
of the life and character of that excellent Prelate, and 
which was published at Paris in 1522, in a small quarto 
volume, now of great rarity, entitled, Vitoe Episcojyo- 
rum jyiurthlacensium et Aherdonens'mm. It begins with 
the life of Bean us, the first Bishop of Aberdeen, and 
ends with that of Gawin Dunbar, who filled the See at 
the time the book was published. Nearly one-third of the 
whole, however, is occupied with the Memoirs of Boece's 
patron, which contain an interesting account of his early 
education, and of his gradual advancement to the high 
literary and political situations he afterwards filled. 

The narrative is particularly minute regarding the 
foundation and endowment of King's College. The build- 
ing is described as magnificent in ornament and extent. 
The Church attached to the College is represented as 
having been built of hewn stone, and as containing suit- 
able accommodations for Priests and Students. It was 
richly furnished with marble altars, graven images, pic- 
tures, statues, tapestry, garments of gold and purple, can- 
delabras, vases of curious workmanship, vessels for frank- 
incense and holy water, coverings for the altars em- 
broidered with gold, and a chest of cypress-wood, adorn- 
ed with pearls and gems, in which the relics of the saints 
were deposited. These were chiefly the gift of Bishop 
Elphinston. A few of the ornaments were bestowed by 
Arthur Boece, a brother of our historian,^ who does not 

^ Boetius (Artliurus) Hectoris fi'ater juris canonici Professor in acade- 
mia Aljerdonensi. Scripsit Excerpta ex jure Pontijicio, lib. 1. Claruit 


himself appear to have been wealthy enough to make do- 
nations to the Church of his College ; but it is recorded, 
that a magnificent altar, with suitable ornaments, was 
erected by his executors.^ 

There were four Professorships in King's College ; the 
first of Divinity, to which all the others were subordi- 
nate, — the second of Canon Law, — the third of Civil Law, 
— and the fourth of Physic. Ten Bachelors were employ- 
ed in attending the lectures of the Professors, and in ex- 
plaining them to the younger students. Similar duties 
were performed by fourteen students of philosophy ; and 
there was also a Teacher or Professor, whose duty it was 
to initiate the members of the college in Grammar, pre* 
vious to the study of the higher and more important 
branches of education. In Boece's time, this last depart- 
ment was filled by John Vaux, a scholar of great learning 
and intense application.' 

The endowments of Bishop Elphinston were not con- 
fined to his own College and Church. He adorned the 
original Cathedral of Aberdeen with rich gifts, and com- 
pleted the great Tower, which Henry Leighton, a for- 
mer Bishop, had left unfinished. He also commenced 
rebuilding the choir, in a style of splendour consistent 
with the other parts of the cathedral ; but this work was 

anno mdxx. Tanner's Bib. Brit. Hih. The name of Arthur Boyes, the 
Laird of Balwery, (probably this person,) occurs in the original nomina- 
tion of the Lords of Session in 1532 ; but it does not appear that he ever 
acted. — Acts of Par. vol. II. SS6. Hailes' Catalogue of Lords of Session, 
p. 1. 

^ Orem's I>is. of King's College, p. l66. 

* Vitce Epis. Murth. et Aber. folio 29. 


not completed at his death. A bridge over the Dee was 
planned by him ; and he left a large sum for the purpose 
of carrying it into execution. Nothing can be more de- 
lightful than Boece's account of the old age of the Bishop.^ 
It was devoted to religion, to learning, and to the plea- 
sures of society. His table, which was splendid, was fre- 
quented by the noble and the learned; and, although 
abstemious himself, his love of music and of gaiety made 
him a very agreeable companion. He died, after havingfiUed 
the See of Aberdeen for 30 years,^ full of age and of ho- 
nour. It is to be regretted that no part of his historical 
collections has yet been made public. They are preserved 
among the manuscripts of Sir Thomas Fairfax, in the 
Bodleian Library. 

Boece, as already mentioned, concludes his Lives of 
the Bishops with a short notice of Gawin Dunbar, to 
whom he dedicated the book. He urges upon this Pre- 
late the propriety of following out the plans of Elphin- 
ston, for finishing King's College, and for erecting a 
bridge over the Dee. Dunbar adopted these suggestions, 
and completed much of what his predecessor had left 
unfinished. It has been said that Boece prevented him 
from placing his name and armorial bearings upon a part 
of King's College, of which he had commenced the build- 
ing. In consequence of this, the Bishop, in a fit of humour, 
directed it to be completed, " roughly, without good work- 
" man ship or contrivance." ^ 

^ Senectus ei jucunda et veneranda, non morosaj non auxia^ non difficilis, 
non tristis. Viioe Episc. Miirth. et Aberd. fol. 31. 
^ 1450. 
^ Orem's Dis. of King's College, p. 175. 


During his long residence in King's College, Boece de- 
voted much of his leisure to the composition of a General 
History of Scotland, which was destined to estabUsh his 
fame. It was published at Paris, in 1526, in a folio vo- 
lume, under the title of " Scotorim HistoricB, a prima 
'' gentis origine, cum aliarum et rerum et gentium> illustra- 
" tione non vulgari:' ^ This edition contains seventeen 
Books. A second was printed at Lausanne, and publish- 
ed at Paris in 1574, about forty years after the death 
of Boece. In this, were added the eighteenth, and part 
of a nineteenth Book, written by himself; and a con- 
tinuation of the history to the end of the reign of James 
the Third, by Ferrerius, a learned Piedmontese, w^ho 
came to Scotland, in 1528, in the train of Robert Reid, 
Abbot of Kinloss, and afterwards Bishop of Orkney. 

Soon after the publication of his History, James the 
Fifth bestowed upon Boece a pension of L.50 Scots year- 
ly ; as appears from the following notices in the Record : 
" 1527, July 14th, Grant to Maister Hector of a pension 
" of L.50 Scots yearly, to be paid him by the sheriff of 
" Aberdeen out of the King's casualties.'" This grant 
was repeated, two years afterwards, with a variation of the 
source of payment :— " 1529, July 26th, Precept for a let- 

1 The printing was executed, " Jodoci Badii Ascensii typis et opera, 
" impensis autem nobilis et proedocti viri Hectoris Boethii, DeidoTiatii." The 
title-page contains a curious engraving of the Ascensian Press, Avithin a 
border of fantastic devices, and surmounted by a medallion figure of a monk, 
crowned with laurel, and seated at a writing-desk ; which Mr Herbert 
supposes to be a portrait of the author. — Typographical Antiquities, vol. 
III. p. 1471. 

2 Privy Seal, Reg. vi. fol. 70. 


" tre to Mr Hector Boys, professor of theology, of a pen- 
" sion of L.50 Scots yearly, until the King promote him 
" to a benefice of 100 marks Scots of yearly value ; the 
" said pension to be paid him by the customers of Aber- 
" deen."^ As the King's customs of Aberdeen were pro- 
bably inadequate to answer all the assignments upon them, 
Boece's pension was afterwards, in 1533 and 1534, paid, 
the one-half by the King's Comptroller, and the other half 
by the Treasurer. There was paid in this manner one 
year's pension, from Whitsunday 1532 to Whitsunday 
1533 ; and another, from Whitsunday 1533 to Whitsun- 
day 1534. 

As the payment of the pension does not appear in the 
Treasurer's accounts after 1534, it is probable, that, about 
this period, the King carried into effect his intention, inti- 
mated in the grant of 1529, of giving Boece a benefice in 
lieu of it. The benefice so given, was the Rectory of 
Tyrie, in Buchan, Aberdeenshire, which he held at his 
death, in 1536 ; as appears from the record of the presen- 
tation of his successor : — " 1536, November 22d. The king 
" presented ]Vlr John Gardin to the Rectory of Tiry, in 
" the diocese of Aberdeen, vacant by the death of the late 
" Mr Hector Boiss."^ 

No particulars are known respecting the latter years of 
Boece ; but the notice just quoted from the Record, shews 
that he died in 1536,^ when he must have been about 

^ Privy Seal, Reg. viii. 75. 
2 Privy Seal, Reg. x. 177- 

■■' Tlie authors of the Biographia Britannica have erroneously supposed, 
that Boece died only a short time previous to the year 1550. The only 


sevent)'- years of age. According to Gordon of Straloch, 
this event happened at Aberdeen. 

The merits of Boece, as a historian, have been keenly 
disputed. It was formerly supposed, that the severity 
of his treatment, by some of the older English writers,^ ori- 
ginated in passion and malice ; but their example has been 
followed by two modern critics of his own country. Lord 
Hailes and Mr Pinkerton. In speaking of our historian, 
the former seems to lose his usual caution ; and Mr Pinker- 
ton inveighs against him as " the most egregious historical 
*' impostor that ever appeared in any country !" He would 
have done well to have recollected an observation of his 
own, when attempting to justify his favourite hero, James 
the Fifth, for sanctioning the judicial murder of the young 
and lovely Lady Glamis upon a charge of witchcraft, — 
" that it is no crime not to have been a philosopher before 
" philosophy revived." 

reasou given for this conjecture is, that, in that year, they find his death 
lamented by Latonius and Wolfius, two learned foreigners, with whom he 
had been intimately acquainted at the university of Paris. 

^ Lluyd, Lloyd, and Stillingfleet. " This furious regicide," says the late 
Mr David M'Pherson, in a MS. note on his copy of the Origines Britan- 
nicoe, " in his hurry to demolish the fictitious kings of the Scots, whom no 
" sensible Scotsman wishes to rescue out of his hands, sacrifices along with 
" them all the real and well authenticated sovereigns whose names he does 
" not find in the genealogy of the direct ancestors of Alexander the Third ; 
" so that all the branches of the royal family which failed of issue, are, by 
" this new kind of argument, proven never to have existed." It is not to 
be supposed, that, with such views as these, Stillingfleet could treat Hector 
Boece with much lenity or candour. 

VOL. I. d 


Lord Hailes sarcastically remarks, " that, although re- 
" formed from Popery, we are not reformed from Boece ;" 
and it is perhaps true, that the charms of his narrative may 
have given currency to fables, even after the progress of 
knowledge, and the light of science, had exposed their 
absurdity. But what is the conclusion to be drawn from 
thence ? Certainly not that he is unworthy of all credit, 
but merely that, in estimating the credit \vhich is due to 
him, it is necessary to make an allowance for those parts 
of his works that can be traced to the credulity of the age 
in which he lived, and of which, with all his learning and 
accomplishments, it must be admitted that he largely par- 

Anxious to support the claims of his country to a high 
degree of antiquity, he listened readily to the most extra- 
vagant traditions, provided they supported his favourite 
delusion, and enabled him to add another name to the 
long line of Scottish monarchs. Many statements were 
thus hazarded upon authority which modern discrimina- 
tion would scornfully reject. The dynasty of Scotland was 
carried far beyond the birth of Christ ; and every reign 
was full of battles never fought, and of events which never 
existed, save in the dreams of Monkish tradition. 

Boece prefixed to his Chronicles a geographical descrip- 
tion of Scotland, accompanied by a short account of the 
manners of the ancient inhabitants. Here, also, we dis- 
cover symptoms of great credulity, but none whatever of 
a disposition to deceive. He was fond of Natural His- 
tory, a science at this period in its infancy. The accuracy 
which experimental investigation has now acquired was 
wholly unknown, and many of the great arcana of nature, 


which have since been explained, were the subject of igno- 
rant astonishment in the days of Boece. Phenomena which 
are now common and intelligible, were then viewed as 
marvellous, and surpassing all comprehension. This may 
explain the readiness with which Boece, in common with 
such writers as Herodotus and Livy, lent a willing ear to 
every report of events deviating from the ordinary course 
of nature. If an account had been transmitted to him 
of such a machine, as that invented by Bramah, ena- 
bling a single individual to root out a forest-tree, it would 
have been as difficult for him to believe this as the story 
told by Sir Duncan Campbell, of the terrible heist of 
Loch QsixXoW, futit lik cine ganar, which was capable of 
striking down the largest oak with the dint of her tail. 
His account of the sea monks at the isle of Bass, and of 
the wild men of Norway, with all the accumulation of 
prodigies which are scattered throughout his History, ad- 
mit of a similar explanation. We may smile at his sim- 
plicity in believing them, but there seems no reason for 
imputing to him the character of a contriver of fables. 

His geographical knowledge appears to have been in- 
considerable ; and, accordingly, his description of Scot- 
land is inaccurate. It is not surprising that he should 
give an erroneous account of the boundaries of the Roman 
provinces ; but it does seem remarkable, that he should 
represent the Clyde and the Forth as rising among the 
same mountains. 

His account of ancient manners is curious and interest- 
ing ; tinged though it be with the fables of a golden age. 
Many amiable traits of character are attributed to the 
ancient inhabitants of Scotland. Every mother nursed 


her own child ; and an inabiUty to discharge this ma- 
ternal duty afforded a presumption of infidelity. The 
soldier who was found in battle with an unbelted sword, 
was scourged ; and the w^arrior who sold his armour, 
or laid it to iced, w^as degraded. Victory w^as never 
sought by treason or falsehood ; and the highest impu- 
tation against the character of a chief, was to conquer 
in any "way but by force of f editing. The number of 
stones with -vvhich the sepulchre of a w^arrior was adorn- 
ed, depended upon the number of enemies he had slain. In 
peace, justice Avas strictly administered, and so great a 
degree of liberality regulated the mercantile transactions 
of the ancient Scots, that a purchaser was not bound to 
adhere to his bargain unless the seller gave him something 
above just measure. 

It is generally admitted, that, at a remote period, the 
Monastery of lona not only contained a valuable li- 
brary ,i but was the general repository of the Scottish 
records.' Indeed, one of the least enthusiastic of modern 
writers, has indulged the pleasing reflection, that, from 
this distant island, the barbarians of the west, in ancient 
times, " derived the benefits of knowledge, and the bles?- 
" ings of religion." The ultimate fate of the literary trea- 
sures of Icolmkill is unknown, nor is it now possible to 
ascertain of what they consisted. Our regret for their loss 
would be aggravated in no ordinary degree, could we 
believe that a manuscript of Livy or of Sallust existed 
amon.o; them. 

^ Jamieson's Ciddees. 

' Pennant's Tour in Scotland^ vol. II. p. 296. 


An attempt has been made to convict Boece of de- 
liberate mistatement, by contrasting his account of the 
removal of the public Records and Manuscripts from 
Icolmkill to the Priory of Restennet, in Angus, by Al- 
exander the First, with the allegation in a different part 
of his work, that at a later period a variety of Historical 
Writings were transmitted to him from lona. But sup- 
posing it to be true, that the Monastery of Saint Colum- 
ba was pillaged by Alexander, it is not improbable that 
a portion of the manuscripts may have been concealed and 
retained by the JNIonks ; and that Boece may have been 
enabled to avail himself of these remains in compiling 
his History. 

The circumstances connected with the alleged transmis- 
sion of the Manuscripts to Aberdeen, strongly confirm the 
accuracy of his statements. A tone of great sincerity distin- 
guishes his narrative. He claims no merit for his investi- 
gations, into which indeed he was led, from a desire to follow 
out an inquiry commenced by a Legate of the Pope, a cen- 
tury before. The tradition of the time was, that Fergus the 
Second, in assisting Alaric the Goth, in sacking Rome, 
brought away a chest of books which he presented to the 
Monastery at lona. In consequence of a belief in the 
truth of this story, ^Eneas Silvius^ intended, when he was 
in Scotland, to have visited Icolmkill in search of the lost 
books of Livy, but was prevented by the death of James 
the First. His scheme was resumed by Boece, who 
makes no mystery as to the mode in which he procured 
access to the Manuscripts. This was effected by the in- 

1 Pius II. 


terposition of the Earl of Argyle, and his brother, the 
King's Treasurer. Boece's History was published while 
these persons were alive ; and if he referred to unknown 
or imaginary authorities, he did so before living witnesses, 
by whom his statements might have been contradicted 
and refuted. 

But the heaviest charge against the veracity of Boece, 
arises from his reference to the writings of Veremundus, 
an author whose works are unnoticed by the other ancient 
Chroniclers of Scotland. Bale, Chambres of Ormond, 
Paulus Jovius, Buchanan, and Sir Richard Baker, are 
supposed to quote Veremundus upon the authority of 
Boece alone, who is thus made answerable for all the fa- 
bles which have found their way into the early history ot 
Scotland. Now, had it been his deliberate intention to 
forge an authority, his natural sagacity would have pre- 
vented him from adopting the name of an obscure Spa- 
niard, which could carry no weight with it, and could not 
therefore answer the purpose which he must have had in 
view. Again, he states that he received the JNIanuscripts 
from Zona only in 1525, the year before his History was 
published ; and hence it has been said that his narrative 
carries its own refutation with it, because he could not 
possibly, during this short interval, have made the use 
which he pretends of the Chronicle of Veremundus. This 
is no doubt a difficulty, but its existence is much in fa- 
vour of our author's honesty, who must be acknowledged 
to have had a better invention than to have forged so im- 
probable a falsity, especially in a matter where he was 

^ Mackenzie's Anti(i. of Royal Line, chap. III. 


liable to be contradicted by Argyle, the Treasurer, the 
whole Monks of lona, and his cotemporaries in the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen. In short, had the account which he 
gives of the Manuscripts been fabulous, it is plain that it 
would have been more skilfully devised, and free from 
those objections of improbability which have been urged 
against it, and which are only to be explained upon the 
supposition that the narrative is true. 

It has been inferred that his account of Veremundus is 
false, because this writer is not quoted by Fordun. But 
this is really a very lame conclusion. Fordun is not 
referred to by Boece,^ and his Chronicle remained in 
manuscript for about two centuries after the publication 
of the History of the latter. The silence of Boece, how- 
ever, would have been a very singular reason for pre- 
suming against the existence of Fordun, yet it might have 
been relied on as leading to this conclusion, with quite as 
much safety as we can depend upon the silence of the lat- 
ter in evidence of the inaccuracy of Boece's statements 
respecting Veremundus. Fordun quotes authors whose 
writings are no longer extant, yet credit is attached to 
them, and there is no reason why the positive assertions 
of Boece should not carry the same weight. It has been 
suggested by a respectable writer, that Fordun does refer to 
Veremundus, although under a different name.^ The true 
explanation of the matter seems to be this : Boece sup- 
pressed the name of Fordun in order that he might ac- 

1 The various references to the Scotichronicon in the Croniklis are in^ 
troduced by Bellenden. 

2 Nichol. His. Lib. p. 26. 


quire the credit of being the earliest general historian of 
Scotland ; and for the same reason, Fordun did not direct- 
ly avow the extent to which he transcribed the writings 
of the earlier Chroniclers.' 

The ingenious author of the Historical Account of the 
Ancieiit Culclees, hazards a supposition not much to the 
credit of Boece, that he may have " destroyed the manu- 
" scripts which he had used, that his own history might 
" be in greater request."" This notion derives some sup- 
port from a passage which occurs in the writings of Gor- 
don of Straloch.^ The theory, however, is not very proba- 
ble in itself, and the motive assigned is scarcely sufficient 
to account for such an act of treason against the inte- 
rests of literature, on the part of the good and the grave 

It is not at all surprising, that, in transcribing from 
the Ionian Manuscripts, he should have exercised little 
of the discrimination necessary for separating truth from 
falsehood. His anxiety to illustrate the high antiquity, 
and to perpetuate the fame of his country, made him a 
ready listener to tales which a writer of a less sanguine 
temperament would have rejected. But it does appear 
a harsh inference, that these must have originated en- 

^ Antiq. of the Royal Line, chap. III. 

2 P. 305. 

^ Audivi adolescens Abredoniae ubi Boethius Academiae preftiit^ et fato 
functus est, ilium exemplaria eorum authorum manuscripta delevisse ad 
conciliaudum Historise suae gratiam ut nostrae antiquitates solum inde 
haurientur, Misellus homo ! Quantum acceperit gratiae in dubio est — Ni- 
chol. Hist. Lib. p. 27- 


tirely in his own imagination, or to conclude, with Mr 
Pinkerton, that he filled up every interval of authentic 
detail, with an expedition from the isles, headed by a 
Donald, the " constant ghost of his pages." 

Every person who has looked with any degree of at- 
tention into Boece's History, must be satisfied that the 
narrative is conducted with simplicity, although the state- 
ments are enforced with zeal. They obviously come from 
an author who appears to be not only deeply impressed 
himself with the truth of what he writes, but anxious to 
convey the same impression to his readers. There is no 
apparent exertion of skill in devising incidents. Every 
circumstance is related as it appears to have been report- 
ed to the writer. Many of his statements, too, are made 
with the hesitation of a man anxious to be accurate. 
Quis rem tarn vetustam pro certo affirmet, is an expression 
we frequently meet with in the course of his History. 

These views are strongly supported by the favourable 
opinion entertained of his moral character by his contem- 
poraries. We have already seen that he was the intimate 
friend of Erasmus, who had ample opportunities of ob- 
serving his personal character. They studied long toge- 
ther at Paris, and in after-life maintained a regular cor- 
respondence. Such, indeed, Avas the opinion w^hich this 
eminent man entertained of the integrity of our historian, 
that he says of him, he " knew not what it was to make 
" a lie." ^ His continuator Ferrerius, Buchanan, and Arch- 

^ General Dictionary, vol. III. p. 435. Mackenzie's Defence of Royal 
Line. — In the letter formerly referred to, Erasmus, in addressing Boece, 
takes occasion to remark, Quod a tuts moribus semper fuit alienissimum 

VOL. I. e 


bishop Spottiswood, speak of him in similar terms ; yet 
the wicked wit of an English antiquary has likened the 
multitude of his falsehoods to the waves of the sea, and 
the stars of heaven ! i 

His intellectual attainments were of a high character. 
He has been represented as skilled in classical and polite 
literature, divinity, and philosophy ;^ and Erasmus invari- 
ably speaks of him as a man of an extraordinary and hap- 
py genius, and great eloquence.^ He drank deeply from 
the well-sp7'ings of ancient learning, and thus acquired 
a style, which has been said, a little perhaps in the strain 
of panegyric, to combine the elegance of Livy with 
the conciseness and simplicity of Caesar .^ His merit as a 
restorer of classical literature, has been universally admit- 
ted ; and, from this source, he imbibed a large portion of 
that fine spirit of independence, which constitutes the 
great charm of the Greek and Roman writers. 

Respecting the opinions of Boece upon matters of go- 
vernment, the Bishop of Carlisle remarks, " That his 
" principles of polity are no better than those of Bucha- 
" nan." That Buchanan should be no favourite with 
this Prelate, is not w^onderful, considering the freedom 

^ Hectoris historic! tot quod mendacia qxiaeris 

Si vis ut numerem (lector amici) tibi ; 

Idem me jubeas fluctus numerare marinos 

Et liquidi Stellas denumerare poli. 


2 Non solum artium libefalium cognitione^ supra quam ilia ferebant 
tempora insignem ; sed humanitate et comitate singulari praeditum. — 
Buchan. Lib. II. 

3 Vir singularis iugenii, faelicitatis, et facundi oris. 
^ Lesley, Lib. IX. 


with which he treats of Kings and of JMonarchy. On 
these topics, however, the older historian writes with 
more caution than his successor ; and it is surely much 
to his honour, that his History, written at the commence- 
ment of the l6th century, and addressed to the reigning 
Prince, contains not one slavish thought, nor the slight- 
est trace of a servile spirit. He neither disguises the 
vices nor palliates the profligacy of former Monarchs ; but 
paints them in their most odious colours, as objects of 
avoidance to succeeding Princes. Indeed, he dwells with 
perhaps too much satisfaction upon the detail of royal 
crimes, and the punishments which generally followed 
them, during the earlier periods of the Scottish dynasty. 
In forming a final estimate of the literary character of 
Boece, we must bear in mind, that when scholar-craft, in 
this country at least, was rare, he was a scholar, and con- 
tributed, by reviving ancient learning, to dispel the gloom 
of the middle ages ; — and that, while the history of his 
country existed only in the rude page of the Chroniclers 
who preceded him, or in the fading records of oral tradi- 
tion, he embodied it in narrative so interesting, and lan- 
guage so beautiful, as to be worthy of a more refined 


John Bellenden.^ 

The accounts given of this accomplished Scholar are 
very imperfect, and it is doubtful if materials now exist, 
from which it is possible to extract any satisfactory his- 
tory of his life. 

It has been generally supposed that he was a man of 
honourable descent, and in some way connected with the 
ancient family of Achinoul. The authors of the Bio- 
gi-aphia Britannica, upon the authority of Mackenzie, 
dignify him with the title oi Sir John; and add, that his 
father, Mr Thomas Bellenden of Achinoul, was Director 
to the Chancery in 1540, and Clerk Register in 1541.- 
There is no sufficient authority, however, for this account 
of his genealogy. He appears to have been born in the 
Lothians, towards the close of the 15th century .^ His 
education was unquestionably liberal ; and in 1508, we 
find his name entered, as follows, in the Records of the 
University of Saint Andrews : " 1508. Jo. Balletijn nac 
" Lau{clonice.)" It is probable that he remained there 
for several years, which was necessary before he could 
be laureated. His education was afterwards completed 

^ This author's name has been variously written, Ballantyne, Ballentyne, 
Ballendync, Ballendene, and Bellenden. In the Auchinleck MS. the 
translator is styled, " Maister John BallentjTie, Channon of Ross." At 
the end of the same MS. the name is spelled " Ballantyne." 

2 Vol. I. p. 460. 

^ ■Rale says of him, " Ex orientali Scotia oriundus." 


at the University of Paris, where he took the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity ; and the effects of his residence upon 
the Continent may be traced both in his idiom and lan- 

He returned to Scotland during the minority of James 
the Fifth ; and his writings contain internal evidence of 
his having been early introduced to the notice of that 
Monarch. Sir David Lindsay had been his fellow-stu- 
dent at Saint Andrews, and he seems to have been asso- 
ciated with this eminent person in directing the educa- 
tion of his Prince. He addresses James as " your humyl 
" servitor sen your first infance ;" and his remarkable Let- 
ter, recommending to the attention of the King his trans- 
lation of Boece, is written very much in the tone of a 
zealous preceptor. It explains the kingly duties with a 
freedom which no other character could have warranted 
the writer in using.^ 

There is some reason to suppose, that, about the year 
1528,Bellenden held the situation of Secretary to the Earl 
of Angus, The circumstances under which James the 
Fifth was detained at Falkland by that nobleman, with 
the subsequent escape of the Monarch, are well known. 
Angus lost no time in pursuing the fugitive, but he was 
met upon his route to Stirling by a Herald with a royal 
proclamation, declaring that no member of the family of 
Douglas should, on pain of treason, approach within six 
miles of the Court. This order was obeyed by the Earl, 
and from that hour may be dated the fall of his princely 
house. He retired to Tantallon, and was soon afterwards, 
along with his principal adherents, attainted in Parlia- 

1 Croniklis, rol. II. p. 515, 51 6. 


The Rolls exhibit the following entry relative to this 

" Quarto, Sepfemher 1528. 

" In presence of the Kingis grace, and Lordes, and the 
" estatis of Parliament, comperit Maisfer Joknne Ballen- 
" tyne, servitour and secretar to Archibald Erie of An- 
" gus. And gaif in the resonis underwritten. And pro- 
" testit efter the forme and tenour of the samin, off the 
" quhilk the tenour follows. — Thir are the reasonis that 
" we, Archibald Earle of Angus, George Douglas his 
'* brother, and Archibald Douglas of Kilspindy, allegis for 
" us, quhy we suld not be accusit nor compellit to an- 
" swer at this time to the summondis of treasone made 
" on us, at our Soverane Lordis instance." 

There is a subsequent entry on the same day, from 
which it appears that " Maister Jolinne Bcdienfijne, Se- 
" cretar to the Erie of Angus, comperit," and gave secu- 
rity, that the Earl should appear and underly the sentence 
of the Parliament. 

It would not, however, have suited the purposes of 
James, to trust the fate of Douglas to the Great Council 
of the nation. A jury of his sworn foes was according- 
ly selected, to which the decision of the question was 
committed. Forfeiture followed as a matter of course, 
and the hroad lands of the Douglas were gifted to those 
by whom he had been condemned, as the reward of their 
guilty subservience to the wishes of their Sovereign. 

Bellenden, in all likelihood, shared at first in the dis- 
grace of the family of Douglas ; and this was probably 
the dismissal to which he alludes in " the Proheme of the 
Cosmographer His poetical talents, however, seem speed- 
ily to have restored him to royal favour, and in 1530, he 
is thus celebrated as a Court poet by Sir David Lindsay, 


in his Preface to the Testament, and the Complaint of 
King James's Papingo : — 

But now of late has start up heastily, 
A cunning clerk, which writeth craftily ; 
A plant of poets, called Ballanten, 
Whose ornat wi'its my wit cannot defyne ; 
Get he into the Court authority. 
He Avill precel Quiutin and Kenedy.* 

In 1530 and 1531, Bellenden was employed, by the 
command of the King, in translating Boece's History ; 
and he delivered a manuscript copy of his work to his 
royal employer, in the summer of 1533. About the 
same period, he translated a portion of Livy. These 
dates are ascertained from the following notices in the 
Treasurer's accounts. In the end of 1530, or beginning of 
1531, there is a payment — 

" To Maister John Ballentyne, be the Kingis precept, 

for his translating of the Cronykill, £30." 
" 1531. Oct. 4.— To Maister John Ballentyne, be the 

Kingis precept, for his translating of the Croniclis, 

" Item thaireftir to the said Maister Johne, be the 

Kingis command, £6." 
« 1533. Jtdy 26.— To INIeister Johne Ballantyne, for 

ane new Cronikle gevin to the Kingis Grace, £l2." 
" Item to him in part payment of the translation of 

Titus Livius, £8." 
" Aug. 24). — To IMaister John Ballentyne, in part 

payment of the second buke of Titus Livius, £8." 
" Nov. 30.— To Maister John Ballentyne, be the 

Kingis precept, for his lauboris done in translating 

of Livie, £20." 

' Lindsay's Works, 1806. Vol. I. 287- 


The literary labours of Belleiiden were still farther re- 
warded by his royal master. The Archdeanery of Mo- 
ray having become vacant, while the See of INIoray was 
also vacant, the patronage devolved upon the King. Sir 
John Duncan, parson of Glasgow, Alexander Harvey, a 
churchman, and Sir Patrick INIuir, chaplain, having en- 
deavoured to purchase from the Pope the appointment of 
Mr James Douglas to the Archdeanery, they were put 
under prosecution for this misdemeanour, about August 
1536. In the subsequent year, Duncan and Harvey were 
found guilty, and denounced rebels ; upon which, the fol- 
lowing: grant of the Escheat of their benefices for 1536, 
was given to Bellenden. 

1537. Sept. 9. — " Grant to Maister Johne Bellendene 
" of all the fruits of the parsonage and chantory of Glas- 
" gow, and other pensions and benifices, pertaining to Sir 
" John Duncan parson of Glasgow, for the year last past, 
" and of all other property which pertained to the said Sir 
" John, and to Alexander Harvey, with the fruits of the 
" said Alexander's benefices and pensions for the said year, 
'' all escheat to the King, by their being denounced rebels 
" on a decree of the Lords of Council, for having broken 
*' the Acts of Parliament, in purchasing and pleying of 
" the Archdenery of ^Murray, in the Court of Rome, in 
" prejudice of the King's privilege and patronage of the 
*' said Archdenery, the See of Murray being vacant." ^ 
Bellenden paid for this grant a composition of 350 

1 Privy Seal Register, XI. 31. 


He got a similar grant of the Escheat of the benefices 
and pensions of these two persons for the year 1537, 
and of all their other property, forfeited to the King. 
This second grant is dated the 8th of April, 1538 ; and 
Bellenden paid a composition of £300 Scots for it.^ He 
was afterwards presented by the King to the vacant 
Archdeanery of Moray, and he also got a Prebend in the 
Cathedral of Ross ; but the date of these appointments is 

Mackenzie, in his Life of John Leslie, Bishop of Ross,' 
has given a very indistinct and erroneous account of Bel- 
lenden, in which he is followed by Goodall.^ These wri- 
ters confoundthetranslatorof theChronicles,with Sir John 
Bellenden of Achinoul, who was Justice Clerk in the reign 
of Queen Mary. Mackenzie states that our author was 
nominated a Senator of the College of Justice in 1554, by 
the title of Lord Achinoul. Lord Hailes justly remarks, 
that, laying aside the similitude of names, the only reason 
for identifying Lord Achinoul with the translator of 
Boece, arises from the following lines in the " Proheme 
of the Cosmography ;" 

And fyTst occurit to my remembering. 
How tliat I wes in service with the King, 
Put to his Grace in yeris tenderest. 
Clerk of his Compiis. 

" Dr Mackenzie," continues Lord Hailes, " gravely 

1 Vol. XI. 69. 

2 Vol. 11. p. 595-600. 

^ Scotstar vet's Staggering State, p. 130. 
VOL. I. f 


says that Clerh of the Comptis, is Clerk Register r^ Indeed 
the whole of Mackenzie's account of Bellenden must be 
received with distrust. It is at variance with that of 
Dempster, and other writers, who state the period of his 
death to have been four years before the date of Lord 
Achinoul's appointment. 

Bellenden appears to have enjoyed the royal favour 
for a longer period than generally falls to the lot of those 
who devote themselves to the service of Princes. But 
he at length, excited, and suffered from the envy of his 
competitors. Subsequent to his disgrace at Court, he 
became, in conjunction with Dr Laing, an active oppo- 
nent of the Reformation, and so deeply involved in the 
disputes to which it led, that he resolved to retire to a 
country, where his opinions were likely to be more gene- 
rally popular than they were, at this period, in his native 
land. The ardent spirits with whom the Reformation 
in Scotland originated, v/ere unwearied in their exertions ; 
and the conflict which their opponents had to sustain, 
was fierce and relentless. To escape from these troubles, 
" Bellenden went to Rome, where he died in 1550. Both 
Bale and Dempster attest this fact, — the latter, how- 
ever, who misnames him James, with some liesitation : 
Ohiit Homes, anno iit puto, 1550.^ 

The writings of Bellenden justify our regret that so 
little is known of their author. That he was a man of 

* Catalogue of Lords <yf Session. Note l6th. 

' Coneus, Be Duplici Statu Religiotiis apud Scotos, p. l6. 

^ P. 107. 


genius, and great acquirements, is indubitable. Demp- 
ster celebrates him as skilled in every department of 
divine and human learning. " Laboriosa cura, et incre- 
" dibili studio artes omnes, humanas atque etiam divinas 
" percepit." The commendation of the Bishop of Ossory 
is equally ample ; and there can be no doubt that he was 
held in respect amongst his contemporaries, as a Poet, a 
Historian, and a Scholar. The first of these characters re- 
commended him, as we have seen, to James the Fifth, and 
secured his advancement to situations of honour and emo- 
lument. His poetry abounds in lively sallies of imagi- 
nation, and discloses the workings of a rich and exuberant 
fancy. According to his early Biographers,^ he wrote 
many poetical pieces, consisting of Visions and Miscel- 
lanies, which are now lost. Those which have reached 
us, are principally Proems prefixed to his prose works. 
They are generally allegorical, and distinguished rather 
by incidental beauties, than by the skilful structure of 
the fable. The story, indeed, is often dull, the allusions 
obscure, and the general scope of the piece unintelligible. 
These faults, however, are pretty general characteristics 
of allegorical poets ; and they are atoned for, in him, by 
the striking thoughts, and charming descriptions in which 
he abounds ; and which, " like the threds of gold, the 
rich Arras, beautify his works quite thorow." 

The most considerable of his Poems is the Proheme of 
the Cosmographe, which the reader will find reprinted in 
the present Work. The principal incidents of this piece 

^ Bale and Dempster. 


are borrowed from the classical allegory of the CJioice of 
Hercules. Its original title was Vertue and Vijce, and 
it was addressed to James the Fifth. The Poet feio;ns, 
that worn out with the fatigue of study, he retired to a 
flowery meadow, to meditate upon the vanity of human 
pursuits, and upon the vicissitudes of his own fortune. 
His first disgrace at Court, which, as we have seen, was 
probably consequent upon the fall of the family of Dou- 
glas, is attributed to the baleful and malicious influence 
of the stars. Wearied, at length, with his melancholy 
musings, he sinks into a profound slumber, during which, 
the vision of a young and glorious ^Monarch, seated 
upon a throne, rises to his fancy. Two Goddesses ap- 
pear, sparkling with beauty and rubies, and contend- 
ing for the favour of the Prince, — the name of the one 
Delight, and of the other Virtue. After exhibiting 
opposite views of the sources of human happiness, and 
while they are waiting the decision of the ^lonarcb, 
the Poet awakes, afraid to violate truth, by disclosing 
the royal selection. The CJioice of Hercules is not close- 
ly followed, and the merit of the poem, as we have it, 
may be almost entirely attributed to Bellenden. It 
must have been written between 1528 and 1530, when 
James the Fifth was in his nineteenth year. The piece 
is, throughout, full of fancy and poetry, and the meta- 
phors are generally drawn from the most agreeable ob- 
jects in nature. The transitory character of human hap- 
piness is illustrated, by comparing it to the early decay 
of the rose, the lily, and the violet ; and the utter no- 
thingness of an inactive life is likened to the trackless 
path of a vessel, which leaves no print upon the waves ; or 
of a bird, whose busy wing pierces the air, leaving no 


trace of its course. The effect of virtue upon the mind 
of man, is compared to the healing influence of precious 
balm upon disease, — to the breath of flowers, — and to the 
departure of darkness before the resplendent beams of 

The Prolieme of the History is of a graver and less poe- 
tical cast. Perhaps the most striking passage it contains 
is the descant on Nobility. It appears from this piece, 
that the translation of Boece's history was not intended 
for general circulation, but for the young nobles, in whose 
behalf the Statute of Education was passed in the previous 

Tharefore tliow ganis, for na catyve wichtis 
AUanerly, bot unto nobyll meu. 

The Prolong apoun ye Traduction of Titus Livius, 
is of a moral, but not very poetical character. It has 
been printed in the Dissertation, prefixed to Dr Ley- 
den's edition of the Complaint of Scotland. After con- 
ciliating Bellona and Apollo, the Poet invokes the ac- 
complished James to be " the Muse and Ledare of his 
" pen ;" and perhaps the principal interest of the Prolong, 
consists in representing the Monarch as a patron of li- 

An unpublished Poem of Bellenden's, on the Con- 
ception of Christ, is to be found in the Hyndford Manu- 
script ; but the poetical merit of this piece is inconsider- 

1 This MS., which is preserved in the Advocates' Library, bears the 


Bellenden's Chronicle, which closes with the death 
of James the First, is rather a free version than a literal 
translation of Boece ; and possesses in several respects 
the character of an original work.^ Many of the histori- 
cal errors of the latter are corrected — not a few of his re- 
dundancies retrenched — and his more glaring omissions 
supplied. The general structure of the History, however, 
remains untouched ; and the line of the Kings of Scot- 
land is maintained in all the antiquity and splendour 
which Boece assigns to it. 

Among the more striking passages of the Transla- 
tion, we may refer to the story of Caractacus. After 
an interesting detail of his unsuccessful warfare against 
the Romans, which was closed by the treason of his step- 
mother Cartumandia, the British Prince appears as a cap- 
tive at Rome, attended by his wife, and all his kindred. 
His horses and chariots are exhibited before him, as the 

date of 1558 ; a great part of it, however, has evidently been written at a 
more recent period. 

^ Bellendeu not unfrequently introduces into his narrative passages of 
considerable length, of which no trace is to be found in the original. In- 
stances of this occur in vol. 2d, pages 297^ 299, 373, and 479- The story 
of the White Hart, which attacked David the First, while hunting on 
Rude-day ; the animadversions on that king's excessive liberality to the 
church ; the remark which it drew from James the First ; the defence of 
Robert Bruce from the suspicion of having occasioned the capture of Dun- 
bar, by withdrawing his vassals from its defence ; and the information as 
to the nickname, and losses of Archibald, Earl of Douglas, are all sup- 
plied by the translator. Numerous other instances occur throughout the 
work. In general, however, Bellenden has rather abridged his author ; but 
he has done it judiciously ; the uninteresting passages being those upon 
which this liberty has been most freely exercised. 


monuments of his defeat ; and the spectacle is gazed up- 
on by the Roman people, with a mixture of triumph and 
of pity. The heart of the warrior is unsubdued even by 
the presence of the Emperor. He addresses the Roman 
Potentate with the courage of a patriot King ; and Ro- 
man magnanimity immediately rewards him by pardon 
and freedom.^ 

The terror of the Roman army during the first night 
after their victory over Eugenius, is also powerfully de- 
lineated ; and the passage affords an admirable specimen 
of the force and variety of the ancient language of Scot- 
land.^ It has been often quoted. The animating speech 
too of the Scottish general to his army, on the eve of the 
conflict with ISIaximus, is worthy of notice.^ 

Many characters are described by Bellenden with a vi- 
gour and conciseness superior to the original. Of this, 
his account of Constantine, the third brother of Eugenius, 
and of " King Culine and his vicius life," afford in- 
stances.* The unfortunate expedition of the English 
princes, Osbret and Ella, to the North, with the subse- 
quent terror and desolation of Scotland, exhibits a fine 
piece of historical painting. 

Bellenden is remarkably successful in the translation of 
Speeches. There are few better specimens of simple and 

ancient eloquence, than the two orations of Kenneth ; 

the first, said to have been delivered to a convention of 

1 B. III. C. xvi. 

2 B. VI. ch. xvii. 3 Id. 

* B. VIII. ch. vii.— B. XI. ch. vi. 


his nobles at Scone,i for the purpose of procuring their as- 
sistance in purging " his realme of all misdoaris ;" — and 
the second,^ delivered in a similar situation, in order to in- 
duce his nobles to concur in an alteration of the ancient 
Scottish law, relative to the succession to the crown. The 
speech of Bruce to his army previous to the battle of 
Bannockburn, and that of Alexander Seaton's wife, " ane 
wise woman, above the spreit of man," are of a diiFer- 
ent and higher character, and present fine examples of 
hortatory eloquence. 

The wild tale of Macbeth, and the Weird Sisters, to 
which the genius of Shakespeare has given historical 
reality,^ does not lose its interest in the translation of the 
Arch dean of Moray .^ The tragic poet borrowed liberal- 
ly from HoUingshed's English version of the Cro7iiMis, 
adopting, in many instances, not only the thoughts, but 
the language even of the Scottish historian. This is par- 
ticularly observable in Malcolm's feigned account of his 
own profligacy ; in JNIacdufF's pathetic valedictory address 
to Scotland ;^ and in the circumstances of that fearful con- 
flict, which terminated in the death of the usurper.'' The 
character of Lady Macbeth, is but obscurely hinted at in 
the CroniJclis; and to Shakespeare alone are we indebted 
for that splendid personification of guilty ambition. In 
the structure of his drama, the poet avails himself of in- 

1 B. XI. ch. vii. 

2 B. XI. ch. ix. 
^ Lord Hailes. 

* B. XII. ch. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. 

5 Macbeth, Act \\. Sc. 3. Croniklis, B. XII. C. vii. 

^ Macbeth, Act. v. So. 7- Croniklis, Id. 


cideiits which are to be found in Bellenden's account of 
the murder of Duffus by Donevald.^ 

It was not till the beginning of the 16th century that 
the art of printing was introduced into Scotland. In 
1507, Chapman and IMillar established a press at Edin- 
burgh, under a patent. They printed a variety of Poeti- 
cal Tracts in 1508 ; and the first volume of the Breviary 
of the Church of Aberdeen in 1509. The second volume 
of this work was printed in 1510. Bellenden's Chroni- 
cle was certainly the next work of any consequence 
printed in Scotland. It has been already stated, that 
the precise date of its publication is unknown. As- 
suming, however, that there were more editions of the 
work than one, and that they must have been printed 
previous to 1541, when Davidson obtained the situation 
of King's Printer ; we may safely conclude, that it is one 
of the earliest and most considerable specimens of Scottish 
Typography which exists. 

It is, besides, the purest specimen we possess of the 
early prose of Scotland ; and it affords a mine, from which 
the richest ore of the ancient language of the Lowland 
Scots may be extracted. The invaluable Dictionary of 
Dr Jamieson has rescued that language from the oblivion 
into which it was hastening ; and, in it, liberal use has 
been made of the stores of Bellenden. That the Lowland 
Scotch has claims to a high degree of antiquity, seems 
now generally admitted. The notion that it is derived 

* Book XI. chap. iv. 
VOL. I. e- 


exclusively from the Anglo-Saxon, has been discarded, 
while its origin has been successfully traced to the ancient 
Gothic. It is a rich, varied, and powerful dialect. The 
mixture of French words is easily accounted for, by the 
early intercourse which existed between the two nations. 
Indeed, many families of French and Norman extraction, 
settled in Scotland as early as the reign of Malcolm Can- 
more ; and at subsequent periods, migrations of this sort 
became extremely frequent. The natives of France 
brought their language along with them ; and as the dia- 
lect of the court and of the provinces of Scotland was the 
same, the use of Norman-French became prevalent. The 
language of the Continent was thus directly imported 
into Scotland ; and, accordingly, we find many French 
words and phrases in our early prose writers, which at no 
period have formed any part of the dialect of England. 
This subject might be farther illustrated by a reference to 
the similarity between the early Romances of France and 
of Scotland. IMany of the tales collected in the Fcibliaux 
of Le Grand, were familiar to the peasantry of Scotland 
in the early part of the Sixteenth Century. But what 
has been already stated, goes far to establish, that we are 
not indebted to our Southern neighbours for the earlier 
Continental contributions to our language. These came 
to us directly from France, while the stock upon which 
they were grafted, was of Gothic origin. 

Among the works of Bellenden, Bale enumerates a 
tract on the Pythagoric liCtter, and a discourse upon 
Virtue and Pleasure, neither of which are extant. Other 
writers state that he wrote a Life of Pythagoras. With 
respect to the discourse upon Virtue and Pleasure, it 
is not at all improbable, that Bale may refer to the Pro- 


heme of the Cosmogrcqihe, the allegorical character of 
which has been already explained. The Epistle to James 
the Fifth, which has also been mentioned as a distinct 
work, is obviously the letter subjoined to the translation 
of Boece. This sufficiently appears from the first words of 
it, as given by Bale, Erasmus JRotei'odamus, in Vibro cle. 
The epistle " Direckit be ye translatoure to the kyngis 
grace," commences " Erasmus Roterodamus, in his buke." 
Bale seems to imagine that Bellenden composed a 
piece, supe?' qiiodam somnioy but it is more than probable 
that this too refers to the Proheme of the Cosmographe^ 
which assumes the form of a vision. The last article in 
Bale's Catalogue of the writings of Bellenden, is a book 
said to contain Diversi generis Carmina. This is not ex- 
tant ; nor is there any satisfactory evidence that such 
a work was ever published. Dr Campbell states that 
several of Bellenden's poems were in the possession of Mr 
Lawrence Dundas, Professor of Humanity in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh ; and others are still supposed to 
exist in the repositories of private families.^ Bale men- 
tions it as a report, without, however, giving any opinion 
as to its truth, that Bellenden continued the History of 
Boece to the year 1536. This certainly was at one pe- 
riod his intention. After alluding, in the Proheme of 
the History, to what he has already done, he continues. 

And yet becaiis my time hes bene so schort ; 
I think qulieu I have opportunite 
To ring thair bell into ane othir sort. 

* " It is certain that many of his writings are in the hands of persons of 
distinction in Scotland, who are careful preservers of such kind of curiosi- 
ties "—5?o^rop/i. Britan. 


The classical acquirements of Bellenden are attested 
by a translation of the First five Books of Livy, execu- 
ted at the command of James the Fifth. A copy of this 
manuscript work, which is not noticed by our author's 
earlier biographers, was presented to the Advocates' Li- 
brary, by the late Lord Elliock, to whom it appears to 
have belonged in 1730. It is in excellent order ; and the 
hand-writing may be attributed to the early part of the 
Sixteenth Century ; but whether it is that of the Arch- 
dean of JNloray, must remain a matter of doubt. The 
notices which have already been quoted from the Trea- 
surer's Accounts, shew that the Translation of Livy was 
executed in 1533. 

The version of the Roman Historian, seems to be ren- 
dered with the same freedom and spirit which distin- 
guishes that of Boece ; and it is to be hoped, that at no 
very distant period, so A^aluable a relict of our early li- 
terature will be rescued from the obscurity in which it at 
present remains. To the specimens of it which are already 
before the public in Dr Ley den's Introduction to the Com- 
plaint of Scotland, may be added, the appeal of the elder 
Horatius in behalf of his son, which is very happily 
translated : 

" O Romanis (said he) have ze sa feirs and innative 
" cruelte in zoure hartis, yat ze may se him bound under 
" ye galloas w* grete torment and punycioun : quhom 
" ze saw laitlie decorit and triumphand, w* hie victorie of 
" zorinemyies. Ibelief yeAlbanis hisunmerciful fais my 
" nocht behald sa terribil sicht and cruelte done to him. 
" Pas yow Burreo, and bynd yai handis, quhilkis latelie 
" quhen yai war armit, conquest sa hie empire to Romane 


" pepill : Pas yow Burreo, and covir ye hede of yat cam- 
" pioiin, quhilk is ye deliverare of yis ciete fra thirldome: 
" Hing up his body in ane unchancy tre : Skurge him now 
" within ye Pomerie, amang ye horaciane Pillaris ; and 
" spulezeis conquest be him of inemyis ; or ellis skurge 
" him utouth ye Pomerie amang ye sepulcuris of Cura- 
" cianis. Ze can have him to na maner of placis within 
" zoure senzeorie ; bot his grete meritis, and glore of vic- 
" torie, sail ay deliver him fra sic schamefull and vile puny- 
" tioun." 

It appears from the poetical Prologue^ that it was Bel- 
lenden's original intention to have translated the whole 
of Livy ; but the following verses subjoined to it in a 
later hand, in the copy already referred to, lead to the in- 
ference, that the translator never completed more than 
five Books of his task : 

Fyve buikes ar here by Ballantyne translated ; 
Restis zet ane hundred threttie fyve beliind, — 
Quhilkis if ye samyn war alsweill compleated, 
Wald be ane volume of ane monstrous bind. — 
Ilk man perfytes not (juliat they ance intend, 
Sij fraill and brittle ar our wretched dayes : 
Let sume man then begin q'' he doeth end, 

% Give him ye first, tak yame ye secund praise : 
No, no ! to Titus Livius give all. 
That peerles prince for feattis historical!. 

^ A. Home, «S'/ Leonardes. 

In giving to the Public this reprint of the CroniMis of 
Scotland, it may be safely stated, that the lover of antique 
lore will find it rich in harbaric pearl arid gold. The for- 
mer may be rudely set, and the latter coarsely wrought ; 


but the intrinsic value of the gem and of the metal re- 
mains the same. The rust of age has not obscured the 
fancy and imagery with which the work abounds; and 
if all the inaccuracies of Boece are not corrected, and all 
his fables not discarded, it can only be said, in apology 
for the venerable Archdean, that some degree of credu- 
lity may he excused, in an age when all men were credit- 


Rev. L. Adamsox, Cupar, Fife. 

Library of the Faculty of Advocates. 

Gabriel Alexander, Esq. Advocate. 

Thomas Allan, Esq. 

Joseph Bain, Jun. Esq. Glasgo\r. 

The Hon. Lord Bannatyne. 

Robert Bell, Esq. Advocate. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Bute. 

Alexander Campbell, Esq. 

Elias Cathcart, Esq. Advocate. 

William Cathcart, Esq. 

James Cheape, Esq. of Stratyrum. 

Andrew Clephane, Esq. Advocate. 

John Clerk, Esq. of Eldon, Advocate. 

Henry Cockburn, Esq. Advocate. 

John Cockburn, Esq. 

George Cranstoun, Esq. Advocate. 

Patrick Crichton, Esq. 

The Hon. John Leslie Cuming, General. 

John Cunningham, Esq. Advocate. 

J. G. Dalyell, Esq. Advocate. 

Captain Davidson. 

James Dundas, Esq. W.S. 

Robert Dundas, Esq. of Arniston, Advocate. 

Alexander Dunlop, Esq. Advocate. 

Robert Ferguson, Esq. of Raith. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Fife. 

John Fullerton, Esq. Advocate. 

J. T. Gibson, Esq. 

George Gordon, Esq. of Hallliead. 

Robert Gr.eme, Esq. Advocate. 

Peter Halkerston, LL.D. 

Alexander Henderson, Esq. Surveyor-Gen. of the Post- 

The Hon. Lord Hermand. 
Laurence Hill, Esq. Glasgow. 
David Irving, LL.D. 
Henry Jardine, Esq. 
Francis Jeffrey, Esq. Advocate. 
James Keay, Esq. Advocate. 
Viscount Keith. 

Sir Alexander Keith, of Ravelston and Dunnottar, 
T. F. Kennedy, Esq. of Di^ure, M.P. 


John Kerr, Esq. Glasgow. 
John Kirkpatrick^ Esq. Advocate. 
Mr David Laing. 

Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, of Fountainhall, Bart. 
Mr W. H. Lizars. 
J. G. LocKHART, Esq. Advocate. 
^NEAS Macbean, Esq. W.S. 
William M'Dowall, Esq. of Barr. 
William M'Dowall, Esq. Advocate. 
J. W. Mackenzie, Esq. W.S. 
J. N. Macleod, Esq. of Macleod. 
James Maidment, Esq. Advocate. 

Thomas INIaitland, Esq. yr. of Dundrennan, Advocate. 
Gilbert Laing Meason, Esq. of Lindertis. 
Mr Alexander Milne, Forres. 
James Moncrieff, Esq. Advocate. 
J. S. More, Esq. Advocate. 
J. A. Murray, Esq. Advocate. 
James Nairn e, Esq. W.S. 
R. A. Oswald, Esq. of Aiichencniive. 
Alexander Osv^^ald, Esq. Advocate. 
Messrs Payne & Foss, Pall Mall, London. 
Robert Pitcairn, Esq. W.S. 
James Rennie, Esq. Civil Engineer. 
John Richardson, Esq. London. 
Patrick Robertson, Esq. Advocate. 
Andrew Rutherfurd, Esq. Advocate. 
Sir Walter Scott of Abbotsford, Bart. 
Charles Selkrig, Esq. Accountant. 
Sir Samuel Shepperd, Lord Chief Baron. 
Thomas Sivwright, Esq. of Meggetland. 
Andrew Skene, Esq. Advocate. 
Right Hon. Earl Spencer, K.G., Large Paper. 
Sir Samuel Stirling, Bart. Advocate. 
William Stirling, Esq. 
James Tait, Esq. 
Mr a. Thomson, Large Paper. 
Alexander Thomson, Esq. Banchory. 
Thoaias Thomson, Esq. Advocate. 
Mr Robert Triphook, London — 3 Copies. 
James Tytler, Esq. of Woodhouselee, W.S. 
P. F. Tytler, Esq. Advocate. 
George Veitch, Esq. W.S. 

James Wedderburn, Esq. His Majesty's Solicitor- 
Robert Whigham, Esq. of Lochpatrick, Advocate. 
Mr Isaac Wils<in, Hull — 3 Copies, Large Paper. 
Thomas Guthrie Wright, Esq. W.S. 
Library of Writers to his Majesty's Signet. 


fl The Excusation of the Prentar. 

lI3gj)ne of man lie incltnattoun 
31n find?5 ixij?fe li5 geutn> ajs tue fe, 
^um men ar geutn to Dettacttoun> 
31nu|)> tiifplefetv, or malancolfe, 

and to ttjait n^ctjliouvtjs fjejs no cljmtt, 
%u\n tit fo nolJiU and fnll of genttlnejj, 
Cliag luf no tf)xng 6ot 3lo|? anti nitt^mss, 

f ^um av at t)ntitt% anti fum matO up of nocfjt* 
^nm men luffijs peate> and fum Oefmjs tueit* 
^um tj5 fo iJl^tD in to f)tj$ met^ tljocljt, 
fpt rurijs noctit; j5o fie ma^ perfeueir 
3\n gtace and fauouv of fjtss lati^ tiea% 
^um fioltitn at otfjir tn matft tmtil feid 
2Bttfj lance and dagar rpnnijs to tf)e detd. 

0^ ane fted tljat mprj^t ane fjund^ettj metl fufiene, 

and letfe in too and pennante at DtsJ tafile* 

and of gud fallotjs eompttss noc&t ane fiene, 

^10 to^ectjit m|?nd i& fo tndactafile, 

ass fjeuin and tjell toev no tljing fiot ane fable 

^e fixvnisi a|>, fiut fgrljt to gud o? eutl, 

and t^nniiS toitlj all 1)1^ fiaggijs to tlje deutl, 

f and 31 tlje pventar t^at doisj tonfidtt; ttiexl 

Cl]tt (ind?p m^ndig of men in tljm leutng, 

2)e(xd0 norljt fiot on mj? laufiout letl 

Cliat 31 ni^tljt letf, and of m^ 31«fi tn^nn^ng 

^i^rljt fivfl pletjj (^od> and f^ne out nofile l^^ng^ 

and t^at ^e t:edet0 fioufum and attent 

Wtt of m^ laufioui; and fief|)ne0 content* 

and tn t^isi tuack t&at 31 Ijaue Ijeic aflTaxl^eft 
Co filing to ipcljt, maifl Ijumelj) 3[ tvijtitt 
^otu nofiill tedetd, quljare tljat 31 Dane fatl^eit 
3ln letter, fillafie, po^ntiss lang, o? fc^oU* 
Cljat ?e toill of ^our gentrice it fuppoU* 
and tafe tlje fentence ttje fiefl in^fe ^e ma^, 
31 fall do fietter (toill (^od) ane otljir da^. 

f JTinisJ* 




N the first, the Proheme apon the Cosmographie ; schaw- 
and the fine of vicius and \Trtewis leiffing, and causis 
quhy the translatoure tuke this werk on hand. 
The discriptioun of Scotland ; devidit in rubrikis and 


Ane compendious narratioun of the auld institutionis, maneris, 
and leving of Scottis ; with ane morall doctrine, deploring sindry re- 
cent and evill conswetudis brocht in this realme, to the gret diffor- 
mite of the pepill now present in the samin. 

Ane schort recapitulation of all kingis of Britane, fra the first be- 
gimiing thairof, to the empire of King Hary the VIII., regnand now 
with gret felicite abone Inglismen. 

The table of the historic ; contenand every buke and cheptour 
craftely severit be thaimself. 

The names of all kingis and governouris of Scotland sen the realme 
began ; schawing, in quhat bukis and cheptouris of the historic fol- 
lowing, thair livis and marciall dedis sal be esalie foundin. 

The proheme apon the historic; schawand, breiffelie, the con- 
tentis and maist notable thingis in this buke. 

The beginning of Scottis, and quliy thay wer callit with that name; 
thair happy cuming out of Egipt to Spanye, Ireland, the His of Al- 
bion, and to ,that regioun that wes callit be thaim Scotland. 

The vailyeant and weirlie dedis of all kingis, princis, governouris, 
and chiftanis of Scotland ; with maist dangerus and terribil battallis 
fochtin, be sindry chancis of fortoun, aganis the Britonis, Pichtis, 
Saxonis, Inglismen, and Danis. 


The beginning of Pichtis; thair confideratioun with Scottis in 
amite, blud, and freindschip; thair weris lang contine%ving aganis 
the Romanis, be support of Scottis ; thair exterminioun and finall 
expulsioun out of Albion be the weris of Scottis. 

The beginning of Britonis; thair lang weris, persevering aganis' 
the Romanis. How thai wer subdewit, and thair realme maid tri- 
butar in forme of province ; and, finalie, doung out of Britane in 
Walis be weris of Saxonis. 

The cuming of Saxonis in Britane ; thair weris, slichtis, and mar- 
ciall dedis, wrocht, be sindry chancis, aganis the Britonis, Scottis, 
and Pichtis. 

The weris of Inglismen, eftir the cuming of Saxonis. 

Mony uncouth merveillis and wounderfuU thingis, schawin ay in 
the samin season as thay fell ; with the names of maist notable Clerkis 
and Sanctis, levand for the time in the warld. 

Mony grave concionis, orisonis, consultationis, and epistillis, con- 
tenand richt fructuus and morall doctrinis ; with sa resolute and de- 
gest responses, that na othir buke sal be foundin mair proffitable 
nor pleasand to the reders. 

Ane epistill, direckit be the translatoure to the Kingis grace, in 
the letter end of this buke ; inducing his Hienes to frequent reding of 
the historic precedent. 


Folhwis the Proheme apon the Cosmographie. 





Uhen silvir Diane, ful of bemis bricht, 
Fra dirk eclips wes past, this othir nicht, 
And in the crab, hir propir mansion, gane ; 
Artophilax contending at his micht, 

In the gret eist, to set his visage richt ; 

I mene, the ledar of the Charle-wane ; 

Abone our heid wes the ursis twane : 

Quhen sterns small obscuris in our sicht, 

And Lucifer left twinkland him allane : 

The frosty nicht, with hir prolixit houris, 
Hir mantill quhit spred on the tender flouris: 
Quhen ardent lauboure hes addressit me 
Translait the story of our progenitouris, 
Thair gret manheid, hie wisdome, and honouris ; 
Quhen we may cleir, as in ane mirroure, se 
The furius end sum time of tirannie ; 
Sum time the glore of prudent governouris : 
Ilk stait apprisit in thair faculte. 

My wery spreit desiring to repres 
My emptive pen of frutles besines, 


Awalkit furth to tak the recent aire ; 

Quhen Priapus, with stormy weid oppres, 

Raqueistit me, in his maist tendernes, 

To rest ane quhile amid his gardingis bare. 

Bot I no maner couth my mind prepare 

To set aside unplesand hevines, 

On this and that contempHng solitare. 

And first occurrit to my remembring, 
How that I wes in service with the King ; 
Put to his Grace in yeris tenderest, 
Clerk of his Comptis, thoucht I wes inding, 
With hart and hand, and every othir thing 
That micht him pleis in ony maner best ; 
Quhill hie invy me from his service kest, 
Be thaim that had the Court in governing, 
As bird but plumes heryit of the nest. 

Our life, our giding, and our aventuris, 
Dependis from thir hevinlie creaturis 
Apperandlie be sum necessite. 
For thoucht ane man wald set his besy curis, 
So far as laboure and his wisdome furis, 
To fle hard chance of infortunite ; 
Thoucht he eschew it with difficulte ; 
The cursit weird yit ithandlie enduris, 
Gevin to him first in his nativite. 

Of erdlie stait bewaling thus the chance. 
Of fortoun gud I had na esperance. 
So lang I swomit in hir seis deip. 
That sad avising with hir thochtful lance, 
Couth find na port to ankir hir firmance ; 
Quhill Morpheus, the drery god of sleip, 
•For very reuth did on my curis weip. 
And set his sleuth and deidly contenance 
With snorand vanis throw my body creip. 



Me thocht I was in to ane plesand meid, 
Quhare Flora maid the tender ble\vniis spreid, 
Throw kindlie dew and humouris nutrative ; 
Quhen goldin Titan, with his flammis reid, 
Abone the seis rasit up his heid ; 
DifFounding down his heit restorative 
To every frute that nature maid on Hve, 
QuhUk wes afore in to the winter deid. 
For stormis cald and frostis penitrive. 

Ane silver fontane sprang of watter cleir 
In to that place quhare I approchit neir. 
Quhare I did sone espy ane fellown reird 
Of courtly gallandis in thair best maneir, 
Rejosing thaim in season of the yeir, 
As it had bene of Mayis day the feird. 
Thair gudlie havingis maid me nocht afFeird. 
With thaim I saAV ane cro^vTiit King appeir, 
With tendir downis rising on his beird. 

Thir courthe gallandis settand thair intends 
To sing, and play on divers instrumentis, 
According to this Princis appetit ; , 
Two plesand ladyis come pransand ouir the bentis ; 
Thair costlie clethin schew thair michty rentis. 
Quhat hart micht wis, thay wantit nocht ane mit ; 
The rubeis schone apone thau* fingaris quhit ; 
And, finalie, I knew, be thair consentis, 
This ane, Virtew ; that othir, hecht DeHte. 

Thir Goddesses arrayit in this wise. 

As reverence and honoure hst devise. 

Afore this Prince, fell down apon thair kneis ; 

Sine dressit thaim in to thair best a^^se, 

So far as wisdome in thair power lyis. 

To do the thing that micht him best appleis, 

Quhare he rejosit in his hevinly gleis; 


" Gif thow desiris in the seis fleit 

" Of hevinly blis, than me thy lady treit ; 

" For it is said be clerkis of renoun, 

" Thair is na plcseir in this eii'd so gret 

" As quhen ane luffar dois his lady meit, 

" To quikin his life of mony deidly swon. 

" As hiest pleseir but compai'ison, 

" I sail the geif, into thy yeris swete, 

" Ane lusty halk with mony plumis broun; 

" Quhilk sal be found so joyus and plesant, 

" Gif thow unto hir mery flichtis hant, 

" Of every blis that may in erd appeir, 

" As hart will think, thow sail no plente want ; 

" Quhill yeris swift, with quhelis properant, 

" Consume thy strenth, and all thy bewte cleir." 

And quhen Delite had said on this maneir, 

As rage of youtheid thocht malst relevant, 

Than Vii'tew said, as ye sail eftir heir : 

" My landis braid, mth mony plentuus schire, 
" Sail gif thy Hienes, gif thou list desire, 
" Triumphant glore, hie honoure, fame devine; 
" With sic pissance, that thaim na furius ire, 
" Nor werand age, nor flame of birnand fire, 
" Nor bitter deith, may bring unto rewine. 
" Bot thow mon first insuffer mekill pine, 
" Abone thy self that thow may have empire : 
" Than sail thy fame and honoure have na fine. 

" My realme is set among my fois all ; 

" Quhilkis hes ^vith me ane weir continewall, 

" And evir still dois on my bordour ly ; 

" And, thoucht thay may no wayis me ouirthrall, 

" Thay ly in wait, gif ony chance may fall 

" Of me sum time to get the victory. 


" Thus is my life ane ithand chevalry. 
" Laubour me haldis Strang as ony wall, 
" And no thing brekis me bot slogardy. 

" Na fortoun may aganis me availl, 

" Thoucht scho with cludy stormis me assaill. 

*' I brek the streme of scharp adversite. 

" In weddir louin and maist tempestius haill, 

" But ony dreid, I beir ane equall saill ; 

" My schip so Strang that I may nevir de. 

" Wit, reason, manheid, governis me so hie, 

*' No influence nor sterris may prevaill 

" To regne on me with infortunite. 

" The rage of youtheid may nocht dantit be, 
" But gret distres and scharp adversite ; 
" As be this reason is experience : 
" The finest gold or silver that we se, 
" May nocht be wrocht to our utilite, 
" But flammis kene and bitter violence. 
" The more distres, the more intelligence. 
" Quhay salis lang in hie prosperite, 
" Ar sone ouirset be stormy violence. 

" This fragill life, as moment induring, 

" But dout, sail the and every pepill bring 

" To sickir blis, or than eternall wo. 

" Gif thow be honest lauboure dois ane thing, 

" Thy panefull laubour sail vanes but tarying, 

" Howbeit thy honest werkis do nocht so : 

" Gif thow be lust dois ony thing also, 

" The schamefull deid, without dissevering, 

" Remanis ay, quhen pleseir is ago. 

" As carvell ticht fast tending throw the see, 
" Levis na prent amang the wallis hie ; 
" As birdis swift, with mony besy plume, 


" Peirsis the aire, and wait nocht quhare thay fle ; 

" Siclik our life, without activitej 

" Giffis na frut, howbeit ane schado blume. 

" Quhay dois thair life into this erd consume 

" Without virtew, thair fame and memorie 

" Sail vanis soner than the reky fume. 

" As watter purgis and makis body is fair; 

" As fire be nature ascendis in the aire, 

" And purify is with heitis vehement; 

" As floure dois smell ; as frute is nurisare ; 

" As precius balme revertis thingis sare, 

" And makis thaun of rot impacient; 

" As spice, maist swete ; as ros, maist redolent ; 

" As stern of day, be moving circulare, 

" Chasis the nicht with bemis resplendent : 

" Siclik my werk perfitis every wicht 

" In fervent luf of maist excellent licht, 

" And makis man into this erd but peir ; 

" And dois the saule fra all corruptioun dicht 

" With odoure dulce, and makis it more bricht 

" Than Diane fuU, or yit AppoUo cleir ; 

" Sine rasis it unto the hiest speir, 

" Immortaly to schine in Goddis sicht, 

" As chosin spous, and creature most deir. 

" This othir wenche, that clepit is Delite, 
" Involvis man, be sensuall appetite, 
" In every kind of vice and misei'ie ; 
" Becaus na ^vit nor reason is perfite, 
" Quhare scho is gide, bot skaithis infinite, 
" With doloure, schame, and urgent poverte. 
" For scho wes get of frothis of the see ; 
*• Quhilk signifies, hir pleseir vennomit 
" Is midlit ay with scharp adversite. 


" Duke Hanniball, as mony authouris wrait, 

" Throw Spanye come, be mony passage strait, 

" To Italy in furour bellicall ; 

" Brak doun the wallis, and the montanis slait, 

" And to his army maid ane oppin gait, 

" And victory is had on the Romanis all : 

" At Capua, be pleseir sensuall, 

" This Duk wes maid so soft and deligait, 

" That with his fois he wes sone ouirthrall. 

" Of feirs Achill, the weirhe dedis sprang 

" In Troy and Grece, quhill he in virtew rang ; 

" How lust him slew, it is bot reuth to heir. 

" Siclik the Trojanis, with thair knichtis Strang, 

" The vailyeant Grekis fra thair roumes dang ; 

" Victoriuslie exercit mony yeir : 

" That nicht thay went to thair lust and pleseir, 

" The fatall hors did throw thair walhs fang, 

" Quhais prignant sidis wer full of men of weir. 

'• Sardanapall, the prince efFeminat, 

"Fra knichtlie dedis wes degenerat ; 

" Twinand the thredis of the purpur lint 

" With fingaris soft, amang the ladyis sat; 

" And with his lust couth nocht be saciat, 

" Quhill of his fois come the bitter chnt. 

" Quhat nobill men and ladyis hes bene tint 

" Quhen thay with lustis wer intoxicat, 

" To schaw at lenth, my toung suld nevir stint. 

" Thairfore Camil, the vailyeant chevaleir, 
" Quhen he the GalUs had dantit be his weir, 
" Of heritable landis wald have na recompence ; 
" For, gif his barnis and his freindis deir 
" Wer virtewis, thay couth nocht fail ilk yeir 
" To have ineuch be Romane providence ; 


" Gif thay wer gevin to vice and insolence, 
" It wes nocht neidfull for to conques geir, 
" To be occasioun of thair incontinence. 

" Sum nobill men, as poetis list declare, 
" Wer deifeit ; sum goddis of the aire ; 
" Sum of the hevin : as Eolus, Vulcan, 
" Saturn, Mercury, Appollo, Jupitare, 
" Mars, Hercules, and othir men preclare, 
" That glore immortall in thair livis wan. 
" Quhy wer thir peple caUit goddis than ? 
" Becaus thay had ane virtew singulare, 
" Excellent, hie abone ingine of man. 

" And otheris ar in reik sulphurius; 

" As Ixion, and wery Sisiphus, 

" Eumenides the Furyis richt odibill, 

" The proud giandis, and thristy Tantalus ; 

" With huglie drink, and fude most vennomus ; 

" Quhare flammis bald and mirknes ar sensibill. 

" Quhy ar thir folk in panis so terribill ? 

" Becaus thay wer bot schrewis vicius, 

" Into thair life, with dedis most horribill. 

" And thoucht na frute wer eftir consequent 
" Of mortall life, bot for this warld present 
" Ilk man to have allanerlie respect ; 
" Yit virtew suld fra vice be different, 
" As quik fra deid, as riche fra indigent. 
" That ane, to glore and honour ay direct ; 
" This othu', saule and body to neclect : 
" That ane, of reason most intelligent ; 
" This othir, of beistis following the affect. 

" For he that nold aganis his lustis strive, 
" Bot leiffis as beist of knawlege sensitive, 
" Eildis richt fast, and deith him sone ouir halis. 


" Thairfore the mule is of ane lan^ar live 
" Than stonit hors ; also the barant wive 
" Apperis young, quhen that the brudie falis. 
" We se also, quhen nature nocht prevails, 
" The pane and dolour ar sa pungitive, 
" No medicine the pacient avails. 

" Sen thow hes hard baith our intentis thus, 
" Cheis of us two the maist dehtius : 
" First to sustene ane scharp adversite, 
" Danting the rage of youtheid furius ; 
" An sine posseid triumphe innumerus, 
" With lang empire, and hie felicite : 
*' Or half, ane moment, sensualite 
" Of fuliche youth, in life voluptuous ; 
" And all thy day is full of miserie/'' 

Be than, Phebus his firy cart did wry 
Fra south to west, declinand besaly 
To dip his steidis in the occeane ; 
Quhen he began ouirsile his visage dry, 
With vapouris thik, and cloudis full of sky ; 
And Notus brim the -svind meridiane. 
With \nngis donk, and pennis full of rane, 
Awalkenit me ; that I micht nocht aspy 
Quhilk of thaim two was to his lady tane. 

Bot sone I knew thay war the Goddesses 
That come in sleip to vailyeant Hercules, 
Quhen he was young, and fre of every lore 
To lust or honour, poverte or riches ; 
Quhen he contempnit lust and idilnes, 
That he in virtew micht his life decore ; 
And werkis did of maist excellent glore. 
The more incressit his panefull besines, 
His hie triumphe and loving was the more. 


Than, throw this raorall eruditioun 
Quhilk come, as said is, in my visioun, 
I tuke purpos, or I forthir went, 
To write the story of this regioim, 
With dedis of mony illuster campioun. 
And, thoucht the pane apperis vehement, 
To make the story to the redaris more patent, 
I will begin at the discriptioun 
Of Albion, in maner subsequent. 





How all thing'is is subdewit to alteratioun and deith ; and na thing 
permanent in the erd. 

Thai ST nane hes sa dirk intelligence, bot 
knawis Cosmographie maist necessar to the 
knawlege of historyis ; and yit to discrive the 
samin, is the office of na smal ingine. At- 
toure, all the auctouris, that hes writtin apon 
the discription of the warld, ar patent and 
knawin to ilk regioun and pepill ; aniang 
quhome hes bene mony crafty and resolut 
men, schawing mony gret thingis above ingine of men, with so pro- 
found sentence, that the samin is na thing different fra the verite, in 
discription of mony uncouth and divers thingis succeding continew- 
ally, to the gret commodite and pleseir of reders. Yit sen the mater 
that thay treit is not solide nor permanent in the samin forme and 
image as it was first found, apperis baith to unletterit pepil and 
utheris quhilkis hes na sicht to the continewal alteration of materis, 
that the verite is not schawin to thaim in al partis. And sen all 
thingis quhilkis ar comprehendit within the speir of the mone, ar sa 
thirlit to deith and alteration, that thay ar othir consumit afore us, 

VOL. I. c 


or ellis -vve afore thame ; apperis na thing mair corruptible, nor vit of 
mairalteratioun, than the erd and situatioun thairof ; becaiis it changis 
sa mony figuris be lang age and proces of yeris. For we nocht al- 
lanerly may se presently be our ene, bot findis be mony crafty and 
profound historicianis, that quhare sum time bene maist notable 
cietes, or maist plentuous lesuris and medois, now, throw erdquaik 
and trimbling, or ellis be continewall inundation of watteris, nocht 
remanis bot othir the huge seis, or ellis unproffitable ground and 
sandis. Attoure the see, be alluvioun and pres of rageand watters, 
cuniis in on sum landis and gangis furth on utheris, as daily occurris 
be experience ; for baith seis and watteris gevis, be injust merchis, 
als mekle to sum landis as thay reif fra utheris. Heirfore I belief, 
be sindry chances and lang proces of time, that every thing sail not 
be respondent to the samin perfection and knawlege as it was dis- 
crivit be auld cosmographouris, in the figure and situation of the erd. 
Thairfore na man suld have admiration, howbeit recent authouris 
discrive the warld in sum uthir figure and sort than it hes bene dis- 
crivit afore be Pomponius !Mela, Ptholome, and othir auld cosmo- 
graphouris ; for the erd is now mair frequent in pepil than it was in 
tliay dayis, and the passage in al cuntreis mair knawin ; throw quhilk 
the situation of all regionis,be exact and scharp deligence of authouris, 
is the mau- patent. Attoure, gif tliir auld cosmographouris war bot 
men as we ar, followis na admii'ation, howbeit thay had na sicker 
cognosance and ful erudition of al thingis ; and, for that cans, thay 
micht not A\Tit forthu- than thay saw be thair awin inquisition, or 
ellis be experience of utheris authouris past afore thame. For thir 
reasonis, we think it litil wrang sum times nocht to follow al thair 
opinionis : for thay had not knawlege nor experience of all materis ; 
and, thairfore, we dar the mair baldly writ sum thingis for the com- 
mon proffet, specially concernyng the figure and situation of Scot- 
land, with the maneris of the pepill thairof, in sum utliir sort than 
hes bene schawin afore be uthir autliouris : for we have not onely 
sene the samvn, bot hes knawlege thairof be lang experience and 
use ; throw quhilk, this our quhatsumevir werk sal not be unprofi- 
tabil nor yit unplesand to the reders, for in it sal be schawin the 
maneris and conditioun of the pepill of Scotland, with the situation 
thairof. Attoure, to mak the reders more bowsum and attent, we 


promit faitlifullie to writ na thing in this werk bot allanerhe sik thing 
as bene maist patent and knawin to us, othir be our awin exact de- 
hgence and industrie, or ellis be rehers of otlieris richt trew and 
faithful auctouris ; and, thairfore, gif this our werk be found pie- 
sand to the reders, we sail writ sum othir tim mair largelie of othir 
materis, baith to thair eruditioun and pleseir. 

CJjap. Second* 

The Discriptioun of Albion, and quhy it wes callit with that Name. 
The beginning qfBritonis and Scottis. 

He hail He of Albion, quhilk contenis baith the realmes 
of Ingland and Scotland, as is discrivit be the Latine 
and Greik cosmographouris, is enveronid on every side 
Avith the gret occeane ; havand on the eist side, the Al- 
mane seis; on the south side, the Franche and Britane seis ; on the 
west side, the Ireland seis ; and on the north side, the Norroway seis. 
This He is extendit be lang passage fra the south-south-eist to the 
north-nor-west, and is mair extendit to the lenth than breid, nocht 
far different fra the figure of ane triangle. This He, be auld cosmo- 
graphouris, wes callit Albion, and remanis yit undir the samin name. 
Sum auctouris sayis, this He wes callit Albion, ab albis montibus ; 
that is to say, fra the quhit montanis thairof, full of calk : Utheris 
allegis, it wes callit Albion, fra ane lady namit Albyne ; quhilk his- 
tory is nocht unlik the fabulis that ar writin of the fiftie douchteris 
of Danaus, King of Argives. This Albyne, as is allegit, with hir 
fiftie sisteris, eftir that thay had slane al thair husbandis, pullit up 
salis, and come out of Grece throw the seis of Hercules to Spanye ; 
and, fra Spanye, come throw the Franche and Almane seis but ony 
impediment to the said He ; and, eftir hir arriving in the samin, 
namit it Albion fra hir name. This Albyne, with hir fiftie sisteris, 
eftir thair cuming in the said He, conversit with devillis in forme of 
men, and consavit childrin be naturall commixtion. Thir childrin 


increscit of sa huge stature and pissance, that thay wer callit be the 
peple giandis ; and inhabit the said regioun continewalhe to the time 
of Brutus, the first beginner of Britonis. This Brutus wes nepot, 
or elUs pronepot, to the gret Trojane Eneas; and, becaus he wes 
exiht and banist for slauchter and othir gret offencis done be him in 
Itahe, he wes constranit to depart with the residew of Trojanis, his 
fallois, to serche sum new dwelhng. Eftir lang travell be tempes- 
tious and storme seis, he arrivit in Albion, fra the beginning of the 
warld MMMM.xxvii yeris. This Brutus and his fallowis, eftir thair 
cuming in Albioun, invadit the giandis afore rehersit with sindry 
chancis of battall ; and, finahe, brocht thaim to sa hie rewine, that 

- baith thair landis and guddis fell in pray to Brutus and his fallowis : 
and sa the cuntre wes callit Britane, and the pepill Britonis. Bot 
the beginning of Scottis wes in ane uthir maner. It is writtin be 
our anciant historiographouris, that Gathelus, ane richt illuster and 
vailyeant knicht, discending be lang progressioun and linage of the 
blud riall of Grece, maryit Scota, douchter to King Pharo of Egipt ; 

"Sind, thoucht raony riche landis fell to him, with gret honouris be 
singulare manheid, in the realme of Egipt, yit he wes so astonist be 
mony terrible and grevus plagis appering, be prophecy of Moises, 
in plane eversioun of the realme and peple of Egipt, that he thoucht 
na thing sa gud nor proffitable as to be maist remote and distant 
thairfra. Gathelus, movit for thir causis, come furth of the mouth 
of Nile, with his wife, his freindis, and servandis, Grekis and Egip- 
tianis, throw the seis Mediterrane; and, finalie, brokin with lang 
and incredible danger of uncouth chancis, he ai'rivit in the north 
part of Spanye : and to conques the more benevolence of his wife, 
he namit his pepill Scottis, eftir hir name. Thair vulgar langage wes 
calht Gathelik. Gathelus, eftir his cuming in Spanye, sent ane band 
of weirmen in Ireland ; quhilkis, be singulare manheid and prudence, 
dantit so the pepill thairof, that thay gat the hail empire of the said 
He, and rang in it mony yeris eftir, with gret honoure and glore of 


How the Scottls and Pichtis come in Alh'wwi. Oftha'ir sindry Lhi- 
nage and Maneris ; aiid how the said He was inhabit be thre sin- 
dry Pepill. 

Othesay, ane of the kingis sonnis of Ireland, come, 
schort yeris eftlr, with ane cumpany of young and har- 
dy pepill, in the His of Albion ; and, becaus he fand 
the samin waist and nocht inhabit as than with ony em- 
pire of Britonis, he sat doun with his remanent fallowis, wiffis, and 
barnis, in the said His, and namit thaim Hebredes, fra the name 
of Hibernia, or ellis fra the name of Hiber, the first son of Gathelus. 
This Rothesay come sone eftir, with his freindis out of the said His, 
in Albion ; and, sa mekil as he gat possessioun of, he callit it Scot- 
land. The day that Scottis come first in Albion, wes fra the be- 
ginning of the warld mmmm.dc.xvii yeris. Mony yeris eftir thair 
cumming in Albion, thay wer callit Re-Albinis, that is to say, Kingis 
of Albioun ; to mak thaim sum thing different fra the remanent 
kingis that inhabit the said land eftir or afore thau- cuming. For- 
thir, thoucht the Scottis, be thair singulare manheid and prudence, 
rang continewallie but ony interruption baith in Spanye and Ire- 
land, yit thair name is perist in thai partis ; othir be thair commix- 
tion with uncouth blud, or ellis be roust and lang proces of yeris ; 
throw quhilk remanis na Scottis in memory, bot thay that inhabitis 
the last boundis of Albion. Attoure the Spanyeartis, that dwellis 
yit in the montanis and uthir desertis of Spanye, knawis na thing of 
the Romane weris ; and ar litill different fra Ireland men, baith in 
thau- maneris, habit, and langage. The Britonis, becaus thay wer 
mony yeris afore us in Albioun, occupyis the south and maist plen- 
tuus boundis thairof : and we inhabit the north partis, full of mon- 
tanis ; quhilk ar nocht sa fertil and commodius as the said landis oc- 
cupyit be Britonis. Eftir the cuming of Scottis and Britonis on this 
maner in Albioun, ane uncouth peple namit Pichtis, uthirwayis 


naniit Agathirsanis, quhilkis were banist out of Sarmathia, come in 
Denmark, quhair thay sone eftir gat schippis, with all provisioun 
efFering thairto ; and, eftir thair finall arriving in Albioun, thay sat 
doun in the waist and middil boundis betwix Britonis and Scottis, 
and maid wid marchis betwix baith thair realmes. The cuming of 
Pichtis in Albioun wes eftir the cuming of Scottis in the samin, ccl 
yeris; yit amang sum authoviris risis ane fuliche dout, quhidder the 
Scottis or Pichtis come first in this regioun. Sum of thir authouris 
allegis, that Rewther wes the first beginnar of Scottis in Albioun. 
Bot this opinioun is far different fra the treuth of our historic ; for 
five Scottis kingis rang continewallie, ilk ane succeding to uthir, afore 
P^wther ; as apperis cleirlie in the historie follo^^ing. And sa this 
He of Albioun wes inhabit, fra the beginning thairof, A\dth thre sin- 
diy pepill ; that is to say, Britonis, Scottis, and Pichtis. The first 
part of this He, becaus it Aves inhabit be Brutus and his posterite, 
wes namit Britane ; the secound and mid part, becaus it wes inha^ 
bit be Pichtis, wes namit Penthland; and the remanent boundis 
thairof wer inhabit be Scottis, and namit Scotland. Yit the Romane 
historicianis and Ptolome, quhen thay treit ony thing concerning 
this He of Albioun, callit the hail ile, Britane ; and all the peple thair- 
of, Britonis. Thir thre peple, namit all under ane name Albianis, 
inhabit the said lie ; yit the Romanis, in all partis quhare thay come 
within this Ile, namit the peple thairof with sindry names : for thay 
namit the men of Walls, Tegenianls, fra Tegenia ; the men of An- 
gus, Horrestianis, fra Horrestia ; the men of Cauder and Callender 
wod, Cahdonianis, fra Calidonia ; the men of Galloway, Brigandis, 
fra Brigantia ; as apperis be Cornehus Tacitus, quhilk wrltis, that 
beyound the Britonis dwellis in Allbion, to the gret north, two peple 
richt different fra uther in maneris and nature ; that ane, for thair 
yallo hair, calHt Pichtis, discending of Albianis ; and this uthir, for 
thair blak and curland hair, calHt Scottis, na thing different fra 
Spanyeartis in nature and conditionis. This Ile, m our dayis, is in- 
habit allanerlie be two peple, Inghsmen and Scottis ; the south partis 
ar inhabit be Inglismen, and the north part be Scottis. Now have 
we schawin the causis quhy the Britonis wer calht with that name, 
and the maner of thair cumming in Albioun ; and we sail schaw, in 


the end of this cosmographie, with quhat peple the realme of Britane 
hes bene inhabit continewalHe, unto the time of King Hary the VIII., 
regnand now with gret feheite abone Inghsmen. 

The Boundts of Albioun ; with the sindry Commoditeis tliairgfin 
generaU. Of the gnet infirmiteis that fallis to the Peple tha\roJ\ 
for thair intemperance ; and of the Religion iisit he thaim in auld 

He He of Albioun contenis, in the hail circumference 
and compas circular, mm mihs ; havand in lenth dcc 
mills, and in breid cccl miles ; as apperis weill be the 
fute thairof fornence the Franche seis. And fra the 
fute thairof'it procedis ay the more small, quhill it come to the uter 
marchis and last boundis baith of Ingland and Scotland : for betwix 
the Mule of Galloway, fornence the Ireland seis, to Sanct Ebbis 
Held, fornence the Almane seis, ar skars clx mills in breid ; and 
fra thens it gaderis ay mair small, quhill it be cumin to the last boundis 
thairof, quhare it hes skarslie xxx mills in breid. It is ane richt pro- 
fitable He ; full of peple ; and nocht onlie richt plentuus of store and 
bestiall, bot of all kind of cornis in every boundis thairof, saiffing 
allanerlie thay boundis quhair God, of his singulare gudnes, hes or- 
danit maist riche minis of gold, silver, tinne, bras, copper, and quik- 
silver, wath sic fouth and aboundance of metallis, that the samin ar 
nocht onlie sufficient for all maner of necessaris to the peple of the 
said He, bot ar sufficient to all uthir oure nichtbouris that dwellis 
about us, gif our peple had perfite craft and Industrie to win the sa- 
min. Bot the superflew aboundance of all uthir thingis necessar to 
the use of man, quhilk nature hes producit in oure regioun, makis 
the peple the les industrius and crafty, dehting ay mair in sleuth 
than ony exercitioun ; for beside the gret fouth of gers, cornis, and 
bestiall in our landis, beside the gret aboundance of fowlis in the air, 
sa gret plente is of fische in all partis of our seis, specially towart the 


north, that the samin is sufficient ineuch to nuris all our peple, how- 
beit thair wer na frutis growand on oure land ; as apperis be expe- 
rience : for all landis that lyis about us, as France, Flanderis, Zeland, 
Holland, and mekill of Almany, cumis with sindry flotis, sekand fische 
yeirlie in our seis ; and nocht allanerlie, be thair prudent industry, 
winnis fische sufficient to sustene thaimself, bot, be generall mar- 
chandice of thir fische, thay sustene the peple of all uthir cuntreis ; 
passand, in the time of Lentroun, throw the seis Mediterrane, ay 
selland thair fische, to thair gret proffet and winning. Mony uthir 
riche and precius thingis ar to be gottin in the said He, haldin in 
gret delit to the eist peple of the warld. Quhat may be said of our 
wol ? quhilk is sa quhit and small, that the samin is desirit be all 
peple, and coft with gret price, speciallie with marchandis quhair it 
is best knawin. Of this woll is maid the fine skarlettis, with mony 
uthii- granit and deligat clathis. Heirfore I dar baldlie affirme, gif 
the Albianis had sic grace that thay micht leif with concord amang 
thaimself, or gif thair realmes, be ony honest way, micht cum under 
the empire and senyorie of ane king ; thay micht nocht allanerlie haif 
all necessaris within thaimself, uncoft; bot, with small difficultie, 
micht dant all nichtbouris and cuntreis Hand thaim about, quhen ony 
externe or uncouth weris hapnit to invaid thaim. Thay have sa 
elegant stature, sa fair and lusty bodyis, that na uthir peple may be 
preferrit to thaim. Thay ar richt ingenius and abill, als well to let- 
teris as uthir virtewis and corporall exercitioun of the handis ; richt 
hardy and reddy to all jeoperdyis baith in weir and peace, in sic 
maner that na thing may be difficill to thaim, gif thay leiffit tempe- 
ratlie. Thairfore the provident Beginnar of the warld hes nocht but 
gret resoun maid thair region nakit and bair of winis ; knawing, be 
his eterne wisdome, that winis, howbeit the samin ar richt necessar 
to all uthir peple, ar richt skaithfull to the nature of Albianis : for 
thay ar gevin to sic unnaturall voracite and desire of uncouth metis 
and drinkis, that thay can nocht refrene thaimself fra immoderat ex- 
cesse, as apperis weill be experience ; for, throw thair crapulus and 
schamfull glutone, thay ar strikin oftimes with sa dangerus and irre- 
mediable infirmiteis, that howbeit thow wer accumpanit with thaim 
all thair tender age, thow sail find thaim, throw thair intemjierance 
and surfet diet, sa fowsumlie growin in thair mid or latter age, that 


thay sail appeir als uncouth to thy sicht as thow had nevir knawin 
thaim in thair tender age ; quhairthroAv thay sal appeir erar misfas- 
sonit monstouris than ony naturall peple. Sindry of thaim, throw 
surfet diet, growls furius in thair latter age, Avith mony soroAvfull 
maledeis following thaim ; for, as the proverbe sayis, sendill ar men 
of gret glutonie sene have lang dayis, or agit with proces of yeris, 
becaus thair excessive and intemperat diet consumis al the substan- 
ciall humouris of thair bodyis. Bot we wil return to our purpos. 
The Albianis, as A^Titis Cesar, in his Commentaris, and Cornelius 
Tacitus, wer richt religious, eftir the rite that wes in thay dayis ; for 
in thay dayis wer the preistis of Britane, namit Driades, richt ex- 
pert baith in naturall and morall philosophic. Be thair doctrine, 
come the first sculis of thair sect and opinion in France. The prin- 
cipall sect of thir preistis wes in the lie of IVIan, quhilk wes in that 
time the spectacle and fontane of all honest eruditioun and letteris ; 
and, fra thir preistis wer anis profest in Catholik faith, thay perse- 
verit with gret Constance in it, but ony spot of herise. 

The Discripticmn of Est , West, and Middill Bordouris of Scotland ; 
with the maist notable Townis and Fludis thairqf. 

He Pichtis had sum time the principall and maist plen- 
teus boundis of al the landis that ar now under the em- 
pire of Scottis ; eftir that thay had rongin in the samin, 
M.CLi yeris, under ane blude, amite, and freindschip with 
Scottis; concurrand with thaim equalie in every danger and jeoper- 
de of battall aganis the Romanis and Britonis ; and sum times fecht- 
and aganis the Scottis, thair aw in confiderat freindis, be unprudence 
of young and suspect personis : quhil at last, be outragius and exer- 
bitant haitrent, rais sic slauchter and murdir on all sidis, that thay 
wer l^rocht to uter rewine, and doung out of Albion, be the weris of 

VOL. I. D 


Scottis. And thocht the Scottis hes bene oftimes brokin with maist ter- 
rible and dangerus weris of mony scharp ennimes, yit, be divine be- 
nevolence, thay fluris hail unto thir dayis, and hes dantit al thair 
enninies. Thir commodites, quhilkis ar now schawin generalie of 
Albion, ar patent, with mony uthir singulare prerogativis, speciallie 
amang the Scottis in the Hieland : for the peple thairof hes na re- 
pair with marchandis of uncouth realmes ; and, becaus thay ar nocht 
corruppit, nor mingit with uncouth blude, thay ar the more Strang 
and rude, and may suffir mair hungir, walking, and distres, than 
ony uthir peple of Albion ; maist hardy at jeoperdyis ; richt agill 
and deliver of bodyis; richt ingenius to every new inventioun; 
maist sichty in craft of chevalrie ; and kepis thair faith and promes 
Avith maist severite and constance. Scotland hes the Mers, quhilk 
wes sum time the maist plenteus regioun of Pichtis, for thair marche, 
fornence the Almane seis. This regioun, sa lang as it wes inhabit 
be Pichtis, wes namit Deere ; and, eftu* the expulsioun of Pichtis, 
it wes namit the Mers, that is to say, the marchis ; for the Scottis, 
eftir the expulsioun of Pichtis, ekit thair marchis to Tweid, quliilk 
devides Northumbirland fra the Mers. On the tothir side, sindry 
small burnis discendis fra the hillis of Cheviot, and uthir montanis 
hand thair about, deviding Qumbir fra Annandail, and fallis in the 
watter of Sulway. This watter of Sulway rinnis in the Ireland seis, 
and is the marche of Scotland, fornence the west bourdouris. The 
hilhs of Cheviot, fra quhilk springis mony small burnis on ilk side, 
raakis the middil marche of Scotland. The Mers hes sindry marchis 
at sindry partis quhair it is extendit. Sum time it hes the Almane 
seis ; sum time, Eist Loutliiane ; sum time, Tweid ; and sum time, 
Forth, for the marchis. Amang mony Strang castellis in the Mers 
is the town and castell of Berwik, sum time namit Ordolutium, and 
the inhabitantis thairof namit Ordoluce. Tweid first springis fra 
ane small fontane, and, be agmentation of uthir watteris that fallis 
in it, it discendis with braid stremes in the Ahnane seis. Beyound 
Tweid, to the middill marche under Cheviot, lyis Tevidale, that is 
to say, the vale of Tyf. Beyound it lyis Esdail, the vale of Esk ; 
for Esk rinnis throw the middis thairof. Fornens Esdail, on the 
tothir side, lyis Eusdail, namit fra the watter of Eus, and fallis in 
the watter of Annand : bot Tyf and Esk fallis in Tweid. On the 


tothir side, fornence the Ireland seis, lyis Annandail, fra the watter 
of Annand. It marchis sum times with the out boundis of Nidis- 
dail, quhair all thir tlire rivers forsaid, Eus, Annand, and Sulway, 
discendis togidder, under ane streme, in the Ireland seis. In Annan- 
dail is ane loch namit Lochmaben, five mills of lenth, and foure of 
breid, full of uncoulh fische. Beside this loch is ane castell, under 
the same name, maid to dant the incursion of thevis. For nocht al- 
lanerlie in Annandail, bot in all the dalis afore rehersit, ar mony 
Strang and wekit thevis, invading the cuntre with perpetuall thift, 
reif, and slauchter, quhen thay se ony trublus time. Thir thevis, 
becaus thay have Inglismen thair perpetuall ennimes, liand dry 
marche apon thair nixt bordour, invadis Ingland with continewal 
weris, or ellis with quiet thift ; and leiffis ay ane pure and miserabill 
life. In the time of peace, thay ar so accustomit with thift that thay 
can nocht desist, bot invadis the cvmtre, (liowbeit thay ar ay misera- 
bihe put doun,) with itliand heirschippis. Mony riche and plentuus 
boundis of Scotland lyis waist, for feir of thair invasion. Nocht far 
fra Sulway ar mony sinkand sandis, sa peiilus, that na peple may 
transport thaim self throw the samin, but gret difficulte and danger 
of thair livis. This vale of Annand wes sum time namit Ordovitia, 
and the pepill namit Ordovices ; quhais cruelteis wes sa gret, that 
thay abhorrit nocht to eit the flesche of yoldin prisoneris. The wivis 
usit to slay thair husbandis, quhen thay wer found cowartis, or dis- 
comfist be thair ennimes; to gif occasioun to otheris to be more 
bald and hardy quhen danger occurrit : Quhill at last thay wer fina- 
lie distroyit be the weris of Romanis. On the west borduris, to the 
gret north, lyis Nidisdail, namit fra the water of Nith. It beginnis 
with ane narow and strait hals, and incressis mair braid, quhair it 
lyis to the middil marchis of Scotland. In Nidisdail is the toun of 
Dunfreis, quhair mony small and dehgat quhitis ar maid, haldin in 
gret dainte to marchandis of uncouth realmes. 


The Discription ofGalloxoay^ Kyle, Carrik, and Cunninghame ; zcith 
the 7iotahill Tozmiis^ Lochis, and Revers in the samin. 

Bone Nidisdaill is Galloway, namit sum time, Bi'igantia, 
and the peple tliairof namit Brigandis. This region is 
devidit be the watter of Cre in two partis : the part that 
lyis nerest to Nidisdaill, is callit Nethir Galloway ; the 
tothir part, that lyis abone Cre, is callit Uvir Galloway. In Nethir 
Galloway is Kirkcoubrie, ane riche toun, full of marchandice. In 
Uver Galloway is the abbay of Quhittern, dedicat to the haly bischop 
Sanct Niniane ; quhair his blissit body restis in gret veneratioun of 
peple. Abone Quhittern is the toun of Wigtoun; and nocht far 
fra it, is the loch of Myrtoun. The half of this loch fresis be na- 
tnrall congelatioun, as utheris lochis dois ; the tothir half fresis nevir. 
In Galloway ar two uthir lochis, Salset and Newtramen, of sik hke 
lenth and breid as Loch Myrtoun. Galloway rinnis, with ane gret 
snout of craggis, be lang passage, in the Ireland seis. This snout is 
calht be the peple, the Mulis Nuk ; and, be the crukin of it in the 
seis, it makis two gret lochis, namit be the pepil. Loch Reane, and 
Lowis. Sum of thir lochis ar xxx, and sum xvi, milis of lenth. 
Thay ar baith ful of ostreis, hering, congir elhs, mussillis, and coklis, 
with mony uthir fische. Sum men haldis, that Brigance wes the 
samin regioun of Ingland that is now callit Walls, quhair the Bri- 
tonis leiffit mony yens eftir that thay wer doung out of Britane : bot 
this opinion is vane ; for the Romane auctouris sayis, the He of Man 
lyis fornence Brigance, and is mid passage betwix it and Ireland, as 
yit apperis be experience. And howbeit the brayis, be alluvioun 
and flux of seis, ar worne, and mair distant fra uthir than thay wer 
afore, yit the samin latitude and elevatioun of the pole that Ptolome 
assignis to Brigance, correspondis weil to the elevatioun of the pole 
abone Galloway, quhilk is distant and severit be lang jurnay fra 
Walls ; for the He of Man lyis thre hundreth milis fra WaUs, in the 


sicht of Galloway. Attoure, be testimoniall of sindry auctouris, we 
say, that out of Brigance, the toun of Spanye quhilk is now namit 
Conipostella, come ane new cumpany of peple in Ireland, and wer 
namit Spanyeartis ; and out of Ireland come ane gret cumpany of 
the same pepill, with King Fergus, in Albioun ; and, in remembrance 
of the ciete of Brigance, quhilk wes sum time be thaim inhabit in 
Spanye, thai war all callit Brigandis. To this opinion applaudis 
Cornelius Tacitus, saying, the Brigandis wer discendit of the Span- 
yeartis, and dwellis in the remot and last boundis of Britane ; for 
he callis Britane the hail He of Albioun. Thir regionis afore re- 
hersit, that is to say, Annandail, Nidisdail, and Galloway, nocht 
allanerlie aboundis in fine woll and store of bestiall, bot ar richt prof- 
fitable in all maner of cornis, except quhiet. Abone Galloway is Car- 
rik, ane part of Silurie ; for Silurie is devidit in thre partis, that is 
to say, Carrik, Kyle, and Cunninghame. In Carrik wes sum time 
ane riche ciete under the same name ; quhais minus walhs schaAvds 
the gret magnificence thairof. In this cuntre ar mony Strang cas- 
tellis, richt strenthy baith be nature and craft of men. In this re- 
gion ar mony fair ky and oxin, of quhilk the flesche is richt delicius 
and tender ; the talloun of thair wambis is sa sappy, that it fresis 
nevir, bot flowis ay, be nature of the self, in maner of oulie. Be- 
yound Carrik is Kyle, namit fra Coyll, King of Britonis, quhilk wes 
slane in the said regioun. In Kyle is ane stane, nocht xii milis fra 
the toun of Air, xxx fut of hicht, and thre ellis of breid, callit be the 
peple the Deif Stane ; for quhen ane man is at the fut of it, he may 
nothir heir quhat is said nor done on the tothir side, howbeit ane 
cannon wer schot at it ; nochtheles, ay the more he standis a di'eich 
fra it, he heris ay the better. Nixt Kyle is Cunninghame, the thrid 
part of Silurie; quhais peple wer maist noisum to Romanis. In 
Kyle is ane loch namit Doune, fra quhilk discendis the watter under 
the same name, and rinnis in the Ireland seis. In Cunninghame is 
ane loch namit Garnoth, nocht unhke to Loch Doun, full of fische ; 
and nocht far fra it is the toun of Largis, quhare sum time faucht 
King Alexander the Thrid, with gret glore of victorie, aganis the 


The Discription of Renfrew^ Clyddisdail, Lennox, Lowmond,Argyle, 
Louchquhahir, Lome, and Kmtyre ; with all 7iotabiU thing'is con- 
tenit in the same. 

He waiter of Clyde devides the Lennox, on the north side, 
fra the barony of Renfrew ; and risis out of the samin 
montane within the wod of Cahdone, fra quhilk risis 
Annand ; and discendis with lang passage in the Ireland 
seis. Not far fra the fontanis of Clyde springis the fontanis of 
Forth, quhilk discendis, with ample and braid boundis, in the Al- 
mane seis. On the tothir side, the watter of Clyde, eftir that it hes 
roun lang towart the north, crukis ay inwart, quhill it come to the mon- 
tanis of Granyebane ; sine discendis Avith lang passage to the sovith, 
quhill it fall in the Ireland seis. The cuntre, quhair it rinnis, is callit 
Clydisdail. Betwix Clyde and Lennox lyis the baronie of Renfrew ; 
in the quhilk ar twa lochis, nan lit Quhynsouth and Leboth, sum xx 
and sum xii mills of lenth, richt plentuus and full of fische. Abone 
Renfrew, to the Occeane seis, lyis the Lennox, namit, be Ptolome, 
Lelgonia ; in quhilk is ane gret loch namit Lochmond, xxiv mills of 
lenth, and viii mills of breid. Within this loch ar xxx His, well big- 
git with kirkis, temphs, and housis : and in this loch ar thre notable 
thingis ; fische swomand but ony fin ; ane richt dangerus and storrae 
wal, but ony wind ; and ane He that fletis heir and thair as the wind 
servis. This loch standis at the fute of the montanis of Granyebene, 
quhilkis wer sum time the gret marchis betwix the Scottis and Pichtis, 
and gangis fra Lochlowmond to the mouth of Dee. The Pichtis 
had na landis beyound the montanis of Granyebene, nor yit hand 
to the Ireland seis ; for thir boundis wer ay inhabit be Scottis. Viii 
mills fra Lochlowmond is the castell of Dunbritane, namit sum time, 
Alcleuch ; quhair the watter of Levin fallis in Clyde. Beyound Loch- 
lowmond is Argyle, ane cuntre ful of rochis, craggis, and montanis. 


In it ar twa lochis, Lochfine and Lochquho. The land is devidit 
in thre partis ; the land that lyis in middis thairof is callit Knapdail. 
In Lochfine is mair plente of hering than is in ony seis of Albion. 
In Lochquho ar mony fische, sik as leiffis on fresch watter. In Ar- 
gyle ar twa castellis, Glennunquhart and Enconell ; and in it ar xii 
His : hot thay ar mair proffi table in store of bestial, than ony cornis. 
In Argyle ar mony riche minis, full of metall ; bot ye pepill thairof 
hes na craft nor industry to win the samin. It is said, in this cun- 
tre is ane stane of sic nature, that it kendlis cauld stra, or hardis in 
fire, quhen it is involvit thairwith. In Argyle ar vii uthir lochis ; 
sum XXX milis in lenth and breid, and sum les. It wes said be Schir 
Duncane Campbell to us, that out of Garloll, ane loch of Argyle, 
the yeir of God m.dx yeris, come ane terrible beist, als mekil as ane 
grew-hound, futit lik ane ganar, and straik doun gret treis with the 
dint of hir tail; and slew thre men quhilkis wer at thair hountis 
with thre straikis of hir tail : and wer not the remanent huntaris clam 
up in Strang aikis, thay had bene all slane in the samin maner. Ef- 
tir the slauchter of thir men, scho fled speidlie to the loch. Sindry 
prudent men belevit gret trubill to follow in Scotland, be appering 
of this beist ; for scho was sene afore, and ay trubil following thair- 
efter. Marcheand with Argyle lyis Lorn, quhilk wes sum time bot 
ane part thairof; for it lyis in maner of ane toung within the Ire- 
land seis, with ane lang hals, lx milis of lenth and breid. This toung, 
that rinnis sa far within the seis, wes sum time namit Novantia ; bot 
now is it callit Kintyre, that is to say, the Heid of Lorn. The out- 
maist part of this toung is not xvi milis fra Ireland. Sum auctouris 
.sayis, baith Argyle and Kintyre wer namit Novantia ; for Ptolonie 
makis na mention of Argyle in his cosmographie. In Lorn growis 
beir with gret plente. Beyound Lome is Lochquhabir, quhilk wes 
sum time ane part of Murrayland. It is full of minis, sic as irne and 
leid, and richt proflitabill in store of bestiall. In it ar mony woddis, 
lochis, and rivers, full of salmond and uthir fische, swomand sa plen- 
teuslie, that the samin is tane but ony craft. The principal! rivers 
of Lochquhabir ar Lochtie and Spanye ; howbeit the cause thairof 
be uncertane. Lochtie risis nocht viii milis fra Lochness, and falhs, 
under the same name, in the Almane seis. Beside it is ane roche 
crag, dippand with ane lang hals in the seis, namit Hardnomorth. 


Tn the mouth of Lochtie wes ane riche toim namit Inverlochtie, 
quhair sum time wes gret change, be repair of uncouth marchandis ; 
quhill at last it wes sa uterhe destroyit be weris of Danis, that it 
come nevir to the honour and magnificence as it had afore: and 
quhiddir the samin procedis be sleuth of our pepill, or be invy of 
limmers, quhilkis may suffir na wallit tounis in this cuntre, it is un- 
certane. Beyound Lochtie is the castell of Dunstafage, sum time 
namit Evonium. Beyound Dunstafage is the mouth of the watter 
of Spanye, quhair it fallis in the Almane seis. 

The Discription o/Ros, Stranavern, and Murrmjland ; with the 
Louchh, Fludis, and Notable Toicnis thairqf. 

Eyound the watter of Spanye lyis Ros, sum time namit 
Luffia : risino; with ane strait narow hals, and thaireftir 
is cassin furth, with mair braid lesuris, valis, and mon- 
tanis ; circuht, baith on the ta syde and the tothir, with 
the occeane. This cuntre, quhair it lyis maist approchand to the 
Ireland seis, hes richt difficill passage, and ganis mair for store of 
bestiall than ony habitatioun of man. It is best manurit fomence the 
Almane seis : richt plentuus baith of gers and corn ; for thir hailsum 
valis, quhare the rivers discendis, makis the herbis richt delicius 
and nurisand. In Ros ar sindry lochis, bot Lochbroun is maist. 
Mony rivers ar in Ros, full of fische. In Ros is Cromarte, ane firth 
and sicker port to all shippis, to saif thame fra danger of tempest, 
namit be the peple, the Heil of Schipmen. In Ros is the toun of 
Thane, quhair the bUssit banis of Sanct Dutho restis in gret vene- 
ratioun of peple. In ane vale of Ros ar twa housis, round in forme 
of ane bell ; and ar saiffit to our dayis in memory of sum antiquiteis 
of our eldaris. Merchand with Ros lyis Stranavern, the outmaist 
boundis of Scotland ; of quhilk the se cost ]yis north-north-west, 
and crukis in agane sum time fornens the Almane seis, havand for- 


nens it, on the gret north, Cathnes; on the gret eist, Sutherland; 
on the gret south, Ros ; and, on the gret west, the north-nor-west 
seis. Thre gret craggis lyis on the outmaist side of Stranavern, 
namit Hoy, Howbroun, and Downisbie ; and becaus thir thre rochis 
schutis far in the see, thay mak twa gret firthis and lochis, severit 
fra uthir. Merchand with Cathnes lyis Sutherland, ane profitable 
cuntre baith for store and comis. On the yond side of it lyis Mur- 
ray, sum time namit Vararis. Bot it hes nocht the samin marchis 
now as it had than ; for all the boundis betwix Spay and Xes to the 
Ireland seis, wer namit Murray : bot now it lyis sum time beyound 
the watter of Spay and Kissok, quhil it cum to the Ireland seis. 
Betwix Ros and Murray, the land crukis in with ane gret discens 
and vale, in quhilk falhs five rivers, Nes, Nardyn, Findorn, Los, 
and Spay. Spay rinnis with sa feirs and violent streme, that the 
see tide, quhen it cumis in maist swiftlie, may nocht resist the violent 
discens and streme of this watter, bot is, with the preis and streme 
thairof, born doun per force to the seis. Nes risis fra ane loch un- 
der the same name, nocht viii mills fra the samin loch that Lochtie 
cumis fra, and rinnis in the Ireland seis. Nothir fresis the water of 
Lochtie, nor yit the loch that it cumis fra, in ony storme of winter ; 
and, to the greter admiratioun, ony frosin thing that is cassin in it, 
meltis and resolvis hastelie : it is, thairfore, richt proffitable to al 
frosin beistis. In the mouth of Nes standis the toun of Inner nes ; 
quhare sum time wes gret plente and tak of herying, howbeit thay 
be now evanist, for offence that is maid aganis sum Sanct. Treuth 
is, quhen ony avaricius and unhappy men fechtis for the fische that 
God sendis, be his infinit gudnes, to the sustentatioun of the peple, 
and diffoulis the see be thair blude ; mony yeris eftir, na fische swomis 
in that place. Beside Lochnes, quhilk is xxiv mills of lenth, and 
XII of breid, ar mony wild hors; and, amang thame, ar mony mar- 
trikis, bevers, quhitredis, and toddis ; the furringis and skinnis of 
thaim ar coft with gret price amang uncouth marchandis. In ]Mur- 
ray is nocht allanerlie gret aboundance and fouth of quheit, lieir, 
aitis, and siclik comis, with gret plente of nutis and appillis, bot in 
it ar gret fouth of fische, and speciallie salmond. In this cuntre is 
ane uncouth maner of fisching : for the peple makis ane lang mand, 

VOL. I. E 


narow halsit, and wyid mouthit, with mony stobis inouth, maid vnth 
sik craft, that the fische thrawis thameself in it, and can nocht get 
furth agane ; and als sone as the see ebbis, the fische ar tane dry in 
the crehs. In Murray is ane loch namit Spynee, quhair gret plente 
is of swannis. The cause quhy the swannis muhiplyis sa fast in this 
loch, is throw ane herbe namit Olour, quhilk burgeonis with gret fer- 
tilite in the said loch, and the seid of it is richt nurisand and deli- 
cius to swannis. This herbe is sa brudy, that quhair it is anis sawin 
or plantit, it can nevir be distroyit ; as may be provin be experience : 
for, thoucht this loch be v. milis lang, and wes sum time, as the me- 
morie of man yit beris, full of salmond and uthir gret fische, yit, fra 
this herbe began to burgeon in it, the watter is growin sa schauld, 
that ane man may waid throw the maist partis thairof ; and, thair- 
fore, all maner of gret fische is quit evanist out of it. In Murray 
land is the Kirk of Pette, quliare the banis of Litill Johne remanis, 
in gret admiratioun of pepill. He hes bene fourtene fut of hicht, 
with square membris eft'ering thairto. Vi yeris afore the cvmiing of 
this werk to licht, we saw his hanche bane, als mekill as the haill 
bane of ane man ; for we schot our arme in the mouth thairof : be 
quhilk apperis how Strang and square pepill grew in our regioun, 
afore thay wer effeminat with lust and intemperance of mouth. In 
Murray is the toun of Elgin, nocht far fra the mouth of Spay ; in 
quhilk is the nobill cathedrall kirk of Murray, decorit richelie with 
the college of Channonis. Sindry riche abbayis ar in JMurray : as 
Killos, of the ordoure of Cestuus ; and Pluscardie, of the ordoure 


The Discriptioiin of Boene, Anye, Buchguhane, Mar, Mernis, Fife, 
and Angus ; with the Lochis, Fludis, Abbai/is, Tounis, and uthir 
notable thingis thairqf. 

Archeand wdth Murray, lyis Boene and Anye ; twa 
plentuus regionis in store of bestiall, Hand, with ample 
and roume boundis, to the seis. Thir regionis ar full of 
scheip and nolt, for the sindry lesuris and woddis in the 
samul ; and throw the middis thairof rinnis the watter of Dovern. 
In the mouth of this watter standis the toun of Bamf. Under thir 
two regionis afore namit, lyis Buchquhane, ane proffi table land for 
scheip ; for it passis all cuntreis, hand about it, in riches of quhit 
and dehgat wolL Mony watteris ar in Buchquhane ; all full of sal- 
mond, except Rattra, in quhilkis ar nane. In Buchquhane is the 
castell of Slanis, the Constabhs hous, of Scotland : beside quhilk is 
ane mervellus cove ; for the watter that droppis in it, growis, with- 
in schort time, in maner of ane hard quhit stane ; and, wer nocht 
the cove is oft temit, it wald be filht sone with stanis. Na rattonis 
ar sene in this cuntre ; and, als sone as thay ar brocht thair, thay de. 
In Buchquhane growis aitis but ony tilth or seid. Quhen die peple 
passis with set purpos to scheir thir aitis, thay find nocht but tume 
hulhs ; yit quhen thay pas but ony premiditatioun, thay find thir 
aitis ful and weil ripit. Thir thingis cumis nocht be nature, but erar 
be illusioun of devillis, to the dissait of blind and supersticius pepill. 
Under Buchquhane lyis Mar ; ane plentuus region in store of bes- 
stiall, Lx mills in lenth and breid, fra the Almane seis to Badyenoch. 
In it is the ciete of Abirdene, the bischoppis seit ; with generall Uni- 
versite, flurising in all science ; and wes foundit, be the nobill Bischop 
William Elphinstoun, with ane riche and magnificent college. This 
ciete lyis betwix two riche rivers. Done and Dee ; in quhilkis ar 
mair fouth of salmond, than in ony part of Albioun. Maixhand 
with Mar lyis the Mernis, to the see ; ane riche cuntre for store of 


bestiall : in it is Dunnothir, the Marschel of Scotlandis hous. In the 
INIernis is the toun of Fordoun ; quhare the bhssit banis of Sanct 
Paladie restis, in gret veneratioun of peple. On the out-marchis of 
INIernis rinnis the watter of Esk, uthirwayis namit Northesk ; ane 
dangerus watter, quhare mony passingeris perisis for fait of ane brig. 
Bordorand with the Mernis lyis Angus ; quhilk was sum time ane 
part of Horrestia, and is dividit with thre rivers, Northesk, Soutli- 
esk, and Tay. In Angus is ane hie montane, dippand in the Al- 
mane seis, calht the Reid Brayis. Tay risis, far beyond the montanis 
of Granyebene, fra Loch Tay, quhilk is xxiv mills of lenth, and x 
mills of breid ; and discendis, with gret plente of fische, quhill it cum 
in the Almane seis, beside Dunde, the toun quhair Ave wer born ; 
quhair mony virtewus and lauborius pepill ar in, making of claith. 
In Angus ar mony uthir gud townis, as Montroys, Brechin, and 
Forfair ; with sa gret noinner of castellis, that it wer ouir tedius lau- 
bour to writ thaim all. In Angus ar mony lochis, full of fisclie : 
and in it ar mony abbayis ; as Resteneth, of Channons regulare, ef- 
tir the ordour of Augustine ; Aberbrothak, and Coupar : the first, 
of the ordour of Turoncn ; and the nixt, of the ordour of CistuUvS. 
In the vale of Esk is sa quhit and small wol, that it hes na compair 
in Albioun. Beside Tay is Fiffe, sum time ane part of Octolyne. 
In it growls all maner of cornis, with als gret plente as dois in ony 
part of Albioun ; and, quhare na cornis ar, it is richt proffitable in 
store of bestial. In Fiffe ar won blak stanis, quhilk hes sa intolle- 
rable heit, quhen thay ar kendillit, that thay resolve and meltis irne, 
and ar thairfore richt proffitable for operatitm of smithis. This kind 
of blak stanis ar won in na part of Albion, bot allanerlie betwix Tay 
and Tyne. In Fiffb is maid gret plente of quhit salt. In Fiffe ar 
mony noble townis; as Sanct Androis, the archebischopis seit of 
Scotland, Kirkcawde, Disart, Kingorne, Cowpar, and Dunferme- 
ling ; quhare ane riche abbay is decorit Avith generall sepulturis of 
kingis. Mony uthir abbayis ar in Fiffe, dedicat to the Blissit Vir- 
gine ; as Culros, Bawmerinoch, Petmoyg, and PettinAveme. In 
Fiffe ar sindry lochis ; as Loch Torre, LochleA'in. In Lochlevin is 
ane castell, Avith mony ills ; and in ane of thaim is the kirk of Sanct 
Phillane. Fiffe is devidit fra Louthiane be the reveir of Forth, 
quhilk rinnis, Avith ane braid firth, in the Almane seis. This firth 


is richt plentuus of coclis, osteris, miischellis, selch, pellok, nier- 
swine, and quhalis ; with gret plente of quhit fische. Amang iiiony 
uthir ills in this firth is the lie of May, decorit with the bhide and 
martirdome of Sanct Adriane and his fallowis. In the niiddis of 
this lie, springis ane fontane of fresche and purifyit watter outhrow 
ane roche crag ; to the gret admiratioun of peple, considerin it Ivis 
in the middis of the seis. Beside this lie is ane wounderful crag, 
risand within the see, with sa narro and strait hals, that na schij) 
nor l)ait may arrive hot allanerlie at ane part of it. This crag is 
callit the Bas ; unwinnabill be ingine of man. In it ar coves, als 
proffitable for defence of men, as thay wer biggit be crafty industry. 
Every thing that is in that crag is ful of admiration and woimder. 
In it ar incredible noumer of Soland Geis ; nocht unlik to thir fowlis, 
that Plineus callis See Ernis ; and ar sene in na part of Albion, hot 
in this crag and Ailsay. At thair first cumin, quhilk is in the spring 
of the yeir, thay gadder sa gret noumer of treis and stikkis to big 
thair nestis, that the samin micht be sufficient fewell to the keparis 
of the castell, howbeit thay had na uthir provision ; and thocht tb.e 
keparis tak fra thir fowlis thir stikkis and treis, yit thay tak litil in- 
dingnation thairof, bot bringis haistelie agane als mony fra uthir 
placis (pihair thay fle. Thay nuris thair birdis with maist delio-at 
fische; for, thocht thay have ane fische in thair mouth abone the 
seis, quhair thay fle, yit gif thay se ane uthir bettir, thay lat the first 
fal, and doukis, with ane fellon stoure, in the see, and bringis hais- 
telie up the fische that thay last saw ; and thoucht this fische be reft 
fra hir be the keparis of the castell, scho takkis litill indingnation, 
bot fleis incontinent for ane uthir. Thir keparis, of the castell for- 
said, takis the young geis fra thaim with litill impediment; thus 
cumis gret proffet yeirlie to the lord of the said castell. Within the 
bowellis of thir geis, is ane fatnes of singulare medicine ; for it helis 
mony infirmiteis, speciallie sik as cumis be gut and cater disceding 
m the hanches or lethes of men and wemen. In this crag growis 
ane richt delicius herbe; and, quhen it is transportit or plantit in 
ony othir part, it is of litill sapor or gust. In this crag wes sum time 
ane stane, full of ene and hobs, like ane watter spounge, holkit in 
the middis; of sik nature, that all salt watter that is waschin tliair- 
with, becumis incontinent fresche and delicius to the mouth. We 


heir, now, that this stane is in Fast Castell. In ane He of Forth, 
is the abbay of Sanct Colme, of Channons regulare, eftir the ordour 
of Sanct Augustine. Mony othir Ihs ar in this firth, full of cun- 
ningis. Oftimes are sene in this firth uncouth and wounderfull fische, 
with coulis hinging ouir thair hedis, like monkis ; and signifyis ay 
mortalite of men and beistis quhare thay ar sene. 

C^ap^ Cent[i» 

The Discriptioun ofLoutldane, Striveling, Menteith^ Calidone Wod, 
Bowgexcall, Gareotli ; zcith the notable Cietets, Castellis, and Fludis, 

N the south side of Forth lyis Louthiane ; callit, with 
that name, fra Loth, ane of the principall kingis of 
Pichtis. Louthiane is maist plentuus ground of Scot- 
land. In it ar mony abbayis, castellis, and tounis ; as 
Hadingtoun, Dunbar, North Berwik, Leith : bot Edinburgh passis 
thaim all, baith in polese, reparation, wisdome, and riches : and abone 
it is the castell undir the same name, sum time callit The Madin 
Castell, and yit remanis undir the same name. Nocht two mills fra 
Edinburgh is ane fontane, dedicat to Sanct Katrine, quhair sternis 
of oulie springis ithandlie with sic aboundance, that, howbeit the sa^ 
min be gaderit away, it springis incontinent with gret aboundance. 
This fontane rais throw ane drop of Sanct Katrinis oulie, quhilk wes 
brocht out of ]\Iont Sinai, fra hir sepulture, to Sanct Margaret, the 
blissit Quene of Scotland. Als sone as Sanct Margaret saw the oulie 
spring ithandlie, be divine miracle, in the said place, scho gart big 
ane chapell thair, in the honour of Sanct Katherine. This ouhe hes 
ane singulare virtew aganis all maner of cankir and skawis. Nocht 
far fra the mouth of Forth is the castel of Dunbar ; quhilk, be na- 
ture and crafty industre of man, is the strenthiest hous, this day, of 
Albion. Dunbar wes sum time the cheif chemis of the Erlis of 
^larche. Nocht far fra it is ane toun undir the same name, with 


ane magnificent and riche college of Channons, foundit and honora- 

bily dotal be the said Erlis. On the eist side of Louthiane lyis the 

Mers ; the cuntre qvihilk by vis is first discrivit. Under the Mers 

lyis Tevidail ; and abone it lyis T^vedail. Under Twedail lyis Dry- 

isdail, Waulcopdail, Douglasdail, and Clydisdail. All thir dahs beris 

the name of that rever that discendis throw thaim. The principal 1 

toun of Clydisdail is Glasqu, the archebischoppis seit ; quhare ane 

nobill kirk is dotat richelie in the honour of Sanct Muno-ow. and 

biggit with gret magnificence. In Glasqu is ane generall Univer- 

site, and study of all liberall science. In Clydisdail is ane riche 

mine of gold and asure, won but ony laubour : sum times ai- won in 

it, sindry precious stanis of variant hewis. This goldin mine wes 

found in the time of King James the Feird ; quhilk had so mony 

singulare virtewis, diat he had decorit his realme with infinite riches 

be this mine, gif God had fortunit him to have had dayis. Now, be 

sleuth and necligence of uncrafty peple, this mine dois small proffet. 

Fra Glasqu, north, lyis Menteith, and Strivehngschire, marcheand 

with Argyle and Lennox. In Strivehngschire is the toun of Strlvel- 

ing; and abone it standis the castel under the samin name, sum time 

namit the Dolorus Montane. At this toun began the gret wod of 

Calidon. This wod of Calidon ran fra Striveling throw Menteith 

and Stratherne to Atholl and Lochquhabir; as Ptolome writtis, in 

his first table. In this wod wes sum time quhit bullis, with crisp 

and curland mane, like feirs honis ; and, thoucht thay semit meik 

and tame in the remanent figure of thair body is, thay wer mair Avild 

than ony uthir beistis, and had sic hatrent aganis the societe and 

cumpany of men, that thay come nevir in the woddis nor lesuris 

quhair thay fand ony feit or haind thairof ; and, mony dayis eftir, 

thay eit nocht of the herbis that wer tmchit or handilhtt be men. 

Thir bullis wer sa wild, that thay wer nevir tane but slicht and crafty 

laubour ; and sa impacient, that, eftir thair taking, thay deit for 

importable doloure. Als sone as ony man invadit thir bullis, thay 

ruschit with so terrible preis on him, that thay dang him to the eird ; 

takand na feir of houndis, scharp lancis, nor uthir maist penitrive 

wappinnis. It is said. King Robert Bruce, eftir his coronatioun, 

went to ane hunting in this wod, havand bot ane quiet cumpanie 

with him, and eschapit narowlie of his lief; for ane of the bullis, ef- 


tir that lie wes salr woundit be the huntaris, ruschit feirslie on the 
king, howbeit he had na wapinnis in his hand to debait himself fra 
the dint thairof : Incontinent, ane man of gret spreit, quhilk wes 
standing neir by, lap afore the king ; and nocht allanerlie kest the 
bull be manifest force to the erd, bot held him, quhill the remanent 
liuntaris slew him with thair wappinnis. This man, that rescoursit 
the king, wes callit Turnbull, and wes rewardit with riche landis be 
the king. And thoucht thir bullis wer bred in sindry boundis of 
the Callidon Wod, now, be continewal hunting and lust of insolent 
men, thay ar distroyit in all partis of Scotland, and nane of thaim 
left bot allanerlie in Cumarnald. On the eist side of Menteith lyis 
Strathern ; and marchis on the samin side with Fiffe. Out throw 
the valis of this regioun rinnis the watter of Em, and fallis in Tav. 
And, nocht four mills fra the place quhare Ern fallis in Tay, is ane 
stane of small quantite, howbeit it be of mervellus nature ; for thair 
is nothir preis nor ingine of man that may transport it out of the 
place quhair it lyis : attoure ane man, and ane hundreth, movis it 
elik. On the tothir side of Tay, beyound Angus and Gowrie, lyis 
Stermond ; ane plentuus regioun, baith of gers and cornis. Nocht 
far fra Stermond lyis Athole ; in quhilkis ar mony lusty valis, and 
fludis, ful of fische ; and the ground sa riche, that it beris cornis but 
ony lauboure. In it is ane toun namit Lud ; of quhilk the land is 
sa plentuus, that, gif it be weil manurit, it beris gud beir but ony 
seid. -fn Athole ar uthir landis, of mair contrarius nature; the 
quheit that is sawin in it degeneris, and turnis in ry. Under Buch- 
cjuhane and Boene, to the west, lyis Bostgewell, and Gareoth ; richt 
plentuus regionis, baith in gres and cornis. In Gareoth is ane hill 
namit Doundore, that is to say, the Goldin Montane. The scheip 
that gangis on this montane ar yallo ; thair teeth ar hewit like gold ; 
thair flesche reid, as it wer littit with safron ; thair woll is on the same 
maner. In this regioun is ane carnell of stanis, hand togidder, in 
maner of ane croun ; and ringis, quhen thay ar doung, as ane bell. 
Ane temple wes biggit, as sum men belevis, in the said place, quhare 
mony auld ritis and superstitionis wer maid to evill spretis. Mony 
uthir regionis ar in Scotland ; as Bradalbane, Strabraun, and Bad- 
yenoth, with sindry uthir small landis and fludis ; howebeit thay ar 
nocht sa notable as thir landis that we have schawin. 


Cfiap* (2Bletientfi» 

Of the gret plente of H arts, Hartis, and uthir mid Bestiall in Scot- 
land. Of the mervelliis nature of sindry Scottis Doggis ; and. 
Of the nature of S almond. 

EcAUS we have discrivit all regionis of Scotland in spe- 
ciall, we will schaw sum thing concerning thaim in ge- 
neral. And, first, we say, that in all boundis of Scot- 
land, except thay partis quhair continewall habitatioun 
of pepie makis impediment thairto, is gret plente of haris, hartis, 
hindis, dayis, rais, wolffis, wild hors, and toddis. Thir wild hors ar 
not tane but crafty shcht : for, in time of winter, the landwart peple 
puttis certane tame cursouris and meris amang thir wild hors ; and, 
be thair commixtioun and frequent cumpanie, makis thaim so tame, 
that thay may be handillit. The wolffis ar richt noisum to the tame 
bestiall, in all partis of Scotland, except ane part thairof namit Glen- 
mores, in quhilk the tame bestiall gettis litill dammage of wild bes- 
tiall, specialie of toddis ; for ilk hous of this cuntre, nurisis ane young 
tod certane dayis, and mengis the flesche thairof, eftir that it be slane, 
with sic meit as thay gif to thair fowhs, or uthir smal beistis ; and 
sa mony as etis of this meit ar preservit twa monethis eftir fra ony 
dammage of toddis : for toddis will eit na flesche that gustis of thair 
a\vin kind; and, be thair bot ane beist or fowU that hes nocht gustit 
of this meit, the tod will cheis it out amang ane thousand. In Scot- 
land ar doggis of mervellus nature : for abone the commoun nature 
and conditioun of doggis, quhilkis ar sene in all partis, ar thre ma- 
ner of doggis in Scotland, quhilk ar sene in na uthir partis of the 
warld. The first is ane hound, baith wicht, hardy, and swift. Thir 
houndis ar nocht allanerlie feirs and cruell on all wild beistis, bot on 
thevis and ennimes to thair maister, on the same maner. The se- 
cound kind is ane rache, that sekis thair pray, baith of fowlis, beistis, 
and fische, be sent and smell of thair neis. The thrid kind is na 

VOL. I. F 


mair than ony rache ; reid hewit, or ellis blak, with small spraingis 
of spottis ; and ar callit be the peple, Sleuthoundis. Thir doggis lies 
sa mervellus wit, that thay serche thevis, and followis on thaim al- 
lanerlie be sent of the guddis that ar tane away ; and nocht allaner- 
lie findis the theif, bot invadis him with gret cruelte : and, thoucht 
the thevis oftimes cors the watter, quhah' thay pas, to cans the hound 
to tine the sent of thaim and the guddis, yit he serchis heir and thair 
with sic deligence, that, be his fut, he findis baith the trace of the 
theif and the guddis. The mervellus nature of thir houndis wil have 
na faith with uncouth peple ; howbeit the samin ar richt frequent 
and rife on the bordouris of Ingland and Scotland : attour it is sta- 
tute, be the lawis of the Bordouris, he that denyis entres to the 
sleuthound, in time of chace and serching of guddis, sal be haldin 
participant with the crime and thift committit. Of fowlis, sic as 
leiffis of reif, ar sindry kindis in Scotland ; as ernis, falconis, gois- 
halkis, sparhalkis, marlyonis, and sik like fowlis. Of watter fowlis 
is sa gret noumer, that it is wonder to heir. Mony uthir fowlis ar 
in Scotland, quhilkis ar sene in na uthir partis of the warld ; as ca- 
percailye, ane foul mair than ane ravin, quhilk leiffis allanerlie of 
barkis of treis. In Scotland ar mony mure cokis and hennis, quhilk 
etis nocht bot seid, or croppis of liadder. Sic like ar gret noumer 
of blak cokis and hennis, nocht unlike to ane fasiane, baith in quan- 
tite and sapoure of thair flesche ; bot thay have blak fedderis and 
reid ee-breis. And beside thir thre uncouth kind of fowlis, is ane 
uthir kind of fowlis in the Mers, mair uncouth, namit gustardis, als 
mekle as ane swan ; bot in the colour of thair fedderis, and gust of 
thair flesche, thay ar litil different fra ane pertrik. Thir last fowlis 
ar not frequent, bot in few noumer ; and sa far haitis the cumpany 
of man, that gif thay find thair eggis aindit or twichit be men, thay 
leif thaim, and layis eggis in ane othir place. Thay lay thair eggis in 
the bair erd. All othii* kind of fowlis ar in Scotland, on the same 
maner as thay ar in ony othir realmes. Of fische is mair plente in 
Scotland, speciallie of salmond, than is in ony uthir partis of the 
warld. And, becaus the procreation and nature of salmond is un- 
couth and strange, we have inserit the maner thairof in this buke. 
Thir salmond, in the time of hervist, cumis up throw the smal wat- 
teris, speciallie quhare the watter is maist schauld and loun, and 


spawnis, with thair wamis plet to uthir. The hie fische spawnis his 
meltis, and the scho fische hir rounis, and incontinent coveris thaini 
ouir with sand in the reveir ; and, eftir thair spawning, thay grow 
sa lene and small, that na thing apperis on thaim hot skin and bane ; 
and hes sa warsche gust, that thay ar unprofRtable to eit. Sum men 
sayis, all othir salmond that metis thaim eftir thair spawning growis 
lene on the same maner as thay ar ; for sindry of thaim ar found 
lene on the ta side, and fat on the tothir. Forthir, of thu- rounis 
and meltis, quhilkis ar hid, as said is, under the sandis, growis, at 
the spring of the nixt yen-, small tender fische, na gretar thaji ane 
mannis thoume ; and, gif thay be handillit, thay melt away like ane 
blob of watter. Alwayis, at the first streme of watter that risis, thay 
discend to the see ; and, within xx dayis eftir, thay grow in mer- 
vellus quantite, and, with maist fervent desire and appetite, returnis 
to the samin placis quhair thay wer generit. Forthir, becaus mony 
of the watteris of Scotland ar full of linnis, als sone as thir salmond 
cumis to the lin, thay leip ; and sa mony as ar wicht, or lepis weil, 
thay get up throw the Un, and returnis to the place quhair thay wer 
bred, and abidis thair quhil the season cum of thair generatioun. 
Utheris, quhilkis lepis nocht cleirlie ouir the lin, brekis thaimself be 
thair fall, and growis mesall. Utheris ar keppit in cawdrounis ; for 
the landwart peple settis oftimes cawdrounis, playand with hait wat- 
ter, at the cheik of the lin. Thus, quhen the salmondis failhs thair 
loup, thay fall callour in the said caldrounis, and ar than maist de- 
litius to the mouth. It is defendit be our lawis, ta sla ony salmond 
fra the viii day of September, to the xv day of Novembre. Na man 
knawis quhair on thu' fische leiffis ; for na thing is found in thair 
wambe, quhen thay ar oppinnit, bot ane thik grosse humour. 


Of the sindry Mndis of MussiUis and Codes in Scotland. Of the 
Perils that ar gotthi in thame. Of sindry uncouth and strange 
Fische. Of the nature of H adder. 

Ow we will schaw the nature of mussillis and coclis, of 
quhilkis mony kindis ar amang us. Sum ar small, with 
the meit thairof richt delieius to the mouth : utheris ar 
mair, nocht unlike, in forme and quantite, to the samin 
mussillis that lies the purpure; and, howbeit thay have na thing 
thairof, thay ar yit richt delieius to the mouth : utheris ar lang and 
greter, callit Hors MussiUis, and ar gottin in sindry reveris, specialie 
in De and Done ; and in thir mussillis ar generit the perUs. Thir 
mussillis, airlie in the morning, quhen the lift is cleir and temperat, 
opnis thair mouthis a litill abone the watter, and maist gredelie 
swellis the dew of the hevin ; and, eftir the mesure and quantite of 
tlie dew that thay swellie, thay consave and bredis the perle. Thir 
mussillis ar sa doyn gleg of twiche and hering, that howbeit the voce 
l)e nevir so small that is maid on the bra beside thaim, or the stane 
be nevir sa small that is cassin in the watter, thay douk haistelie at 
anis, and gangis to the ground, knawing weill in quhat estimatioun 
and price the frute of thair wambe is to al peple. Als sone as the 
fischaris findis thir mussillis, thay thrist thaim fast togidder. The 
maner of thair taking followis : First, four or five personis passis in 
the rever togidder, and standis in maner of ane round cirkill within 
the watter to thair schulderis. Ilk ane of thaim hes ane staffe in 
ihair hand, that thay sail nocht slide ; and sine thay luke and viseis 
throwe the cleir and purifyit watter, quhill thay se the mussillis ; and, 
becaus thay may nocht tak thaim up with thair handis, thay cleik 
thaim up with thair tayis, and slingis thaim to the nixt brayis. The 
perils that ar gottin in Scotland ar nocht of littill valoure ; for thay 
hav-e ane cleir schinand quhitnes, round and licht ; and sum times 
ar als mekle as the naill of ane mannis fingar : of quhilkis we have 


had part. It wes schawin to us, be thaim that come fra Sanct James, 
that thair is siclike miissillis in Spanye ; bot thay have na perle, for 
thay leif in salt watter. In all the see-costis of Scotland ar coclis and 
mussillis on the same maner ; thoucht tha be mair proffitable to the 
mouth, than ony procreatioun of perils. Mony uncouth forme and 
figuris of fische ar in Scotland : sum of thaim armit with schellis ; 
sum ^vith hard skalis ; and sum of thaim ar round as ane ball, bakkit 
like ane hurcheon, havand bot ane conduct baith to purge thair 
wambe and ressave thair meit. To schaw every kind of fische that 
is in Scotland, it wer bot ane faschious and vane lauboure ; for the 
samin ar kna^^^n to al cuntreis. Of al othir kindis of fische is sa 
gret plente throw all partis of our seis, that, howbeit infinit noumer 
of thaim wer tane away on the ta day, na thing thairof sal be mist on 
the morow. Attoure ane thing is, that cumis not but singulare pro- 
vidence of God ; for ay the mair derth and penurite of vittallis is in 
Scotland, the fische swoumis with the more abundance and plente. 
Attoure in all the desertis and muris of this realme growis ane herbe, 
namit hadder, but ony seid, richt nutritive baith to beistis and fowlis ; 
specialie to beis. This herbe, in the moneth of July, hes ane floure 
of purpure hew, als sweit as huny. The Pichtis maid of this herbe, 
sum time, ane richt delicius and hailsum drink. Nochtheless, the 
maner of the making of it is perist, be exterminioun of the said 
Pichtis out of Scotland ; for thay schew nevir the craft of the mak- 
ing of this drink bot to thair awin blud. Attoure thair is na part 
of Scotland sa unproffitable, bot it producis othir irne, or ellis sum 
othir proffitable kind of metal ; as may be notabilly provin throw all 
the His of Scotland. 


The Dlscriptioun of the His of Scotland ; and of the maist notabill 
thin ff is thairof. 

En we ar now falling in commoning of the His, we will 
disci'ive the same, in maner and forme as followis. For- 
nens Scotland, to the Ireland seis, lyis xliii His; of 
quhilkis sum ar xxx milis lang, utheris xii mills, utheris 
mair, and utheris les. Thir His wer callit be sum auctouris, Ebonie ; 
and be utheris ar callit Hebredes. The principall He is the He of 
Man, quhilk lyis fornens Galloway, and wes sum time the principall 
seit of the preistis namit Driades ; as Cornelius Tacitus, Cesar, in 
his Commentaris, and mony othir Romane auctouris testifyis. North 
fra the He of Man lyis Arrane, uthirwayis namit Botha. This se- 
cound name wes gevin to it be Sanct Brandane ; for he biggit sum 
time ane hous in it, namit Both. Fra Arrane lyis Helaw, and 
Rothesay, namit fra the first Scot that brocht the Scottis out of Ire- 
land in Albioun. Nocht far fra thir His is Ailsay ; quhair siclik 
plente of soland geis is, as we schew afore in the Bas. Fra Ailsay 
lyis mony uthir His, devidit and severit be thair aAvin names, full of 
minis ; sik as irne, tin, leid, and uthir metallis : Yit the maist no- 
table He of Scotland is Ha, quhilk lyis, beyound the toung of Lome, 
in the sicht of Lochquhabir ; ane riche cuntre, xxx milis of lenth, 
richt plentuus of corne, and full of metallis, gif thair wer ony craf- 
ty and industrius peple to win the samin. Nocht far fra Ha lyis 
C umbra, and Mula, als mekill as Ha, baith in lenth and breid. In 
this He of Mula is ane cleir fontane, two milis fra the see : fra this 
fontane discendis ane litil burne, or strip, rinnand ful of rounis to 
the seis. Thir rounis ar round and quhit, schinand like perle, full 
of tliik humour ; and, within two houris eftir that thay come to see, 
thay grow in gret codes. Schort gait fra thir His is lona, othir- 
wayis namit Colmekill ; in quhilk is ane abbay, full of devot religius 
men. This abbay wes the commoun sepulture of all Scottis kingis, 


fra the time of King Fergus the Secound, to the time of King Mal- 
cohne Canmore, quhilk biggit the abbay of Dunfermling ; quhair 
the maist part of our kingis lyis, sen the fundatioun thairof. Pass- 
and forthwart to the north-nor-west seis, fornens Ros, is ane He 
namit Lewis, lx mihs of lenth. In this He is bot ane reveir. It is 
said, gif ony woman waid throw this watter at the spring of the yeir, 
thair sail na salmond be sene for that yeir in the said watter : other- 
wayis, it sail abound in gret plente. Beyound the Lewis lyis two 
His, namit Sky and Rona. In this last He is incredible noumer of 
selch, pellok, and meirswine, na thing astonist for the sicht of men. 
The last and outmaist He is namit Hirtha; quhare the elevatioun of 
the pole is lxiii greis. And, sen the elevatioun of the pole abone 
the He of Man is lvii greis, ilk gre extending to lxii mUis and ane 
half in distance, as Ptolome and uthir astronomeris nowmeris, I con- 
clude, that fra the He of Man, the first He of Albion, to Hirtha, the 
last He thairof, ar ccclxxvii mills. This last He is namit Hirtha, 
quhilk, in Irsche, is callit ane scheip ; for in this He is gret nowmer 
of scheip, ilk ane gretar than ony gait buk, with hornis lang and 
thikkar than ony home of ane bewgill, and hes lang talis hingand 
down to the erd. This He is circulit on every side with roche crao-ffis ; 
and na baitis may land at it bot allanerly at ane place, in quhilk is 
ane strait and narow entres. Sum time thair micht na pepill pas to 
this He but extreme dangeir of thair livis ; and yit thair is na pas- 
sage to it bot quhen the seis ar cawme but ony tempest. In the 
moneth of Juny, ane preist cumis out of the Lewis in ane bait to this 
He, and ministeris the sacrament of baptisme to all the barnis that 
hes bene borne in the yeir afore. Als sone as this preist hes done 
his office, with certane messis, he ressavis the tindis of all thair com- 
moditeis, and returnis hame the same gait he come. In the He of 
Lewis ai* two kirkis ; ane dedicat to Sanct Peter, and the tother de- 
dicat to Sanct Clement. The fame is, als sone as the fire gangis 
furth in this He, the man that is haldin of maist clene and innocent 
life layis ane wosp of stra on the alter; and, when the pepill are 
gevin maist devotly to thair praers, the wosp kindellis in ane bleis. 
Beyound thir Ihs is pt ane uthir He, bot it is not inhabit with ony 
pepill. In it ar certane beistis, nocht far different fra the figure of 
schiep, sa wild that thay can nocht be tane but gu'nis : the hair of 


thaim is lang and tattie, nothir like the woll of scheip nor gait. Be- 
twix thir His is oftinies richt dangerus passage : for the see, be con- 
trariiis stremes, makis coUision ; sum times yettand out the tid, and 
sum times swelleand and soukand it in agane, with sa forcy violence, 
that quhen the schippis ar saland throw thir dangerus veilis, oftimes 
tliay ar othir drownit, or ellis brokin on craggis. The gretest vele 
heirof is namit Corbrek ; for it v-ill othir sink, or ellis draw ane schip 
to it, howbeit it be distant thairfra ane mile. 

Cljap* jToiitteentD* 

Of the nature qfClaik Geis, and of the s'lndry maner of thair pro- 
creation ; and, Of the lie of Thide. 

EsTis now to speik of the geis generit of the see, namit 
Clakis. Sum men belevis, that thir clakis growis on 
treis be the nebbis ; bot thair opinioun is vane. And, be- 
caus the nature and procreatioun of thir clakis is strange, 
wf ha\ e maid na litill lauboure and deligence to serche the treuth 
and verite thau'of. We have salit throw the seis quhare thir clakis 
ar bred ; aixl findis, be gret experience, that the nature of the seis 
is mair relevant cans of thair procreatioun than ony uthir thing. 
And howbeit thir geis ar bred mony sindry wayis, thay ar bred ay 
allanerly be nature of the seis : for all treis that ar cassin in the seis, 
be proces of time apperis first worme-etin, and in the small boris and 
hollis thairof growis small wormis : first, thay schaw thair heid and 
feit, and last of all thay schaw thair plumis and wingis ; finaly, quhen 
thay ar cumin to the just mesure and quantite of geis, thay fle in 
the aire as othir fowlis dois : as was notably provin, in the yeir of 
God M.cccc.xc, in sicht of mony pepill, beside the castell of Petsle- 
go. Ane gret tre was brocht, be alluvion and flux of the see, to land. 
This wonderfull tre was brocht to the Lard of the ground, quhilk 
sone efter gart devide it be ane saw, Apperit than ane multitude of 
wormis thrawing thaim self out of sindry hollis and boris of this tre. 


Sum of thaim war rude, as thay war bot new schapin ; sum had baith 
held, feit, and wingis, bot thay had na fedderis ; sum of thaim war 
perfit schapin fowlis. At last the pepill, havand ilk day this tre in 
niair admiration, brocht it to the kirk of Sanct Androis, beside the 
town of Tyre, quhare it remanis yit to our dayis. And, within tM'o 
yeris efter, hapnit sic ane lik tre to cum in the firth of Tay, beside 
Dunde, worme-etin and hollit, full of young geis in the samin ma- 
ner. Siclike, in the port of Leith, beside Edinburgh, within few 
yeris efter, hapnit sic ane like cais. Ane schip, namit the Cristofir, 
efter that scho had lyin in yeris at ane ankir in ane of thir His, wes 
brocht to Leith ; and becaus hir timmer, as apperit, failyeit, scho 
was brokin down : incontinent apperit, as afore, al the inwart partis 
of hir worme-etin, and all the hollis thau'of full of geis, on the samin 
maner as we have schawin. Attoure, gif ony man wald allege, be 
vane argument, that this Cristofir was maid of sic treis as grew al- 
lanerly in the His, and that all the rutis and treis that growis in the 
said His, ar of that nature to be finaly, be nature of the seis, resolvit 
in geis ; we preif the cuntre thairof be ane notable example, schawin 
afore our ene. Maister Alexander Galloway, Person of Kinkell, 
was with us in thir His, gevand his mind, with maist ernist besines, 
to serche the verite of thir obscure and misty dowtis ; and, be adven- 
ture, liftet up ane see-tangle, hingand full of mussill schellis fra the 
rute to the branchis. Sone efter, he opnit ane of thir mussill schellis : 
bot than he was mair astonist than afore ; for he saw na fische in it, 
bot ane perfit schapin foule, smal and gret ay effering to the quan- 
tite of the schell. This Clerk, knawin us richt desirus of sic uncouth 
thingis, come haistely with the said tangle, and opnit it to us, with 
all circumstance afore rehersit. Be thir, and mony othir reasonis 
and exampHs, we can not beleif that thir clakis ar producit be ony 
nature of treis or rutis thairof, bot allanerly be the nature of the 
occeane see, quhilk is the caus and production of mony wonderful 
thingis. And becaus the rude and ignorant pepil saw oftimes the 
frutis that fel of the treis, quhilkis stude neir the see, convertit with- 
in schort time in geis, thay belevit that thir geis grew apon the treis, 
hingand be thair nebbis, siclik as appillis and uthir frutis hingis be 
thair stalkis. Bot thair opinioun is nocht to be sustenit ; for, als sone 

VOL. I. G 


as thir appillis or frutis fallis of the tre in the see flude, thay grow 
first worme-etin, and, be schort proces of time, ar akerat in geis. 

Now we have schawin sufficienthe ineuch of the Ihs of Scotland, gif 
we had schawin ane thing ; that is to say, nocht allanerhe wes the lie 
of Thule, with all the remanent His of Scotland sene by us, bot als 
wer sene be mony Romane auctouris : for Cornelius Tacitus sayis, 
the Romane navy, quhilk wes send about the His be command of 
Julius Agricola, saw this He of Thule, with the remanent Ihs hand 
thairabout. And thoucht Ptolome writtis, that the He of Thule lyis 
amang the His of Scotland, yit his writing, be provin experience, 
may have na faith : for Thule is mony milis distant fra Schetland; 
for Schetland lyis beyound Orknay, approechand to Noroway. Sum 
auctouris sayis, that Thule is the samin He that we call Island : for 
thir auctouris sayis, that Thule is the last He of the occeane see ; 
and sa is Island ; quhilk lyis in the cauld and frosty seis beyound 
the cirkill artik to the north pole. The peple of Island, becaus na 
cornis growis in it, leiffis allanerhe of fische. Thay bray dry fische 
als small as meil, and baikis thaira Avith watter at the fire, and usis 
it in maner of breid. 

The Discriptioun of Orhnay, Schetland, with sindry uthir small His; 
and of the maneris and condltionis of the Peple thairof. 

Eyound all the His of Scotland lyis Orknay ; sum part 
to the north-nor-west seis, and sum part to the Almane 
seis. The principall He of Orknay is Pomonia, the 
bischoppis seit, in quhilk ar two strong castellis. In 
Orknay growis na quheit ; and it is nakit of wod : all othir cornis 
growis in it with gret plente Orknay hes na vennomus beistis, more 
than Ireland ; na beist, ennime to the nature of man, may leif in 
Orknay. And sen we ar now fallin in speking of Ireland, howbeit 
it pertenis na thing to the purpos we tuke on hand, we will schaw 
ane wonder thairof, quhilk passis all wonderis that evir we red 










afore in ony othir bukis. In Ireland is ane loch, and about the sa- 
min, be mony mills, growls nothir herbe nor tre. And, gif ony tre 
be affixit and set doun in this loch, within the space of ane yeir eftir, 
this tre alteris : for sa mekle of it as is hid within the erd, turnis in 
ane hard stane ; it that is hid in the watter, turnis in irne ; and sa 
mekle as is abone the watter, kepis the nature of the tre : and so the 
tre, stane, and irne, ar junit togidder under ane stok. Bot we wiU 
returne to Orknay, to schaw litill les wonderis of it. And, first, 
howbeit the pepill be gevin to excessive drinkin, and, be plente of 
beir, makis the starkest ail of Albioun, yit nane of thaim ar sene 
wod, daft, or drunkin : als thay come haill and feir in thair bodyis 
to extreme age, but ony use of medcinary, with Strang and fair bo- 
dyis. The yowls of this cuntre hes ay two lammis, or ellis thre, at 
anis ; and of wild foull and tame, is mair fouth in Orknay than in 
ony part of Albioun. Thair hors ar litill mair than asinis ; bot thay 
may indure mair labour than ony othir hors. To speik of fische, 
thair is mair aboundance thairof than ony uncouth peple may be- 
leif. In Orknay is ane gret fische, mair than ony hors, of mervellus 
and incredible sleip. This fische, quhen scho beginnis to sleip, fesnis 
hir teith fast on ane crag abone the watter. Als sone as the mari- 
neris findis hir on sleip, thay cum with ane stark cabill in ane boit ; 
and, eftir that thay have borit ane gret hole throw hir tale, thay 
fesne hir be the samin. Als sone as this fische is awalknit, scho makis 
hir to leip with gret force in the see ; and, fra scho find hirself fast, 
scho writhis hir out of hir awin skin, and dels. Of the fatnes that 
scho hes, is maid oulie in gret quantite ; and of hir skin, becaus it 
induris lang, is maid strong cabellis. Ane hundreth mills beyound 
Orknay lyis Schetland ; of quhilk the riches standis onlie in fische, 
dryit be son. Mony hidis and skinnls of oxin, scheip, gait, and 
martrikis, dryit with the sonne, cumis out of this cuntre in Scotland ; 
and, on the same maner, the marchandis of Holland, Zeland, and 
Almanie, cumis yeirlie to Schetland, to interchange uthir marchan- 
dyis with the peple thairof; quhilkis ar of the same nature and con- 
ditionis as the peple is of Orknay. Beyound Schetland ar mony 
His, quhilkis leiffis on the same maner as it dois. And, thoucht the 
peple of thir Islis be pure, yit thay leif langer, and ar better content 
of thair livis, than thay that hes mair welth and riches of the warld. 


Na contentioun is amang thaim for singulare proffet. Ilk man pro- 
vidis for sa mekle fische, in the simer, as may sustene his hous agane 
the winter. Thir peple ar nakit of all ambitioun and vice, and ne- 
vir trublit -with uncouth weris. Amang all pleseiris, quhilkis ar 
josit be mankind, thay think na thing sa gud, as to leif in concord 
and peace, havand ane quiet life but ony uthir displeseir. This per- 
fection of life cumis to thaim onlie throw thair simplicite ; and fol- 
lowis, be the samin, the futsteppis of Crist. Ilk yeir, anis cumis to 
thaim ane preist out of Orknay, and ministris to thaim the sacra- 
ment of baptisme ; and, eftir that he haif done his devore, he res- 
savis his teindis justlie, and returnis, the samin gait he come, to 
Orknay. Forthir, glf ony giftis of nature may be noumerit amang 
wardly guddis, I say thir His hes may feliciteis and guddis than ony 
uthir cuntreis : for the peple thairof ar fair, lusty, and strong of 
l)ody ; dotat with mony giftis of nature ; and hes gud heill of body, 
quhilk may be preferrit to all riches, as weil knawis thir men that 
hes experience of lang infirmiteis. Forthir, gif the peple be m^ist 
riche, that standis sa content with thair awin guddis, that thay ^-• 
vet na utheris, I say thir peple ar als happy as ony uthir peple of 
the warld. Forthir, gif ony man wald say thir thingis that I writ 
ar vane, considrin I wes nevir in thir Ihs ; I say, I wes weil informit 
of thame be ane noble man, Edward, sum time Bischop of Orknay : 
for to this Bischop come ane man out of thir IHs, and nocht alla- 
nerlie schew thir thingis, with all circumstance afore rehersit, bot als 
verifyit thaim be himself ; for he passit the commoun stature of men, 
and sa wicht, that na man durst contend nor wersle with him ; and 
he wes fairer of vis-ige and hide, than wes ony lady of the warld. 
Be thir reasonis apperis, that the auctorite of thay auctouris is na 
worth, that sayis, all peple far fra the sonne ar harbour and miser- 
able ; for thair is na happiar creaturis in the warld than thir peple 
of thir landis forsaid. Amang the rochis and craggis of thir His 
growis ane maner of electuar and goum, hewit like gold, and sa at- 
tractive of nature, that it drawis stra, flox, or hemmis of claithis to 
it, on the samin maner as dois ane adamont stane. This goume is 
generat of see froith, quhilk is cassin up be continewal repercussion 
of craggis aganis the see wallis ; and, throw ithand motioun of the 
see, it growis als teuch as glew, ay mair and mair ; quhill, at last, it 


fallis doun of the crag in the see. It is said, be thaim that hes ex- 
perience thairof, that this goum, quhen it lyis on the crag, is like 
ane froith and blob of watter ; becaus it is nocht than sufficientlie 
wrocht be motioun of the see. Oftimes the see tangle is found in- 
volvit with this goume ; becaus it is doung heir and thair sa mony 
wayis be alluvion of watter, and, sa lang as it fletis, it is sone invol- 
vit with ony thing that it metis. Twa yeir afore the cumin of this 
buke to licht, arrivit ane gret lomp of this goum in Buchquhane, 
als mekle as ane hors ; and wes brocht hame be the hirdis, quhilkis 
wer kepand thair beistis, to thair housis, and cassin in the fire. And, 
becaus thay fand ane smelland odour thairwith, thay schew to thair 
maister, that it wes ganand for the sens that is maid in the kirkis. 
Thair maister wes ane rud man as thay wer ; and tuke bot ane litill 
part thairof, and left the remanent behind him, as mater of litill ef- 
fect. All the partis of this goum, quhen it wes brokin, wes of the 
hew of gold, and schane like the licht of ane candill. The maist 
part of this goimi and electuare wes distroyit be rud peple, afore it 
come to ony wise mannis eris ; of quhome may be verifyit the pro- 
verb. The sow curis na balme. Als sone as I wes advertist thairof, 
I maid sic dihgence, that ane part of it wes brocht to me at Abir- 
dene. Thir ar the maist notable thingis that we culd find concern- 
ing the His of Albioun, Orknay, and Schetland. 

Thus, it wer neidfull to put ane end to our Cosmographie, wer 
nocht ane uncouth and wounderfuU historic taris a litill our pen. 
Maister James Ogilby, with uthir noble men, wes send as ambassa- 
touris fra the maist noble prince King James the Feird to the King 
of France ; and, be tempest of see, thay wer constranit to land in 
Norroway, quhare thay saw, nocht far fra thaim, mony wild men, 
nakit and roch, on the same maner as thay ar paintit : and, at last, 
thay gat advertising be landwart peple, that thay wer doum beistis, 
under the figure of men. In time of nicht, thay usit to cum in gret 
cumpanyis to landwart villagis ; and, quhair thay find na doggis, 
thay brek up durris, and slayis al the peple that thay find thairin- 
till. Als sone as thay heir the nois of doggis, thay evanis, and dar 
nocht abide. Thay ar of sa huge strenth, that sum times thay pull 
up treis be the rutis, and fechtis thairwith amang thaim self. The 
ambassatouris wer astonist be thir monstouris, and maid stark waches, 


Na contentioun is amang thaim for singulare profFet. Ilk man pro- 
vidis for sa mekle fische, in the simer, as may sustene his hoils agane 
the winter. Thir peple ar nakit of all ambitioun and vice, and ne- 
vir trublit vriih uncouth weris. Amang all pleseiris, quhilkis ar 
josit be mankind, thay think na thing sa gud, as to leif in concord 
and peace, havand ane quiet life but ony uthir displeseir. This per- 
fection of life cumis to thaim onlie throw thair simplicite ; and fol- 
lowis, be the samin, the futsteppis of Crist. Ilk yeir, anis cumis to 
thaim ane preist out of Orknay, and ministris to thaim the sacra- 
ment of baptisme ; and, eftir that he haif done his devore, he res- 
savis his teindis justlie, and returnis, the samin gait he come, to 
Orknay. Forthir, gif ony giftis of nature may be noumerit amang 
wardly guddis, I say thir Ihs hes may fehciteis and guddis than ony 
uthir cuntreis : for the peple thairof ar fair, lusty, and strong of 
l)ody ; dotat with mony giftis of nature ; and hes gud heill of body, 
quhilk may be preferrit to all riches, as weil knawis thir men that 
hes experience of lang infirmiteis. Forthir, gif the peple be m^ist 
riche, that standis sa content with thair awin guddis, that thay ^- 
vet na utheris, I say thir peple ar als happy as ony uthir peple of 
the warld. Forthir, gif ony man wald say thir thingis that I writ 
ar vane, considrin I wes nevir in thir Ihs ; I say, I wes weil informit 
of thame be ane noble man, Edward, sum time Bischop of Orknay : 
for to this Bischop come ane man out of thir Ihs, and nocht alla- 
nerlie schew thir thingis, with all circumstance afore rehersit, bot als 
verifyit thaim be himself ; for he passit the commoun stature of men, 
and sa wicht, that na man durst contend nor wersle with him ; and 
he wes fairer of vis-ige and hide, than wes ony lady of the warld. 
Be thir reasonis apperis, that the auctorite of thay auctouris is na 
worth, that say is, all peple far fra the sonne ar harbour and miser- 
able ; for thair is na happiar creaturis in the warld than tliir peple 
of thir landis forsaid. Amang the rochis and craggis of thir His 
growis ane maner of electuar and goum, hewit like gold, and sa at- 
tractive of nature, that it drawis stra, flox, or hemmis of claithis to 
it, on the samin maner as dois ane adamont stane. This goume is 
generat of see froith, quhilk is cassin up be continewal repercussion 
of craggis aganis the see wallis ; and, throw ithand motioun of the 
see, it growis als teuch as glew, ay mair and mair ; quhill, at last, it 


fallis doun of the crag in the see. It is said, be thaim that hes ex- 
perience thairof, that this goum, quhen it lyis on the crag, is like 
ane froith and blob of watter ; becaus it is nocht than sufficientlie 
wrocht be motioun of the see. Oftimes the see tangle is found in- 
volvit with this goume ; becaus it is doung heir and thair sa mony 
wayis be alluvion of watter, and, sa lang as it fletis, it is sone invol- 
vit with ony thing that it metis. Twa yeir afore the cumin of this 
buke to licht, arrivit ane gret lomp of this goum in Buchquhane, 
als mekle as ane hors ; and wes brocht hame be the hu'dis, quhilkis 
wer kepand thair beistis, to thair housis, and cassin in the fire. And, 
becaus thay fand ane smelland odour thairwith, thay schew to thair 
maister, that it wes ganand for the sens that is maid in the kirkis, 
Thair maister wes ane rud man as thay wer ; and tuke bot ane litill 
part thairof, and left the remanent behind him, as mater of litill ef- 
fect. All the partis of this goum, quhen it wes brokin, wes of the 
hew of gold, and schane like the licht of ane candill. The maist 
part of this goum and electuare wes distroyit be rUd peple, afore it 
come to ony wise mannis eris ; of quhome may be verifyit the pro- 
verb, The sow curis na balme. Als sone as I wes advertist thairof, 
I maid sic diligence, that ane part of it wes brocht to me at Abir- 
dene. Thir ar the maist notable thingis that we culd find concern- 
ing the His of Albioun, Orknay, and Schetland. 

Thus, it wer neidfull to put ane end to our Cosmographie, wer 
nocht ane uncouth and wounderfull historie taris a litill our pen. 
Maister James Ogilby, with uthir noble men, wes send as ambassa- 
touris fra the maist noble prince King James the Feird to the King 
of France ; and, be tempest of see, thay wer constranit to land in 
Norroway, quhare thay saw, nocht far fra thaim, mony wild men, 
nakit and roch, on the same maner as thay ar paintit : and, at last, 
thay gat advertising be landwart peple, that thay wer doum beistis, 
under the figure of men. In time of nicht, thay usit to cum in gret 
cumpanyis to landwart villagis ; and, quhair thay find na doggis, 
thay brek up durris, and slayis al the peple that thay find thairin- 
till. Als sone as thay heir the nois of doggis, thay evanis, and dar 
nocht abide. Thay ar of sa huge strenth, that sura times thay pull 
up treis be the rutis, and fechtis thairwith amang thaim self. The 
ambassatouris wer astonist be thir monstouris, and maid stark waches. 


with gret firis birnand all nicht ; and, on the morow, thay pullit up 
salis, and departit. Forthir, thir Norrowav men schew to the said 
ambassatouris, that thair wes nocht far fra thaim ane peple that 
swomit all the simer like fische in the see, leiffand ay on fische; and 
in the winter, becaus the watter is cald, thay leif of wild beistis that 
discendis fx-a the montanis ; and sum time bringis thir bestis hame 
to thair covis. 

And sa endis heir the Cosmographie and Discriptioun of Scot- 



rB 1^ 

S il^SSM^ 

Ane prudent doctrine maid be the Auctonre, concerning baiih the 
new Maneris and the auld of Scottis. 

EcAUs sindry nobill men hes desirit me to schaw the 
auld maneris of Scottis, quhilkis ar skatterit in sindry 
partis of this Buke, under ane compendius treit, that it 
may be knawin, how far we, in thir present dayis, ar 
different fra the maneris and leiffing of our auld faderis : and thoucht 
I knaw na thing bettar, bot the schawing thairof will draw me in 
hatrent of sindry gret personagis ; for few ar, that may suffir thair 
vices to be taxit, or thaimself to be repi'evit ; yit, becaus I stand sum 
part under the reverence of thir nobill men forsaid, I have condis- 
cendit, as I may, to thair desiris. For thay allege, it will be prof- 
fitable to the rederis ; speciallie to sik men, that ar nocht gevin ouir 
immoderatlie to thair awin affectioun, nor yit ouir mekill sopit in 
sensuall pleseir ; for sik men may be reducit fra thair errouris. 
And, thairfore, I intend, first, to schaw, quhat maneris hes bene 
amang our eldaris, baith in time of weir and peace ; and be quhat 
ingine, wisdome, and chevelrie, thay have debatit aganis sa mony 
strong ennimes, howbeit thair ennimes come oftimes in this realme 
with maist dangerus incursionis: and, finalie, we will schaw, how 
the notable strenth, vigour, and soverane virtew, failyeit ay the mair 
amang thaim, that thay declinit fra the temperance of thair eldaris : 


quhill, at last, it is cumin to thir dayis, in quhilkis we leif in gret 
tranquillite ; howbeit the samin is mair be benevolence and sleuth 
of our nichtbouris, than ony manlie prowis of our self. Now will I 
schaw, the schortest way I may, how we, in thir present dayis, ar 
drownit in all maner of avarice and lust. Yit I belief, that sic men 
as ar of severe life, following the temperance of thair eldaris, sail 
rejose to heir the honourable maneris of thair eldaris ; utheris, that 
ar of mair brutall and vicius life, seing thair vices taxit with sic dis- 
honour, sail dres thaim plesandlie to revert, fra thair evil and schame- 
full dedis, to better life. First, I suppone, that the thing that I say, 
in repreving the corruppit maneris of the warld now present, be nocht 
takin in repreif of every man; bot allanerlie to sik men that leiffis 
with intemperance: for sik men deservis mair repreif than I may 
gif thaim at this time. And gif ony man findis his bile opnit for 
purgatioun be me, that he hide nocht liis infirmite, bot erar seik the 
best rameid he may, to amend his life. 

Our eldaris, howbeit thay wer richt virtewis baith in weir and 
peace, wer maist exercit with temperance ; for it is the fontane of all 
virtew. Thay wer of temperat sleip, meit, and drink, and sic re- 
fectionis as wer preparit with htill laubour or cost. Thair breid wes 
maid of sic stuf as grew maist esalie on the ground. Thair vitallis 
wer nocht siftit, as we do now, to mak thaim delicius to the mouth ; 
, bot wer all ground togidder under ane forme. The flesche maist 
frequent amang thame, wes othir wild flesche, won on the fellis be 
thair hunting, quhilk maid thaim of incredible strenth ; or ellis it 
wes of thair awin tame bestial, specially beif, as we do yit in our 
dayis: howbeit we ar richt far different fra the use and custome of 
all uthir nationis. The steirkis, quhen thay ar bot young vehs, ax 
othir slane, or ellis libbit to be oxin, to manure the land ; bot the 
quiokis war nevir slane quhill thay wer with calfe, for than thay ar 
fattest, and maist dehcius to the mouth. The common meit of our 
eldaris was fische ; nocht for the plente of it, bot erar becaus thair 
landis lay oftimes waist, throw continewal exercition of chevelry, and 
for that caus thay leiffit maist of fische. Thay disjunit airly in the 
morning with smal refectioun, and sustenit thair liffis thairwith quhil 
the time of sowper ; throw quhilk thair stomok was nevir surfetly 
chargit, to empesche thaim of uthir besines. At the sowper thay 


war niair large ; howbeit thay had bot ane cours. Quhen thay kest 
thaimself to be mery, thay usit maist aqua vite ; nocht maid of cost- 
ly spicis, bot of sic naturall herbis as grew in thair awin yardis. The 
common drink that thay usit was aill ; and, in time of weir, quhen 
thay lay in thair tentis, thay usit nocht bot watter. Ilk man hatl 
als mekill mele as micht suffice him for the day, and maid breid 
thairof at the fire ; on the samin maner as the Romanis did, specialy 
Antonius Caratallus, Empriour. Thay had sendill flesche in thair 
campis, bot gif it war w(m be pray of ennimes. Thay eit, for com- 
mon, flesche half raw ; for the saup is maist nurisand in that maner. 
Attoui'e, thay had ay with thaim ane gret vessell, wrocht full of 
butter, cheis, mele, milk, and vinacre, temperit togidder ; be quhilk 
thay saiffit thair liffis mony dayis fra extreme hungar, soukand the 
jus and humouris thairof, quhen na vittallis, throw incursionis of 
ennimes, micht be found. And, howbeit thay had peace with thair 
ennimes, thay suflf'erit nocht thair bodyis to be corruppit with sleuth ; 
bot wer exercit othir in continewall hunting ; for in that game was 
gret honour amang our eldaris ; or ellis thay had exercition of rin- 
ning, sum times fra the planes to the montanis, and fra the mon- 
tanis to the planis ; or ellis thay war exercit in wirsling, or utliir 
corjiorall exercition. Thay had thair hedis ay cowit, as the Span- 
yeartis usis ; but ony bonet or cover, les than thay war trublit with 
infirmite. Nane of thame, throw ithand cowing of thair hedis, grew 
beld. Thay yeid commonly bairfutit ; and, gif thay had ony schone, 
thay dippit thaim first in the watter or tha,y put thaim on, specialy 
in winter quhen maist schill and persand stormes apperit, that thair 
soUis, quhilkis war hardin with the hetis of the semer and snawis of 
winter, suld be the mair abil to sustene laubour. Thair abulyement 
was not maid be motion of insolence, bot erar efter the general gise 
of the cuntre. Thair hois war maid of smal lint or woll, and yeid 
uevir above thair kne, to make thaim the mair waldin and sowpill. 
The mantillis that thay usit in winter wes maid of gros woll ; and 
in semer wes maid of small and finest woll that thay micht get. Thay 
slepit on benkis, or bonchis of stra, bot ony cover ; and lernit thair 
sonnis, fra thair first yeris, to eschew eis, and to sleip on the samin 
maner. Ilk moder wes nurice to her awin barne. It was ane sus- 
pition of adultre aganis ony woman, quhare hir milk failyeit. The 


wemen thocht thair barnis war not tender nor kindly to thaim, bot 
gif thay war nurist als weill with the milk of thair breist, as thay 
war nurist afore with the blude of thair wambe. Attoure, thay held 
that thair barnis war degenerat fra than' nature and kind, gif thay 
war nurist with uncouth milk. Thay war sa accustomit with ithand 
pine and laubouris, that thay curit nothir the fervent heites of the 
semer, nor yit the schil frostis in the winter. Thay traveht maist 
on thair fute ; and, in the time of weir, thay had thair cariagis and 
vittallis turst with thaim on thair hors : and, quhen dangeir occurrit, 
thay refusit na maner of besines nor laubour that micht pertene to 
forsy campionis. Gif it hapnit thaim, be mischance, to be vincust, 
thay fled with sic spede to the montanis, that na horsmen micht 
ouirtak thaim. The injure done to ony ane of thaim, was repute 
sa common to thaim al, that thay wald nevu* evoid the displeseir 
thairof out of thair hertis, quliill the samin war recompansit with 
the blude of thair ennimes. He that wes maist noble, desirit erest 
to fecht in the wangard, quhare his vassalage and manlieid micht be 
maist knawin. The nobillis and commonis contendit quhay suld be 
maist faithful to othir ; and quhen the capitane, throw his fers spreit 
and hardines, apperit in ony extreme dangeir of ennimes, all the 
band that was of his opinion, ruschit sa fersly to his defence, that 
othir thay dehverit him out of that present dangeir, or ellis all at 
anis lois thair lives with him. The sepulturis of all nobillis war de- 
corit with als mony hie stanis, rising about the same, as he had slane 
afore of ennimes in his life. He that was found in the army but 
flint and furisine, or but his swerd beltit fast to his sidis, was schame- 
fully scurgit ; and he that said his swerd, or laid it to wed, was de- 
gradit of auctorite, and banist, as unworthy creature, out of thair 
cumpany. He that fled in time of battall, or departit fra the army 
without command of the capitane, was slane, but ony dowme, quhare 
evir he micht be apprehendit ; bot his gudis war gevin to his sonne. 
The wemen war of litil les vassalage and strenth than was the men ; 
for al rank madinnis and wiffis, gif thay war nocht with child, yeid 
als Weill to battall as the men. Als sone as the army was passand 
forthwart, thay slew the first levand beist that thay fand ; aud nocht 
allanerly baithit thair swerdis with the blude thairof, bot taistit the 

VOL. I. H 


samiti with thair mouth, with na les rehgion and faith, than thay 
had bene than sicker of sum fehcite following. Gif thay saw thair 
awin blude in battall, thay grew nocht astonist; bot, boldin in maist 
brime fury, set thaim to revenge the samin. In all battallis assail- 
yeit be tliaim, thay socht nevir victory be treason, falset, nor slicht ; 
and thocht ay degrading to thair nobilite, to vincus thair ennimes 
with ony othir thing bot force of fechting. Thay held it for gret 
febilnes to revenge ony displeseir, hatrent, or slauchter, be treason ; 
attour, sencerite and simpilnes was equaly honorit amang thaim all. 
Quhen thay war to pas on thair ennimes, ilk man yeid, as we do now, 
apon his awin cost, except sa mony as war wagit. He that was tru- 
blit with the falling evil, or fallin daft or wod, or havand sic infir- 
mite as succedis be heritage fra the fader to the son, was geldit; 
that his infeckit blude suld spreid na forthir. The wemen that was 
fallin lipper, or had ony othir infection of blude, was banist fra the 
cumpany of men ; and, gif scho consavit barne under sic infirmite, 
baith scho and hir barne war buryit quik. AD dronkattis, glutonis, 
and consumers of vittallis, mair than was necessar to the sustenta- 
tion of men, were tane, and first commandit to swelly thair fouth of 
quhat drink thay plesit, and incontinent thairefter was drownit in 
ane fresche rever. Forthir, howbeit thay had na administratioun of 
justice in time of weir, yit sic justice was ministerd in time of peace, 
that oftimes thay war ouir severe in thair punition ; for thay knew 
weil, fra thair pepil wer drawin fra battall to peace, thay suld be 
gevin to sa mony enormiteis, that the samin micht nocht be dantit 
but gret punition. For the pepill war of sic nature, als sone as thay 
knew thaimself gilty of ony offence committit aganis the kingis 
majeste or commounweill, thay set thaim to rais divisioun amang 
the gret princis of the realme : nochtheles, quhen thay ar tretit 
with soft and moderat empire, thay ar found richt humane and meke 
pepil, richt obeysand to reason ; and nocht allanerly kepis thair faith 
efter the reason of thair contract, bot gevis ane go\vpin, or ellis sum 
thingis mair abone the just mesure that thay sell. This consuetude 
is sa straitly kepit, that gif the samin be nocht done, the biar wiU 
nocht stand to the contract of merchandice. Thay usit the ritis and 
maneris of Egyptianis, fra quhome thay tuk thair first beginning. 
In all thair secret besines, thay usit not to writ with common letteris 


usit amang othir pepil, bot erar with sifars and figuris of beistis 
maid in maner of letteris ; sic as thair epithafis, and superscriptioun 
abone thair sepulturis, schawls: nochtheles, this crafty maner of 
writing, be quhat sleuth I can not say, is perist ; and yit thay have 
certane letteris propir amang thaimself, quhilkis war sum time vul- 
gar and commoun. Forthir, thay that spekis with the auld toimg 
of that cuntre, hes thair asperatioun, thair diptongis, and thair 
pronunciation, better than ony othir pepill. The commonis ar 
nocht exercit thairwith ; bot allanerly thay that dwellis in the hie 
partis of the land : and, becaus thir men hes thair langage mair elo- 
quent and propir than the commonis hes, thay ar callit poetis ; and 
makis poetis, effering to thair eruditioun and science, with mony 
gret cerimonyis. Beside mony craftis and science, quhilkis thay 
have translatit in thair awin toving, thay profes maist the science of 
medcinary, and ar richt excellent in it ; for thay knaw the nature of 
every herbe that growis in thay cuntreis, and curis all maner of ma- 
ledyis thairwith. Heirfore I say, thair is na region in the warld sa 
barrant nor unfrutfull, be distance fra the sonne, bot, be providence 
of God, all maner of necessaryis, to the sustentatioun of man, may 
be gottin plesandly in it, gif thair war sic pepill that culd laubour 
it, effering to the nature thairof. Nochtheles, as our eldaris, quhilkis 
dwelt con tine wally merchand with the realme of Ingland, lernit the 
Saxonis toung, be frequent jeoperdeis and chance of battall, sustenit 
mony yeris aganis thaim ; sa the pepill, now present in Scotland, 
hes tint baith the langage and maneris of writing usit sum time be 
our eldaris, and hes now ane new maner of writingris and lano-a£re : 
howbeit, the Hieland hes baith the writingis and langage as thay had 
afore, mair ingenius than ony othir pepill. How may thair be ane 
greter ingine, than to make ane bait of ane bull hid, bound with na 
thing bot wandis ? This bait is callit ane currok ; with the quhilk 
thay flsche salmond, and sum time passis ouir gret rivers thairwith ; 
and, quhen thay have done thair fisching, thay beir it to ony place, 
on thair bak, quhare thay pleis. Bot we wil return to the maneris 
of our anciant freindis. 

Be chance of sindry seasonis, specialy about the time of King 
Malcolme Canmore, al thingis began to change. For quhen oure 
nichtbouris, the Britonis, war maid effeminat be lang sleuth, and 


doung out of Britane be the Saxonis in Walls, we began to have al- 
hance, be proximite of Romanis, with IngUsmen ; specially efter the 
exterminioun of Pichtis : and, be frequent and daily cumpany of 
thaim, we began to rute thair langage and superflew maneris in 
oure breistis ; throw quhilk the virtew and temperance of our eldaris 
began to be of litil estimation amang us. Than we war gevin, ef- 
ter the arrogance and pride of Inglismen, to vane glore and ambu- 
tion of honouris, and began that time to seke new names of nobilite ; 
howbeit, afore thay dayis, he was maist nobil, that was decorit mair 
with virtew than riches, confiding mair in his awin dedis, than in 
ony dedis of his eldaris. Than began, in Scotland, the maneris of 
Dukis, Erlis, Lordis, and Baronis ; for afore thay dayis, the prin- 
cipal! men of Scotland under the king war callit Thanis, that is to 
say, Gadderaris of the Kingis malis ; and war ay rewardit be the 
king, as thair faith and virtew deservit. Bot now I beleif nane lies 
sic eloquence, nor fouth of langage, that can sufficiently declare, 
how far we, in thir present dayis, ar different fra the, virtew and tem- 
perance of our eldaris. For quhare our eldaris had sobriete, we 
have ebriete and dronkinnes ; quhare thay had plente with sufficence, 
we have immoderat cursis with superfluite ; as he war maist noble 
and honest, that culd devore and swelly maist : and, be extreme de- 
ligence, serchis sa mony deligat coursis, that thay provoke the sto- 
mok to ressave mair than it may sufficiently degest; throw quhilk 
we ingorge and fillis our self, day and nicht, sa full of metis and 
drinkis, that we can nocht abstene, quhill our wambe be sa swon, 
that it is unabil to ony virtewis occupation. And nocht allanerly 
may surfet dennar and sowper suffice us, abone the temperance of 
oure eldaris, bot als to continew our schamefull and immoderit vo- 
)-acite with duble dennaris and sowparis ; throw quhilk mony of us 
ganis to na othir besines bot to fil and teme our wembe Attour to 
continew this schamefull intemperance, abone the necessar sustenta- 
tion of nature, we geif us to sic unhappy laubour, that na fische in 
the see, nor foule in the aire, nor best in the wod, may have rest ; 
bot socht heir and thair, to satisfy the hungry appetit of glutonis. 
Nocht allanerly ar winis socht in France, bot in Spainye, Italy, and 
Grece ; and, sum time, baith Aphrik and Asia socht, for new deli- 
cius metis and winis, to the samin effect. Thus is the warld sa uter- 


ly socht, that all maner of droggis and electuaris, that may nuris the 
lust and insolence of pepill, ar brocht in Scotland, with maist sump- 
tuus price, to na les dammage than perdition of the pepill thairof : 
for, throw this immoderat glutony, our wit and reason ar sa blindit 
within the presoun of the body, that it may have no knawlage of 
hevinly thingis ; for the body is involvit with sic clowdis of fatnes, 
that, howbeit it be of gud complexioun be nature, it is sa opprest 
with superflew metis and drinkis, that it may nothir weild, nor yit 
ouir the self; bot, confessand the self vincust, gevis place to all in- 
firmiteis, quhill it be miserably distroyit : as apperis be sindry expe- 
rience. For mony of our pepill, in remot and in maist cauld region, 
ar strikin oftimes with maist vehement fever, thair inwart bowellis 
blesand as thay war in ane ithand fire ; quhilkis cumis of sic spicery 
and uncouth droggis, brocht out of remot cuntreis in this regioun. 
Utheris of thaim ar sa swoUin, and growin full of humouris, that 
thay ar strikin haistely deid in the poplesy ; and, howbeit thay re- 
cover for ane schort time efter, thay ar bot ane deid pepill ; levand, 
and buryit in sepulture, havand bot ane schadow of life. The young 
pepill and barnis, following thir unhappy customis of thair faderis, 
gevis thameself to lust and insolence, havand all virtuus occupation 
and craftis in contemptioun ; and, becaus thay ar lang customit and 
hantit thairwith, quhen time occurris of weir to defend the cuntre, 
thay ar sa efFeminat and soft, thay pas on hors as hevy martis ; and 
ar sa fat and growin, that thay may do na thing in compare of the 
soverane manheid of thair eldaris. Als sone as thay ar returnit hame, 
becaus thair guddis ar not sufficient to nuris thame in voluptuus life 
and pleseir of thau- wambe, thay ar gevin to all maner of avarice ; 
and othir castis thame to be Strang and maistrifull thevis, or ellis 
sawaris of dissention amang the nobillis. 

Thir, and mony othir enormiteis following thaim, procedis origi- 
naly fra the fontane of voluptuus leving and intemperance. Nocht- 
theles, wald we refrene us thairfra, I wait thair is na region under 
the Sonne mair halsum, nor les subdewit to pestilence ; nor yit mair 
commodius and nurisand of the hfe of man. Yit I am nocht sa dis- 
parit, bot traistis, within schort time, that all corruppit maneris of 
our pepill sal be reparit to ane better fassoun : for nocht allanerly, 
in sindry partis of this realme, remanis yit the futsteppis of mony 


auld virtewis usit sum time amang our eldaris, bot als risis every day 
new fervent devotioun, to the ornament of Cristin faith. Ane thing 
I will say, under reverence of uthir realmes ; thair was nevir pepill 
mair sicker in the Cristin faith, nor yit mair constant in thair faith- 
ful promis, than the Scottis hes bene, ay sen thair first beginning ; 
and, thairfore, I say ane thing finaly, nocht allanerly for thair lov- 
ing, bot als in exhortation of thair perseverance : In sa far as our 
pepill, presently levand in this region, passis thair eldaris in sump- 
tuus and riatus abulyement, in sa far thay ar mair eligant and ho- 
nest in thair housis and letteris, and mair magnificent than afore in 
ornament of thair kirkis and templis. Thus want thay na maner of 
virtew that thair eldaris had, except the temperance of thair bodyis : 
to quhilk mot bring thame haistely the blissit Lord ! Amen. 

Followis, Ane Compendius Recapitulation of all Kingis of Britane ; 
sen the first beginning thairqf, to the time of King Henry the 

He history of Scotland is sa implicat with the history 
of Ingland, that it is difficill to knaw. And becaus the 
crown of Ingland hes bene josit with sindry pepill, be 

sindry chances and variance oftimes, I thocht expedient, 

for commodite and pleseir of rederis, to nowmer thair genelogy first 
fra Brutus ; be quhom the Britonis war brocht out of Grece in this 
He of Albion, fra the beginning of the warld, mmmm.xxvit yeris; 
and josit the crown of Britane be the space of M.c.xvi yeris. In 
quhilk time, thay war invadit cruelly be JuKus Cesar ; and not on- 
ly vincust, bot thair realm maid tributar, in forme of province. And 
howbeit thir Britonis had kingis lang time namit of the Britonis blud, 
yit thair realme was governit ay be Romanis, to the yeir of God, 
cccc. XXXVI yeris : and in that season thay war subdewit to Scottis 
and Pichtis ; and nocht allanerly maid tributaris to thaim xxx yeris, 
bot o-aif ouir mekill of thair landis to the empire of Scottis and 
Pichtis : as Paulus Diaconus, Beda, Sabellicus, and mony othir re- 
cent authouris, schawis at lenth in thair historyis. Nochtheles, thir 



Britonis, impatient to sustene the empire of barbar pepill, becaus 
thay war accustomit afore with Romane pleseiris, chesit Constantine, 
the son of Androenus, Duke of Bertanye, to be king, in hatrent of 
Scottis and Pichtis. This Constantine come with sic pissance and 
army in Britane, that he dehverit the Britonis of all servitude, and 
recoverit than- realme fra our redemption, cccc.lxv yeris. Efter 
Constantine, rang Constantius, his son ; and efter Constantius, rang 
Vortigern, the space of xxii yeris. In the mene time, the Scotti? 
and Pichtis rais with sic army, chat thay almaist subde^vit the 
Britonis agane to servitude. Throw quhilk, Vortigern wes con- 
stranit to seke support of Saxonis ; and, be thair weris, resistit cer- 
taiie yeris, al invasion of Scottis and Pichtis : quhiU, at last, he was 
tane be slicht of Hengist, and brocht to extreme servitude ; and ba- 
nist, with aU the Britonis, in Walis. Thus come the remanent 
boundis of Britane under the empire of Hengist, and called Hen- 
gisUand, and the pepiU thairof Hengistis men ; hot now, be cor- 
ruption of langage, the realme is caUit Ingland, and the pepill In- 
glismen. The Britonis war not onely disparit be this trubil, bot, 
mony yeris efter, faucht aganis Inglismen be King Arthure,' with' 
sindiy chancis of fortoun ; bot, efter his deith, thay war subdewit 
agane, and content to be callit Inghsmen, under ane name with 
Saxonis. Fra the deith of King Arthure, quhilk was in the yeir of 
God D.xLii yeris, to the yeir of God m.xvi yeris, the realme of Ing- 
land was gidit be Inglismen ay under the empire of ane king • bot 
sone efter it was devidit in vii sindry kingdomes ; and brocht ao-ane 
to the empire of ane king, under the samin marchis that it hes no^^ 
And not lang efter, it was subdewit and conquest be Danis • and 
v kingis of thair blud, continewaUy efter othir succeding • of q'uhom 
the last was namit Hardy Canute; quhilk maid mony proude lawis 
abone Inglismen, and rang with sic tiranny, that the Ino-hsmen fi 
naly rebelht, and slew all the Danis within the space of line niclu 
Hardy Canute, invadit on al sidis, slew himself be disperation 
The Inghsmen, efter his slauchter, creat Edward, the son of Kino- 
Eldrede, thair king; for this Eldrede rang abone thame afore the 
cummg of Danis. Nochtheles the Inglismen, efter the slauchter of 
King Edward, quhilk was ekit, for his haly lif, to the nowmer of 
Sanctis, dred that the Danis suld cum on thame with new battall 


and thairfore creat Herald thair king ; for he was discendit baith of 
the linnage of Inglismen and Danis. Thus was Edward, nevo to 
Sanct Edward, and bruthir to Sanct Margaret, the haly Quene of 
Scotland, disherist of the crown of Ingland. This Herald, gevin to 
rage and insolence of lust, maryit the douchter of William, Bastard 
of Normandy, and, within few dayis efter, brocht hir in Ingland. At 
last, he tuk sic hatrent aganis hir, and hir blud, that he causit hir to be 
schamfully defo wlit with rebaldis and limmaris of his cuntre. William, 
the Bastard and Duk of Normandy, impatient to sustene this odius 
offence, come in Ingland with gret army, and deprivit King Herald 
baith of his life and realme at anis, the yeir of God m.lxvi yeris ; 
efter the first conques made on thame be Danis, l yeris. William, 
the Bastard and Concreour of Ingland, tuk the crown efter the 
slauchter of King Herald ; and causit the Normanis and Inglismen 
to incres togidder under ane blud, but ony memory of the name of 
Danis. The posterite of this William perseveris yit, with gret ho- 
nour and victory, to thir dayis: regnand abone Inglismen at this 
time, King Hary the VIII. ; quhilk, for his illuster and vailyeant 
dedis, sal be put in gret renoun and memory be our posterite. 


Followis, the Table of the History ; contenand the mater of every 
Buke, crqftely severit be thaimself. 



How Gathelus, our first progenitour, left the land of Grece, and 
come in Egypt; and maryit Scota, douchter to King Pharo. 
And of his cuming to Spanye. Chap. I. p. 1. 

How Gathelus beildit the Ciete of Brigance, and namit al his pepil 
Scottis. How he send his ii sonnis in Ireland ; and of his deceis. 

Chap. II. p. 4. 

How Hemecus governit Ireland ; and how Symon Brek was maid 
King efter his deith. Chap. III. p. 7. 

Of the gret posterite of Scottis regnand in Ireland, efter Simon 
Brek. Of the first cuming of Scottis and Pichtis in Albion ; and 
how the Pichtis war alliat with Scottis. Chap. IV. p. 10. 

How the Britonis, be thair quent shchtis, dissolvit the band of alli- 
ance betwix Scottis and Pichtis. Of the trubil that fel thairthrow. 

Chap. V. p. 12. 

How the Pichtis and Scottis maid thair ordinance to invaid othir 
be battal. How Ferquhard, King of Ireland, send his son, Fer- 
gus, with ane army, in support of Scottis, aganis the Pichtis ; and 
how the said Fergus was maid King. Chap. VI. p. 15. 

VOL. I. i 

Ixvi TABULA.— VOL. I. 

How King Fergus come with gret ordinance aganis the Pichtis. 
How the dissait of Britonis was discoverit baith to Scottis and 
Pichtis. And of the Orisoun maid be Fergus to the King of 
Pichtis. Chap. VII. p. 17. 

Of sindry consultationis maid be Pichtis ; and how thay war recoun- 
saht with the Scottis. Chap. VIII. p. 19. 

How Coil, King of Britonis, was slane, and his army discomfist be 
Scottis and Pichtis. Chap. IX. p. 22. 

Of King Fergus Orison to his nobhs; and how the crow^n of Scot- 
land was tailyeit to him and his successouris. — Chap. X. p. 24. 

How King Fergus partit the landis of Scotland amang the noblis 
of his realme. And of the maneris of brigandis. 

Chap. XL p. 26. 

How King Fergus maid concord betwix the princis of Ireland ; 
and how he perist returnand be the Ireland Seis. 

Chap. XII. p. 28. 


How the Scottis, efter King Fergus deith, contendit for the crown. 
And how it was inhibit that young childrin sal be Kingis. 

Chap. I. p. 30. 
Of King Ferithais ; and of his deith. Chap. II. p. 84. 

How Ferlegus was banist for the slauchter of King Ferithais. And 

of King Maynus. Chap. III. p. 37. 

Of King Dorvidilla ; and of his constitutionis, maneris, and deith. 

Chap. IV. p. 38. 
Of the tyrane King Nathak ; and of his slauchter. Chap. V. p. 40. 
How Rewthar, ane young child, was maid King, contrar the lawis. 
How Ferquhard, Capitane of Lome, was chasit be Dowall in the 
His ; and of his orison maid to the pepill thairof. 

Chap. VI. p. 41. 

TABULA.— VOL. I. Ixvii 

How Ferquhard and Dowal, recountering othlr be plane battal, war 
baith slane, with al the nobilite of Scottis and Pichtis ; the King 
of Pichtis slane, and the King of Scottis tane. Chap. VII. p. 43. 
How the Scottis and Pichtis war doung out of Albion be the Bri- 

tonis. Chap. VIII. p. 44. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis recoverit thair landis, and discomfist 
Sisill, King of Britonis. And of the residew of King Rewtheris 
life. Chap. IX. p. 46. 

Of King Rewtha, and his lawis and governance. How Ptolome, 
King of Egypt, send his oratouris, to se the situation of Scotland 

Chap. X. p. 47. 
Of King Thereus ; and how he was exilit for his tyranny. How 
Conane, cheiftane of brigandis, was maid Governour during his 
proscriptioun. Chap. XI. p. 49. 

Of King Josyne. And of the experience and preching of two phi- 

losophouris. Chap. XII. p. 5L 

Of King Fynnane, and his lawis. And of the college of clerkis in 

the He of Man. Chap. XIII. p. -53. 

Of King Durstus ; and how he was slane for his cruel tyranny. 

Chap. XIV. p. 55. 
Of gret contention amang the capitanis. Of the orison maid be 
Charon, Capitane of Argyle. And how Ewin, the first of that 
name, was maid king. Chap. XV. p. 58. 

How Gillus, bastard son to King Ewin, slew two sonnis and two 
nepotis of Durstus, to make himself king ; and how the thrid 
nepot, Edeir, eschapit. Chap. XVI. p. 61. 

How King Gillus was banist. How Cadall, cheiftane of Brigandis, 
was maid Governour, and slew Gillus in Ireland. And how 
EAvin the Secound was maid king. Chap. XVII. p. 64. 

How Cadal, returnand out of Ireland, lost the raaist part of his ar- 
my be rage of seis ; and of the consolation maid to him be King 
Ewin. Chap. XVIII. p. 66. 

How the Kingis of Scottis and Pichtis war alliat togidder be ma- 
nage. How Balus, King of Orknay, slew himself be disperation. 
Of the wise counsall gevin be King Ewin to Edeir. 

Chap. XIX. p. 68. 



Of King Edeir ; and how he revengit the heirschippis maid be the 
tratour Bredus in the His. Chap. I. p. 71. 

How the Britonis send ambassatouris to King Edeir, for support 
aganis Juhus Cesar. Of thair orison ; and of King Ederis an- 
swer. And how the said Julius was doung out of Albion, be 
support of Scottis. Chap. II. p. 72. 

How Julius returnit in Britane, and maid it tributar to Romane 
Empire. Chap. III. p. 76. 

Of sindry messagis send be Julius to Scottis and Pichtis ; and of 
thair answer. Of Julius Hoif ; and sindry opinionis concerning 
the first foundaris thairof. Chap. IV. p. 78. 

How the tratour Murket, and his complicis, war punist. Of the 
deith of King Edeir. Of the vicious King Ewin the Thrid ; and 
of his lawis and deith. Chap. V. p. 82. 

Of King Metellane. Of the nativite of Crist, our Salvioure. Of 
gret fouth of poetis, oratouris, and philosophouris, that flurisit in 
his time. Chap. VI. p. 84. 

Of King Caratak ; and how he dantit sindry conspiratouris of his 
realme. How the Britonis, rebelland aganis the Romanis, war 
discomfist ; and of thair message send to the Scottis. 

Chap. VII. p. 86. 

Of Cai-atakis answer. How the Britonis solistit Normanis and Pi- 
cardis to rebellion ; and how the said Britonis war discomfist be 
Romanis, and thair king slane. Chap. VIII. p. 89- 

How Claudius, Emprioure, come in Britane, and subdewit Orkenay 
to his empire. Of Sanct Peteris first cuming in Italy ; and of 
the Assumptioun of the glorius Virgine Mary. 

Chap. IX. p. 92. 

How sindry princis of Britane, conspirand aganis Arviragus, war 
discomfist. How the confiderat kingis come to support thir princis 
of Britane aganis the Romanis. Chap. X. p. 95. 

Of the message send to Caratak be Plancius, and his answer. Of 
the deith of Genissa. And how Vespasian was send in Britane, 
to dant the Britonis. Chap. XI. p. 99. 

TABULA.— VOL. I. Ixix 

How the thre kingis of Albioun, movand weir aganis Vespasian, 
war discomfist. How Vespasian ressavit Arviragus to his mercy, 
and maid his laudis tributar to Romane Empire. 

Chap. XII. p. 101. 

How Vespasiane wan the town of Camelon, and discomfist Caratak. 
Of his message send to Caratak ; and of Caratakis answer. 

Chap. XIII. p. 103. 

How Caratak cumand with new army aganis Romanis, was vin- 
cust. Of the deith of PJancius ; and how Ostorias Avas send in 
his place ; and dantit the Britonis. Chap. XIV. p. 106. 

How Caratak fechtand, with new army, aganis the Romanis, was 
discomfist, and maid presoner to Ostorius, be treason of Cartu- 
mandia, his stepmoder. Chap. XV. p. 108. 

How Caratak was brocht to Rome, and how he returnit in Scot- 
land. Of uncouth mervelhs sene in Albioun ; and of sindry no- 
bil clerkis ; and of the deith of Caratak. Chap. XVI. p. 110. 


How Corbrede was maid King of Scottis. How the Pichtis rebellit 
aganis the Romanis, and slew Ostorius, thair capitane. 

Chap. I. p. 113. 

How Manlius Valens, capitane of Britane, was discomfist be the 
Pichtis. How Didius was send in his place. Of the message 
send be Pichtis to Corbrede, and of his answer. 

Chap. II. p. 115. 

How Cartumandia, Quene of Scottis, was buryit quick. How the 
Scottis and Pichtis faucht aganis the Romanis, with uncertane 
victory, and war constranit to tak peace; and of the deith of 
Didius. Chap. III. p. 116. 

How Veranius was maid capitane of Britane, and of his deith. 
How Swetonius, his successoure, put the He of Man to sak. 
How Britonis maid new rebellion on the Romanis ; and of sindry 
prodigies and mervellis sene in Albion. Chap. IV. p. 1J9. 


Of the complaint maid be Voada, Quene of Britonis, to Corbrede. 
Of his message send to Cattus. Of Cattus answer. Of sindry 
incuvsionis maid be Scottis on the Romanis ; and of the first 
cuming of the Murrayis in Scotland. Chap. V. p. 122. 

Of the orisoun maid be Voada, Quene of Britonis, to the confiderat 
Kingis ; and how scho vincust the Romanis, and finaly slew hir- 
self ; and of the deith of King Corbi'ede. Chap. VI. p. 124. 

Of sindry nobil clerkis. How Petir and Paule war martirit. How 
Dardannus was maid King of Scottis, and slane for his tyranny. 

Chap. VII. p. 128. 

How mony Romane capitanis, for thair febill administration, war 
interchangit in Britane. How Galdus wes maid King of Scottis, 
and how he wes discomfist by Petulius. Chap. VIII. p. 131. 

How the noble lady, Vodicia, invadit the Romanis with battall. 
How scho was finaly slane, and hir army discomfist. 

Chap. IX. p. 135. 

How Julius Frontinus was maid capitane of Britane. Of his mes- 
sage to Pichtis, and of thair answer; and how the said Julius in- 
vadit the Scottis with gret injuris. Chap. X. p. 137. 

How Julius Agricola was send in Britane. Of his frequent vic- 
toryis maid on Scottis and Pichtis ; and how he subdewit sindry 
of thair landis to Romane empire. Chap. XI. p. 139. 

How the King of Pichtis send his ambassatouris to Scottis, desiring 
support aganis the Romanis. How Agricola invadit the Scottis, 
baith be see and land. How the King of Pichtis was slane, be 
seditioun of his army. Chap. XII. p. 141. 

How Galdus pecifyit al sedition amang the Pichtis ; and how he 
faucht aganis the Romanis, and was discomfist. 

Chap. XIII. p 144. 

How sindry Almanis and Danis come in support of Scottis and 
Pichtis. How the Romane navy perist in Pentland Firth. 

Chap. XIV. p. 145. 

How Agricola brocht his army ouir Tay. How Galdus come in 
defence of the Pichtis, with xl.m Scottis ; and of his orison 
maid to exhort his army to battal. Chap. XV. p. 148. 

TABULA.— VOL. I. Ixxi 

Of the orisoun maid be Agricola to his army ; and of the huge vic- 
tory falling to Romanis, be discomfitour of Scottis. 

Chap. XVI. p. 151. 

How Agricola reparit his navy, to pas about the His of Albion, and 
brint sindry schippis of Danis. Of uncouth mervellis sene in 
Albion ; and of the deith of Agricola. Chap. XVIL p. 154. 

How Tribellius was send in Britane. How the llomanis fell in gret 
divisioun amang thaimself ; and of the huge victory gottin on 
thaim be Galdus. Chap. XVIII. p. 155. 

How the Romanis war doung out of all partis of Scotland, and sin- 
dry times vincust, be the vailyeant Galdus. 

Chap. XIX. p. 157. 

Of the message send be Romanis to the confiderat Kingis, and of 
thair answer. How the confiderat Kingis gaif peace to Ro- 
manis. Chap. XX. p. 160. 

How all the strenthis of Scotland war recoverit fra the Romanis, be 
condition of peace ; and of the deith of Galdus. 

Chap. XXI. p. 162. 


Of the vicius King, Lugtak ; and how he was slane for his unhappy 
life and tyranny. Chap. I. p. 164. 

Of King Mogallus ; and how he come with ane army aganis the 
Romanis. Of his orison maid to the sepulture of Galdus. 

Chap. II. p. 166. 

How the confiderat kingis come vnth thair armyis aganis the Ro- 
manis. Of the orison maid be Mogallus, and Lucius Antonius, 
to thair armyis ; and how the Romanis war discomfist. 

Chap. III. p. 168. 

How Adriane, Empriour, come in Britane ; and biggit ane Strang 
wall, to saif the Britonis and Romanis fra Scottis and Pichtis. 
How he returnit in France, and left Victorine to be capitane of 
Britane. Chap. IV. p. 17L 

Ixxii TABULA.— VOL. I. 

How Scottis and Pichtis partlt the landis beyond the wall of 
Adriane. How King Mogallus was degenerit, m corrupplt life, 
and slane for his tyranny. Chap. V. p. 173. 

Of sindry nobill clerkis. Of the vicius King, Conarus ; and how he 
wes degradit of all auctorite, and his servandis hingit for thair 
wickit counsall. Chap. VI. p. 175. 

How Argadus was maid Governour of Scotland, during the time of 
Conarus in presoun ; and of his life and governance. 

Chap. VII. p. 177. 

Of King Ethodius the First ; and how he pecifyit the His. How 
the Scottis and Pichtis brak down the wal of Adriane, and faucht 
aganis the Romanis, with sindry chancis of victory. 

Chap. VIII. p. 179. 

How Victorine was deprivit of auctorite ; and Calphurnius Agricola 
send in his place. How Calphurnius reparit the wall of Adriane, 
and returnit to Rome. Chap. IX. p. 181. 

How Trebellius wes send in Britane, and was vincust be the Scottis 
and Pichtis. Of the rebellioun of Britonis aganis him ; and of 
his message send to the Empriour. Chap. X. p. 182. 

How Argadus, lieutenand to King Ethodius, was slane, and his ar- 
my discomfist in the His. Of sindry lawis and actis maid be 
Ethodius ; and of his slauchter. Chap. XL p. 185. 

Of mony nobil clerkis. How Britane tuke the faith of Crist. Of 
the vicious King, Satrahell ; and of his deith. 

Chap. XII. p. 187. 

Of King Donald the First. How the Britonis war inhibit be the 
Romanis, to have ony king of thair blude ; and how thay solistit 
the Scottis and Pichtis to assist to thair rebellion. 

Chap. XIII. p. 188. 

How Severus, emprioure, come in Britane, to revenge the oppres- 
sionis done to Romanis. How the Britonis fled in Scotland. 
How the Scottis and Pichtis fechtand in support of Britonis, war 
discomfist. Chap. XIV. p. 190. 

Of gret cruelteis done be Severus, empriour, aganis the noblis of 
Britane. Of his weris aganis Scottis and Pichtis. How An- 
thonius reparit the wall of Adriane; and of the Empriouris deith. 

Chap. XV. p. 192. 

TABULA— VOL. I. Ixxili 

How Anthonius slew his brothir, Getus, to make himself Empri- 
oure. How Scotland tuke the faith of Crist, and cunyeit money. 
Of mony nobill clerkis, in sindry partis of the warld ; and of 
King Donaldis deith. Chap. XVL p. 194. 

Of King Ethodius the Secound ; and how the noblis, finding him 
unabil to gide the realme, governit the samin, be thair auctorite, 
in gret justice. Chap. XVII. p. 196. 


How Athirco was maid King of Scottis. How the noblis conspirit 
aganis him, for his cursit tyranny ; and how he slew himself, be 
disperatioun. Chap. I, p. 198. 

How Nathalak usurpit the crown, and persewit al the linnage of 
Athirco with gret cruelteis ; and, finaly, was slane be his fami- 
liar servand. Chap. II, p. 200. 

Of King Findok ; and how he dan tit the His, and was slane be two 
men thairof. Chap. III. p. 204. 

How Carance was banist for his brotheris slauchter, and Donald the 
Secund, maid King. Of his deith, and of sindry noble clerkis. 

Chap. IV. p. 206. 

How mony haly men war martyrit for the faith of Crist. How Do- 
nald of the His, the thrid of that name, usurpit the crown, and 
was slane be Craithlint. Chap. V. p. 207. 

Of King Craithlint; and how the Scottis and Pichtis fell in conten- 
tion, be thair hunting, and faucht, with gret slauchter. on al sidis. 

Chap. VI. p. 209. 

How Carance, brothir to Findok, returnit out of Italy, with gret 
riches, in Albion. How he conquest Westmureland, and maid 
peace betwix Scottis and Pichtis. Chap. VII. p. 211, 

How Carance, be support of Scottis and Pichtis, slew Bassiane, 
capitane of Britane, and tuk the crown thairof; and of his deith. 
And how the crown of Britane was restorit to Romanis. 

Chap. VIII. p. 215. 
VOL. I. k 

Ixxiv TABULA.— VOL. I. 

Of gret cruelte, done be Dioclesiane, Emprioiir, aganis Cristin pe- 
pil. How Coill vincust the Romanis, and conquest the crown of 
Britane. How he was alliat with Constantius, Emprioure ; and 
of the nativite of gret Constanthie. Chap. IX. p. 217. 

How Fincormak was maid King of Scottis, and Octavius, King of 
Britonis. How Herculeus, Romane capitane, was slane be Oc- 
tavius, and the Romanis vincust. How the Scottis and Pichtis 
come in support of Octavius, and chasit Traherus in France. 

Chap. X. p. 220. 

How Octavius was put fra the crown of Britane, be Traherus, Ro- 
mane capitane. How the said Traherus was slane, and Octavius 
restorit to the crown ; and of Fincormakis deith. 

Chap. XI. p. 222. 

How the heresy is of Arrius was condampnit. How Ireland tuke the 
faith of Crist. How Romak, Fethelmak, and Angusiane, con- 
tendit for the crown. How Romak was maid King, and slane 
efter for his tyranny. Chap. XII. p. 224. 

How Angusiane was maid King of Scottis. How Maximus sub- 
dewit the Britonis, be sindry victory is. How Scottis and Pichtis 
in^adit othir, with set batal. How baith thair Kingis war slane, 
and the Scottis discomfist. Chap. XIII. p. 227. 

How Fethelmak was maid King of Scottis ; and how he slew Nec- 
tane, King of Pichtis, and wes slane efter, be thair treason, and 
of mony nobill clerkis. Chap. XIV. p. 230. 

How Sanct Roule brocht Sanct Androis arme in Scotland; and how 
the Kirk of Sanct Androis was dotat, be Hergest, King of 
Pichtis ; and of the loving thairof. Chap. XV. p. 231. 

How Eugenius wes maid King of Scottis. How Hergest, King of 
Pichtis, wes confiderat with Romanis for distruction of Scottis. 
How Maximus, Capitane of Britane, invadit the Scottis with gret 
cruelteis and slauchter. Chap. XVI. p. 233. 

How Maximus returnit in Galloway, to revenge the injuris done be 
Scottis aganis Pichtis. How Eugenius come, with l.m men, to 
resist the Romanis, Pichtis, and Britonis. How he was slane, 
his brothir tane, and his army discomfist. Chap. XVII. p. 236. 

How the Scottis, be gret cruelte of Pichtis, war exilit out of Albion. 
How the Abbay of Comekil was foundit. Chap. XVIII. p. 240. 

TABULA.— VOL. I. Ixxv 

Of sindry mervellis sene in Albion. How the Scottis that fled in 
Ireland and the His, returnit in Scotland with gret power ; and 
how thay war discomfist and slane. Chap. XIX. p. J^43. 


How Maximiis conquest, be his liberalite, the crown of Britane. 
How he slew Gratiane, Emprioure ; and was slane be Theodosius. 

Chap. I. p. 247. 

How Octavius wes maid king of Britonis. How Mercius and Vic- 
torine war send in Albion, to dant the Britonis. How the Pichtis 
war thirlit to gret servitude ; and how thair king slew himself. 

Chap. II. p. 249. 

Of Etheodius, brothir to Eugenius afore rehersit. Of his gover- 
nance in Denmark ; and of his succession. How Rome was tane 
be Gothis ; and how sindry spulyeis thairof fell to Fergus the 
Secund. Chap. III. p. 252. 

Of sindry clerkis and Sanctis flurising in the warld. Of the first 
message send be Pichtis to Scottis. Chap. IV. p. 255. 

How Gratiane, King of Britonis, and Mercius, Romane capitane, 
war slane, and Constantine put in Mercius place ; and of his deith. 
Of the secund message send be Pichtis to Fergus ; and how lie 
come in Albion, and was aggreit with Pichtis, and recoverit his 
realme. Chap. V. p. 256. 

How the Romanis, fechtand aganis the Scottis and Pichtis, war 
severit be ane schoure of hail. Of sindry vassalage done be the 
vailyeant Grahame, at the wal of Abircorne. Of his linnao-e and 
allia with King Fergus. Chap. VI. p. 259. 

Of sindry consultationis maid be the Scottis, for thair defence 
aganis the Romanis and Britonis. How Victorine conquest the 
croun of Britane ; and how he was punist thairfore, to the deith. 

Chap. VII. p. 261. 

How Placidus, Romane capitane, was discomfist, with his army, be 
Scottis and Pichtis. How King Fergus recoverit al his landis, 

Ixxvi TABULA.—VOL. I. 

be condition of peace, fra Romanis. Of his civill and religious 
industry, for the weill of his pepill. Chap. VIII. p. 262. 

Of the deith of Placidus. Of the message send be Castius, capitane 
of Britane, to Fergus ; and of Fergus answer. How the Ro- 
manis war discomfist, and Castius slane. Chap. IX. p. 264. 

How Maximiane, capitane of Britane, come, with huge army, aganis 
the Scottis and Pichtis. Of Fergus orison to his army ; and 
how baith the kingis of Scottis and Pichtis w^ar slane, and thair 
army discomfist be Romanis. Chap. X. p. 26*6. 

How the Romanis wrocht gret injurison Scottis and Pichtis. How 
Maximiane wes alliat with Dioneth, Prince of Wahs, and tuke 
the crown of Britane, contrar the auctorite of Romanis. 

Chap. XI. p. 269. 

Of King Eugenius the Secound. Of grete vassalage done be Maxi- 
miane in Britane and France. How Ursula and hir fallowis war 
martyrit. Chap. XII. p. 271. 

How the confiderat kingis come with gret armyis aganis the Britonis. 
Of Eugenius orison. Of the gret heirschippis maid on Britonis. 
How Gallio Revennas was send in suport of Britonis; and of 
his vassalage. Chap. XIII. p. 273. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis kest down the wall of Abircorne, and 
wrocht gret cruelteis on the Britonis. Of the message send be 
Britonis to Etius ; and of his answer. Chap. XIV. p. 276. 

How Conanus, Prince of Walis, exhortit the Britonis to tak peace 
with Scottis and Pichtis; and was slane. How the Britonis, ef- 
ter his slauchter, faucht amang thameself. Chap. XV. p. 278. 

Of gret vassalage done be the nobill Grahame at the wallis of Abir- 
corne and Adriane ; and how the Scottis conquest all landis be- 
twix Tyne and Humber. Of the epistill send be Britonis to 
Etius; and of his answer. Chap. XVI. p. 280. 

How the Britonis war vincust, and maid tributar to Scottis and 
Pichtis. And of the conditionis of peace gevin to the said Bri- 
tonis. Chap. XVII. p. 283. 

Of mony nobil clerkis and Sanctis in sindry partis of the warld. Of 
sindry prodigies and mervellis sene in Albioun. And of Finmak- 
coule. Chap. XVIII. p. 286. 

TABULA.—VOL. II. Ixxvii 


How mony Romane provinces fel in pray to sindry pepill ; and how 
sindry realraes began thairthrow. Chap. I. p. 5. 

How Conanus exhortit the Britonis to recover thair hberte. Of the 
message send be Scottis and Pichtis to Britonis ; and how the 
nobhs and commonis of Britane iavadit othir be battall. 

Chap. II. p. 7. 

Of sindry afflictionis and plagis quhilkis fell on the Britonis, for thair 
iniquite and corruppit life. Of the deith of King Eugenius. 

Chap. III. p. 10. 

Of King Dongard ; and of the secund orison maid be Conanus to 
the Britonis. And how thay send ambassatouris to Androenus, 
King of Bertanye, for support aganis Scottis and Pichtis. 

Chap. IV. p. 11. 

Of the deith of Conanus ; and of the orison maid be Guitelline to 
the King of Bertanye. How Constantine, his son, was send with 
ane army in Britane, and maid king thairof. Chap. V. p. 14. 

How Dongard, King of Scottis, come with gret power aganis Con- 
stantine, King of Britonis. Of his orison to his army. How he 
was slane, and the Britonis discomfist. Chap. VI. p. 17. 

How Constantine the First, and thrid brothir to Eugenius, was maid 
King of Scottis. Of his unhappy hfe and tyranny; and how 
Constantine, King of Britonis, was slane be gile of Pichtis. 

Chap. VII. p. 20. 

Of King Congallus ; and of his administratioun. How the monk 
Constantius was maid king of Britonis. How Vortigern^ be 
slauchter of Constantius, tuke the crown of Britane. 

Chap. VIII. p. 22. 

How Ambrose and Uter, the sonnis of King Constantine, fled in 
Bertanye. How Gwitel, Prince of Walls, was slane be the Scottis, 
and his army discomfist. Chap. IX. p. 25. 

Ixxviii TABULA.—VOL. II. 

How Vortigerne send ambassatouris in Almany, to fe wageouris in 
his support. How Hengest and Orsus come in Britane with x 
thousand Saxonis ; and of thair cruelteis and vassalage done aganis 
Pichtis. Chap. X. p. 27. 

Of the secound message send be Pichtis to the Scottis, How Scottis 
and Pichtis faucht aganis the Saxonis and Britonis, and war dis- 
comfist. Chap. XI. p. 29. 

How Hengist was richely rewardit for his victorius dedis. How xv 
thousand Britonis war slane, be weris of Scottis and Pichtis. How 
Hengistis wife and douchter arrivit in Britane, with new army of 
Saxonis. Chap. XII. p. 31. 

How Hengist and Vortimer come with gret armyis to invaid the 
confiderat pepil. Of sindry quent slichtis devisit be Scottis, to 
constrane thair ennimes to battall. Of sindry chancis of victory 
thairefter following. Chap. XIII. p. 33. 

How Hengist AAas maid Protectour of Britane; and how he brocht 
his son Occa, with x.m Saxonis, to resist the armyis of Ambrose 
and Uter. How Vortigern come to ane banket, with Hengist ; 
and maryit Roxena, his douchter. Chap, XIV. p. 36. 

How Vodine, Bischop of London, with monv preistis, war slane be 
tyranny of Saxonis. How Hengist maid himself King of Kent. 
How Vortigerne was deprivit, and Vortimer, his sonne, maid King 
of Britane. Chap. XV. p. 39. 

How Scottis and Pichtis war confiderat with Kinff Vortimer aganis 
the Saxonis, and discomfist Occa in North umbirland. How Hen- 
gist and Occa war vincust in Kent, and doung out of Britane. 
How King Vortimer was slane be poisoun. Chap. XVI. p. 42. 

How the Britonis, efter deith of King Vortimer, fell in gret dispu- 
tatioun quhay suld be king. And how Vortigern w^as restorit to 
the crown of Britane. Chap. XVII. p. 45. 

How Hengist and Occa returnit with new power of Saxonis in Bri- 
tane, and slew mony nobillis thairof; and tuke Vortigerne preso- 
nere. How Vortigern was banist in Walis, and Hengist maid 
King of Britane. Chap. XVIII. p. 46. 

How Vortigerne demandit the prophete Marline, of the end of his 


life ; and of Marlinis answer. How Ambrose and liter come in 
AValis, and brint Vortigern, with his sonne and riches. 

Chap. XIX. p. 50. 

Of sindry illusionis and dissaitis of evill spretis. Chap. X X. p. 52. 

How Ambrose was confiderat with Scottis and Pichtis. And how 
he slew Hengist, and dang the Saxonis out of Britane. How his 
two sisteris war niaryit on the confiderat kingis. And of sindry 
haly men. Chap. XXI. p. 54. 


Of King Conrannus ; and how he maid lawis to punis extorsionis. 
How Occa and Passentius arrivit Avith new power of Saxonis in 
Ingland ; and how thay war vincust be Ambrose. 

Chap. I. p. 59. 

Of gret cruelteis done be Occa to Britonis. How Scottis and Pichtis 
war frustrat of thair voyage. Of gret mervellis sene in Albion. 
Of the interpretation of thaim be Merhne. Chap. II. p. 62. 

How Uter wes maid King of Britonis ; and how he was discomfist 
be Saxonis, and chasit in Wahs. How Saxonis and Britonis war 
^ggreit. Chap. III. p. 64. 

How Uter slew the Prince of Cornewal, and gat Arthure on his 
wife. How Loth, King of Pichtis, clamit the crown of Britan ; 
and how Britonis war purgit of thair herisyis. How Terdix and 
Kenrik come to Occa with new power of Saxonis ; and how the 
Saxonis war discomfist be mirakill. Chap. IV. p. 6o. 

How Occa and Nathaleodus, invading othir be battal, war baith 
slane, with xv.m Britonis. How young Occa was maid King of 
Ingland ; and of his ordinance aganis the Scottis and Pichtis. 
And how thay war vincust, and King Uter slane be poisoun. 

Chap. V. p. 69. 

Ot the Romane Boece ; and of his werkis and martyrdome. Of the 
institutionis of the ordour of Sanct Benedict; and how superflew 

kxx TABULA.— VOL. II. 

rentis makis evlll, religious men. How Loth, King of Pichtis, 
clamit the crown of Britane. Chap. VI. p. 72. 

How the Saxonis war sindi-y times vincust, and maid ti'ibutaris to 
King Arthure. How Occa arrivid with new power in Northum- 
berland, and chasit Arthure in Walis. How the surfet cheir 
of Yule was evil institute. How Pichtis and Britonis war aggreit. 

Chap. VII. p. 74. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis war confiderat with King Arthure, 
aganis the Saxonis. How the Saxonis war vincust be the Al- 
bianis, and doung out of Albion. Chap. VIII. p. 76. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis come with xx thousand men, in sup- 
port of King Arthure, aganis Saxonis ; and how the Saxonis war 
discomfist. Chap. IX. p. 78. 

How Tonset, Chancellar of Scotland, was slane, for his wrangus 
administration of justice. Of King Conrannus deith. Of Jus- 
tiniane, Empriour, and of his prudent constitutionis, fame, and 
chevelry ; and of sindry captiviteis of Rome. 

Chap. X. p. 80. 

Of King Eugenius the thrid, and his lawis. Of Conrannus wife. 
How scho fled, with hir sonnis, in Ingland. Of King Arthuris 
fame, chevelry, and round table. How the Britonis, contrar 
thair promes, maid Constantine Prince of Britane. 

Chap. XL p. 82. 

Of the message send be Pichtis to Britonis, and of thair answer. 
How King Arthure was slane, with mony of al the nobillis of 
Britane, be Scottis and Pichtis. How Guanora, his wife, was 
brocht in Angus ; of hir sepulture ; and of the calamite that fell 
to Albianis be this battal. Chap. XII. p. 84. 

How Constantine, King of Britonis, slew the sonnis of Modrede. 
Of uncouth merveUis sene in Albioun. How Eugenius gaif sin- 
dry landis, with armis, to nobill men of his realme. How Con- 
stantine, King of Britonis, was maid monk, in Ireland ; and of 
Eugenius deith. Chap. XIII. p. 87. 

Of King Conwallus, and his lawis and deith. Of the cuming of 
Sanct Colme in Scotland ; and of Sanct Mungo. 

Chap. XIV. p. 89. 


Of King Kinnatill, and how he resignit the crown to Aidane. Of 
the orisoun maid be Sanct Cohue. How Scottis and Pichtis 
faucht amang thaimself, and war aggreit be Sanct Cohne. 

Chap. XV. p. 91. 

How the Saxonis devidit Ingland, in sevin sindry kingdomis. How 
Pichtis and Saxonis war confiderat togidder, and discomfist the 
Scottis and Britonis. Of the orison maid be King Aidane, to his 
army. How the said Aidane was vincust be Saxonis, and his 
Sonne slane. Chap. XVI. p. 94. 

How Saxonis and Pichtis war discomfist in Northumberland, be 
Scottis and Britonis. Of the deith of Sanct Cohne, and Sanct 
Aidane. Of the vengeance that come on the Saxonis, for ding- 
ing of Sanct Austine. And of sindry haly men. 

Chap. XVII. p. 96. 

Of King Kenneth. Of Eugenius the feird. How the King of 
Britonis was doung out of this realrae, be Saxonis, and recoverit 
the samin. How Ethelfreid, King of Northumberland, was 
slane. Of sindry haly men. Chap. XVIII. p. 99. 

Of the vicius tyrane, King Ferquhart, and how he slew himself; 
and of the haly man, Fiacre. Chap. XIX. p. 101. 

Of King Donevald ; and of the deith of Edwine, King of Northum- 
berland. How Eufred and Osrik, Kingis of Northumberland, 
war punist for thair tyranny done to Cristin pepill. And how 
King Oswald convertit the Saxonis to the faith of Crist. 

Chap. XX. p. 103. 

Of the unhappy prophete, Machomete, and his fals lawis. Of sin- 
dry haly men. Of King Ferquhart, and his extorsionis done 
aganis the pepill ; and of his misea^able end. 

Chap. XXI. p. 107. 

Of King Mald^v^ne, and how he was slane be his wife, and his wife 
brint. Of gret mortalite, be rage of pest, in sindry partis of the 
warld ; and how the Scottis war preservit fra the samin. 

Chap. XXII. p. 110. 

Of Eugenius the Fift ; and of the message send to Edfred, King of 
Northumberland ; and of the peace takin thairefter. How King 
Edfred was slane be Eugenius, with xx thousand Saxonis ; and 
of the haly man, Sanct Cuthbert. Chap. XXIII. p. 111. 

VOL. I. L 

Ixxxii TABULA.— VOL. II. 

Of gret trubill done be Sarayenis to Cristin pepill. Of King Eu- 
genius the Sext, and his ai*tis. Of uncouth mervellis sene in 
Albioun. Chap. XXIV. p. 113. 

Of the vicius tyrane, Amberkeleth ; and of his deith. Of King 
Eugenius the Sevint. How the Scottis and Pichtis war recoun- 
saht togidder, be affinite ; and of the slauehter of Eugenius wife. 
Of sevin haly virginis, dotat be the King of Pichtis, in Abir- 
nethy. Chap. XXV. p. 115. 

Of King Mordak, and his werkis ; and of his deith. Of foure sin- 
dry pepill in Albioun. Of the gret mirakillis of Sanct Niniane ; 
and of Sanct Bede. Chap. XXVI. p. 117. 

Of King Ethfine ; and how he maid foure regentis to govern his 
realm. Of gret cruelteis done be Donald of the His ; and of the 
deith of King Ethfine. Chap. XXVII. p. 119. 

Of King Eugenius the viii, and how he was slane for his tyranny ; 
and his evill counsallouris hingit on jebatis. 

Chap. XXVIII. p. 120. 

Of the vicius King Fergus the Thrid; and how he was slane be 
his wife. Of hir orisovm maid to the counsall ; and how scho slew 
hirself. Chap. XXIX. p. 121. 

Of King Solvathius ; and how he dantit sindry gret limmaris of his 
realm. Of his deith, and of mony haly men. 

Chap. XXX. p. 123. 


Of King Achaius ; and how he aggreit his nobillis of all conten- 
tionis. Of his message send to the princis of Ireland; and of 
thair answer. How mony Ireland-men perist in the seis. How 
the Scottis and Ireland-men war aggreit. Chap. I. p 126. 

How King Charlis send his ambassatouris to be confiderat with 
Scottis and Pichtis. Of thair orisoun maid to King Achaius; 
and of the orison maid aganis thaim be Culmane. 

Chap. II. p. 128. 

TABULA.--.VOL. II. IxxxiU 

Of the answer maid to this last orison be Albiane. How France 
and Scotland wer perpetuallie confiderat. How Pichtis refusit to 
be confiderat with France ; and of the articlis contenand the band 
betwix Scotland and France. Chap. III. p. 132. 

How Paip Leo the Thrid, and the Florentinis, wer restorit to thair 
honour and liberie, be King Charlis. Of sindry abbayis foundit 
be Scottis Guilliam. How the universite of Paris began be 
Scottis. Of the loving of the samin. Chap. IV. p. 136. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis wer confiderat be mariage, and slew 
Athelstane, King of Ingland, and put his army to flicht. Of 
King Hungus lawis, and liberte to kirkmen. Of the deith of 
King Charlis, and King Achaius ; and of sindry noble clerkis. 

Chap. V. p. 139. 

Of King Conwallus, and of his deith. Chap. VI. p. 143. 

Of King Dongallus, and how he punist certane conspiratouris. 
How Alpine, Prince of Scotland, clamit the croun of Pichtis, as 
nerest heritoure thairto. Of the Pichtis answer. How the 
Scottis concludit to move wxir on the Pichtis, for denying of the 
croun. Chap. VII. p. 143. 

Of King Alpine ; and how he slew Feredech, King of Pichtis. 
How Brudus and Kenneth, Kingis of Pichtis, wer baith slane; 
and Brudus the feirs, maid King. How King Alpine wes slane, 
and the Scottis discomfist. Chap. VIII. p. 146. 

How Kenneth the Secound wes maid King of Scottis. Of the deith 
of Brudus, Kins of Pichtis : and how Donskene wes maid Kins-. 
How the heid of King Alpine wes brocht in Scotland. How the 
Pichtis wer discomfist. Chap. IX. p. 150. 

Of the message send be Donskene to Kenneth, and of his answer. 
Of the orison maid be Donskene to Kenneth, and of his answer. 
How the Pichtis wer discomfist, and King Donskene slane. 

Chap. X. p. 154. 

How the swerd and cote armour of King Donskene wer send to 
Colmkill. Of the orisoun maid be King Kenneth to his nobillis. 
How the Pichtis wer slane, and banist out of Scotland ; and how 
the Dunbaris tuke thair beginning. Chap. XI. p. 159- 

Of uncouth mervellis sene in Albioun. How the chiar of merbill 

Ixxxiv TABULA— VOL. II. 

wes brocht out of Argyle to Scone. Of the lawis maid be Ken- 
neth, for the commoun well of Scottis ; and of his deith. 

Chap. Xn. p. 162. 

Of the vicious King Donald. How Osbret and Ella, with gret 
noumer of Inglismen, wes discomfist. How xx.m Scottis wer 
slane; and King Donald tane be Inglismen and Britonis. Of 
the message send be Scottis to Osbret ; and of his answer. 

Chap. XIII. p. 166. 

Of the orison maid be Calenus. How Scottis tuke peace with In- 
glismen and Britonis. How King Donald wes put in preson for 
his vicis, and slew himself. Of sindry mervellis sene in Albioun. 

Chap. XIV. p. 170. 

Of King Constantine the Secund ; and of his lawis. Of the hevy 
regrait maid be Evanus of the lUs to his folkis; and how the 
said Evanus wes punist for his rebellioun. Chap. XV. p. 173. 

How Gadanus, King of Danis, send his two brethir, Hungar and 
Hubba, with gret armyis, to invade the Scottis ; and how the said 
Hubba was vincust, and his army put to flicht. 

Chap. XVI. p. 175. 

How King Constantine was slane, and his army discomfist be the 
Danis. Chap. XVII. p. 177. 

Of King Ethus, and his actis. How Osbret, King of Ingland, with 
mony othir pepill, was slane be cruelte of Danis. Of sindry mer- 
vellis sene in Albioun ; and of the deith of Ethus. 

Chap. XVIII. p. 179. 

Of King Gregoure and his lawis. How he recoverit sindry landis 
of his realme ; and discomfist Herdeut,with all the army of Danis. 
How Rasine, gret capitane of Danis, was slane be Inglismen. 

Chap. XIX. p. 18L 

How Gregoure recoverit sindry landis of his realme, and slew Con- 
stantine, King of Britonis. How Scottis, Britonis, and Inglis- 
men war confiderat aganis the Danis. Chap. XX. p. 184. 

How King Gregoure come in Ireland, to revenge certane injuris 
done in Galloway ; and how he dantit the samin with sindry vic- 
toryis, and was governoure thairof mony yeris. Of his loving 
and deith. Chap. XXI. p. 188. 

TABULA.— VOL. II. Ixxxv 

Of King Donald the Sext. How the realme of Normanis and duche- 
ry of Flanderis tuke beginning. Of the grot chevelrie of Danis 
in sindry partis of the warld ; and of his deith. 

Chap. XXII. p. 193. 


Of King Constantine the Thrid. How Danis and Inghsmen war 
confiderat be mariage ; and how the peace was dissolvit. How 
the Scottis war discomfist be the Danis. And of the deilh of 
King Constantine. Chap. I. p. 197. 

Of King Malcolme the First. How Cumbir and Westmureland 
was annexit to the Prince of Scotland. Of the slauchter of Kins 
Malcolme, and punitioun tane for the samin. Of the deith of King 
Athelstane. Chap. II. p. 201. 

Of King Indulphe. How Avalassus, King of Danis, was discomfist 
be King Edmond, be support of Scottis. How sindry Danis war 
discomfist in Buchquhan, and King Indulphe slane. 

Chap. III. p. 208. 

Of Kinge DufFus; and how he was trublit with gret infirmite, be 
wichecraft. How he punist certane conspiratouris, and was slane. 

Chap. IV. p. 205. 

How Culine, Prince of Scotland, punist the slauchter of King Duf- 
fus. Of sindry mervellis sene in Albion. Chap. V. p. 209- 

Of King Culine, and his vicius life. Of the trubill that fell in the 
realme be his evill ministratioun. Chap. VI. p. 211. 

Of King Kenneth the Thrid, and his governance. Of his orison 
maid to the nobillis ; and how he constranit thaim to bring sindry 
thevis to his justice. Chap. VII. p. 213, 

How the Danis, invading the Scottis with gret cruelteis, war dis- 
comfist be King Kenneth. And how the Hay is tuk thair first 
beginning and armis. Chap. VIII. p. 216. 

How King Kenneth slew the Prince of Scotland, that his sonne micht 

Ixxxvi TABULA.— VOL. II. 

succede to the crown. Of the message send be Sanct Edward to 
King Kenneth ; and of Kennethis orisoun maid to his nobillis. 

Chap. IX. p. 221. 

How the auld lawis war abrogat be Kenneth, concerning the elec- 
tioun of kingis; and new lawis, contrar to thaim, institute. Of 
the visioun that come to him in his bed ; and of his deith. 

Chap. X. p. 225. 

Of King Constantine the Feird ; and of sindry mervellis sene in 
Albioun. How Constantine and Malcohne contendit for the 
crown. How Inglismen and Danis war aggreit be Malcohne, 
Lord of Cumbir. How Constantine and Kenneth, recountering 
othir be set battall, wer baith slane. Chap. XI. p. 228. 

Of King Grime ; and of gret trubill that fell betwix him and Mal- 
colme, Prince of Cumbir, for contentioun of the crown. And 
how thay Avar finaly aggreit. Chap. XII. p. 230. 

How gret nowmer of Danis war slane be slicht of Inglismen. Of 
the orisoun maid to King Grime be the nobillis ; and how he was 
slane be Malcolme, Prince of Cumbir. Chap. XIII. p. 234. 

Of Kino- Malcolme the Secound. How Sueno, King of Norroway, 
with double victory, chasit King Eldreid of Ingland, and opprest 
Inglismen with gret cruelteis. Chap. XIV. p. 237. 

How Olavus and Onctus come in Scotland, Avith gret army of Danis. 
And how King Malcolme Avas discomfist. Chap. XV. p. 240. 

How the Castell of Name Avas tane, and the soudjouris thairof trea- 
sonabilly slane, be Danis ; and hoAV the Danis war discomfist at 
Murthlak. Chap. XVI. p. 242. 

How Camus, Prince of NorroAvay, cumand with ane flote of Danis 
in Angus, Avas slane, and his army discomfist, be King Malcolme, 
at Barre. And how the surname of Keithis tuke thair beginning. 

Chap. XVII. p. 245. 

How V hundreth Danis Avar slane be the Thane of Buchquhane. 
How Canute come Avith neAV army of Danis in Scotland, and Avas 
discomfist. How Scottis and Danis war finaly aggreit on all de- 
baitis. Chap. XVIII. p. 247. 

How King Malcolme devidit his realme in baronyis. How the 
nobillis saif to him the Avardis, rcloiffis, and mariage of thair airis, 

TABULA.— VOL. II. Ixxxvii 

quhen thay vaikit. How the salt of Abirdene first began. Of 
the deith of King Malcohne ; and of sindry mervelUs sene in 
Albioun. Chap. XIX. p. 249. 


Of King; Duncane. How the surname of Stewartis tuke thair first 
beginning ; and how Makbeth punist sindry enormiteis done in 
King Duncanis time. Chap. I. p. 252. 

How Edmond Irneside and Canute devidit betwix thaim the realme 
of Ingland. How Sueno, King of Norroway, come in Scotland 
with ane army, and vincust King Duncane. How the foresaid 
Sueno was, eftir, vincust be ane uncouth shcht. 

Chap. II. p. 255. 

Of the weirdis gevin to Makbeth and Banquho. How Makbeth 
was maid Thane of Cawder ; and how he slew King Duncane to 
mak himself king. Chap. III. p. 259. 

How jNIakbeth usurpit the crovm, and chasit the sonnis of King 
Duncane in Cumbir. How he punist sindi'y limmaris, and maid 
lawis for the commoun weill. Chap. IV. p. 261. 

How Banquho was slane be Makbeth, and his sonne Fleance slane 
in Walis. How Walter, the sonne of Fleance, come in Scotland. 
And of the genelogy of Stewartis. Chap. V. p. 264. 

How Makbeth slew his lordis, for proffet of thair landis and guddis. 
How he biggit the Castell of Dunsinnane, and slew Makduffis 
wife and his barnis. Of the orison maid to Malcolme Canmore 
be Makduf. Chap. VI. p. 268. 

How Malcolme Canmore schew himself unabill to be king, for his 
sindry vicis. And how he come in Scotland, and was maid king 
thairof. And of Makbethis deith. Chap. VII. p. 271. 

Of the deith of Edmond, Canute, Herald, and Hardy Canute, Kingis 
of Ingland. How the crown of Ingland was recoverit fra Danis ; 
and Godowine weryit for the innocent slauchter of Alarude. 

Chap. VIII. p. 274. 

Ixxxvi TABULA— VOL. II. 

succede to the crown. Of the message send be Sanct Edward to 
King Kenneth ; and of Kennethis orisoun maid to his nobillis. 

Chap. IX. p. 22L 

How the auld lawis war abrogat be Kenneth, concerning the elec- 
tioun of kingis; and new lawis, contrar to thaim, institute. Of 
the visioun that come to him in his bed ; and of his deith. 

Chap. X. p. 225. 

Of King Constantine the Feird ; and of sindry mervelhs sene in 
Albioun. How Constantine and Malcohne contendit for the 
crown. How Inghsmen and Danis war aggreit be Malcohitie, 
Lord of Cumbir. How Constantine and Kenneth, recountering 
othir be set battall, wer baith slane. Chap. XL p. 228. 

Of King Grime ; and of gret trubill that fell betwix him and ]\Ial- 
colme, Prince of Cumbir, for contentioun of the crown. And 
how thay war finaly aggreit. Chap. XII. p. 230. 

How gret noAvmer of Danis war slane be slicht of Inglismen. Of 
the orisoun maid to King Grime be the nobillis ; and how he was 
slane be Malcolme, Prince of Cumbir. Chap. XIII. p. 234. 

Of King Malcolme the Secound. How Sueno, King of Norroway, 
with double victory, chasit King Eldreid of Ingland, and opprest 
Inglismen with gret cruelteis. Chap. XIV. p. 237. 

How Olavus and Onetus come in Scotland, with gret army of Danis. 
And how King ]Malcolme was discomfist. Chap. XV. p. 240. 

How the Castell of Name was tane, and the soudjouris thairof trea- 
sonabilly slane, be Danis ; and how the Danis war discomfist at 
Murthlak. Chap. XVI. p. 242. 

How Camus, Prince of Norroway, cumand with ane flote of Danis 
in Angus, was slane, and his army discomfist, be King IVIalcolme, 
at Barre. And how the surname of Keithis tuke thair beginning. 

Chap. XVII. p. 245. 

How V hundreth Danis war slane be the Thane of Buchquhane. 
How Canute come with new army of Danis in Scotland, and was 
discomfist. How Scottis and Danis war finaly aggreit on all de- 
baitis. Chap. XVIII. p. 247. 

How King Malcolme devidit his realme in baronyis. How the 
nobillis gaif to him the wardis, releiffis, and mariage of thair airis. 

TABULA.— VOL. II. Ixxxvii 

quhen thay vaikit. How the sait of Abirdene first began. Of 
the deith of King Malcohne ; and of sindry mervelUs sene in 
Albioun. Chap. XIX. p. 249. 


Of Kino; Duncane. How the surname of Stewartis tuke thair first 
beginning ; and how Makbeth punist sindry enormiteis done in 
King Duncanis time. Chap. I. p. 252. 

How Edmond Irneside and Canute devidit betwix thaim the realme 
of Ingland. How Sueno, King of Norroway, come in Scotland 
with ane army, and vincust King Duncane. How the foresaid 
Sueno was, eftir, vincust be ane uncouth shcht. 

Chap. II. p. 255. 

Of the weirdis gevin to Makbeth and Banquho. How Makbeth 
was maid Thane of Cawder ; and how he slew King Duncane to 
mak himself king. Chap. III. p. 259. 

How Makbeth usurpit the croun, and chasit the sonnis of King 
Duncane in Cumbir. How he punist sindry limmaris, and maid 
lawis for the commoun weill. Chap. IV. p. 261. 

How Banquho was slane be Makbeth, and his sonne Fleance slane 
in Walis. How Walter, the sonne of Fleance, come in Scotland. 
And of the genelogy of Stewartis. Chap. V. p. 264. 

How Makbeth slew his lordis, for proffet of thair landis and guddis. 
How he biggit the Castell of Dunsinnane, and slew Makduffis 
wife and his barnis. Of the orison maid to Malcolme Canmore 
be Makduf. Chap. VI. p. 268. 

How Malcolme Canmore schew himself unabill to be king, for his 
sindry vicis. And how he come in Scotland, and was maid king 
thairof. And of Makbethis deith. Chap. VII. p. 271. 

Of the deith of Edmond, Canute, Herald, and Hardy Canute, Kingis 
of Inffland. How the crown of Ingland was recoverit fra Danis ; 
and Godowine weryit for the innocent slauchter of Alarude. 

Chap. VIII. p. 274. 


How King William recoverit his landis. How Richard, King of 
Ingland, and Philhp, King of France, went with gret armyis in 
Jowry. Of thair vassalage and trubill. How Erie David re- 
turnit out of the Haly Land, and foundit Lundoris. 

Chap. VII. p. 323. 

How King Richard returnit in Ingland. How King William pu- 
nist ffret limmaris in his realme. Of the nativite of Prince Alex- 
ander. Of the coronation of King Johne. How the Pape send 
ane swerd to King William. Chap. VIII. p. 326. 

How King William and King Johne war confiderat togidder be 
mariage. Of King Williamis haly life, and liberalite to the kirk. 
How the town of Perth tuke beginning. Chap. IX. p. 328. 

How King Johne subdewit Ireland and Walls. How King Wil- 
liam punist sindry conspiratouris. How Ingland and Ireland 
war maid tributaris to the Pape. Of King Williamis deith ; and 
how sindry ordouris of freris began. Chap. X. p. 330. 

Of King Alexander the Secound, and his actis. How King Johne 
of Ingland invadit the kirk with gret exactionis. How the Pape 
and kirkmen war corruppit, be his money, to assist to his opinioun. 
How King Alexander renewit the band of France ; and of the 
deith of King Johne. Chap. XI. p. 333. 

Of the Generall Counsall haldin at Rome be Paip Innocent ; and 
how the Kingis of Scotland and Ingland invadit aithir realmes 
with gret heirschippis and slauchter ; and how thay war aggreit. 

Chap. XII. p. 336. 

How King Hary and King Alexander war alliat be mariage. Of 
the translation of Sanct Thomas of Canterbury. Of sindry le- 
gatis send in Scotland be the Pape, to conques money. 

Chap. XIII. p. 838. 

How King Alexander punist sindry conspiratouris in his realme. 
Of the first cuming of Blak and Gray Freris in Scotland. 

Chap. XIV. p. 340. 

How King Alexander punist sindry conspiratouris, and aggreit 
King Hary of Ingland and his nobillis. Of his new mariage ; 
and of the nativite of his sonne Alexander. How mony noblis of 
Scotland war slane in Jowry. Chap. XV. p. 342. 


How the reliques of Sanct Margaret war translatit. How King- 
Alexander was haldin in captivite Avith the Cumingis. Of his 
mariage with King Hary the Thrid ; and of the bigging of Sanct 
Mungois Kirk. Chap. XVI. p. 344. 

Of gret derth in Albioun. How Acho, King of Norroway, invadit 
Scotland with gret cruelteis. Of the orisoun maid to him be am- 
bassatouris of King Alexander. Chap. XVII. p. 347. 

How King Alexander come with ane army aganis King Acho. Of 
the orisonis maid be the two kingis to thair armyis; and how 
King Acho Avas discomfist at Largis. Chap. XVIII. p. 349- 

Of the nativite of Alexander the Feird. Of the message send be 
Magnus, King of Norroway, to King Alexander the Thrid ; and 
of his ansAver. And how the said Alexander recoverit the His of 
Scotland fra the Danis. Chap. XIX. p. 353. 

Of the ansAver maid to the Papis legat be King Alexander. Of the 
nativite of Robert Bruce, the vailyeant conqueroure. Of the 
deith of King Alexanderis Avife, and hir barnis. 

Chap. XX. p. 354. 

Of sindry actis done be King Alexander; and of his deith. Of 
Thomas Rymoure. Of sindry merA'eliis sene in Albioun ; and of 
mony nobill clerkis. Chap. XXI. p. 357. 


How Scotland was gidit be vi Governouris. How the mariage be- 
twix the Madin of NorroAvay and King Edward, failyeit. How 
Bruce and Ballioll contendit for the croAvne. How the decisioun 
thairof was committit to King Edward ; and hoAv he maid the 
BaUioll king. Chap. I. p. 360. 

How the Ballioll come in gret trubill, for the making of homage to 
King Edward. Of his allia Avith King Phillip of France. How 
King Edward wan Berwik be treasoun, and slew al Scottis in the 
samin. Chap. II. p, 364. 

How King Ballioll Avas discomfist at Dunbar, and tint all the strenthis 

xcii TABULA.— VOL. II. 

of Scotland. How he gaif ouir the crown to King Edward, and 
fled in France. Chap. III. p. 366. 

How Kinge Edward come with ane army aganis France. Plow the 
Erie of Buchquhane maid gret heirschippis in Ingland. Of Wil- 
liam Wallace, and his vassalage aganis Inglismen. 

Chap. IV. p. 368. 

Of King Edwardis message send to Wallace. Of AVallace answer ; 
and of his gret prudence in chevelry. How the Scottis Avar dis- 
comfist at the Falkirk ; and how the King of France purchest 
peace to Scottis. Chap. V. p. 370. 

How Inglismen war discomfist at Rosling. How King Edward con- 
quest gret rowmes in Scotland ; and how the Forbessis tuk thair 
first beginning. Chap. VI. p. 374. 

Of sindry gret cruelteis done be King Edward aganis Scottis. How 
the Bruce and Cumin war confiderat; and how the Cumin was 
slane. Chap. VII. p. 377. 

How Wallace was betraisit be Schir Johne Menteith. Of King- 
Robert Brucis coronatioun ; and of his gret misery. How he 
conquest Scotland; and how the Douglas tuk thair beginning. 

Chap. VIII. p. 380. 

Of the deith of the tyrane, King Edward Langschankis ; and how 
Edward Carnaver, his son, was maid King of Ingland. How 
King Robert gat sindry victoryis on his ennimes; and of gret 
derth in Scotland. Chap. IX. p. 384. 

Of the condition of trewis tane betwix Edward Bruce and the capi- 
tane of Striveling. How King Edward come, with iii.c thousand 
men, to reskew Striveling. Of the victory fallin to Erie Thomas 
Randale. Chap. X. p. 386. 

How the two kingis exhortit thair armyis to battall. How Inglis- 
men war discomfist at Banochburn, and King Edward chasit be 
the Douglas to Dunbar. Of gret riches that fell to Scottis be 
this victory. How the town of Handwarp and Flemingis tuke 
thair beginning. Chap. XI. p. 390. 

How the crown of Scotland was tailyeit to King Robert and his 
airis. How Edward, his brothir, Avas maid King of Ireland, and 
slane be Inglismen. How King Robert sufferit gret distres in 
Ireland. Chap. XII. p. 395. 

TABULA— VOL. IL xciii 

How King Edward was discomfist be Schir James Douglas. Of 
gret vassalage done be William Sinclar, Bischop of Dunkeld, 
aganis Inglismen ; and how Berwik was recoverit. 

Chap. Xin. p. 397. 

Of the Blak Parliament. How King Edward complanit to the Paip 
for injuris of Scottis. Of the orison maid be the Papis legat to 
King Robert; and of his answer. Chap. XIV. p. 398. 

How King Edward, efter gret cruelteis done be his array in Scot- 
land, Avas discomfist be King Robert at Byland. How the Ham- 
miltonis tuke thair beginning ; and of King Edwardis deith. 

Chap. XV. p. 401. 

How Johne BallioU transferrit all richt that he had to the crown of 
Scotland, in King Robert. How the crown was new tailyeit to 
David Bruce. How Schir James Douglas and Erie Thomas 
Randale did gret vassalage in Scotland. Chap. XVI. p. 403. 

Of the deith and loving of King Robert Bruce ; and of his testament 
and legacy. How Schir James Douglas was chosin to pas with 
his hart in the Haly Land. Chap. XVII. p. 406. 


How Schir James of Dowglas past, with King Robertis hart, to the 
haly graif. Of the coronation of King David Bruce ; and how 
the Erie, Thomas Randale, was maid governour ; and of his 
deith. Chap. I. p. 409. 

How the Erlis of Marche and Mar was maid governouris of Scot- 
land. How Edward Ballioll come in Scotland, to conques the 
crown ; and of the battal of Duphne. Chap. II. p. 414. 

How Edward Balliol was crownit at Scone. How King David fled 
in France. How Perth was recoverit, and the Ballioll vincust be 
the Douglas ; and how King Edward segit Berwik. 

Chap. III. p. 417. 

Of the orison maid be Alexander Seytonis wife ; and how his son 
was slane be tyranny of King Edward. Chap. IV. p. 420. 

xciv TABULA.— VOL. II. 

How the Scottis war discomfist at Halidon hill ; and Berwik ran- 
derit to Inglismen, with mony othir strenthis and munitionis of 
Scotland. Chap. V. p. 422. 

Of the contention betwix Alexander Mowbray, and Hary Bew- 
mont ; and how Inglismen perist at the sege of Lochlevin. 

Chap VI. p. 425. 

How Robert Stewart and Johne Randall recoverit sindry strenthis 
of Scotland. How David Cumin was brocht to gret trubill for 
his rebellion aganis Scottis ; and how he wes tane in favour. 

Chap. VII. p. 427. 

How King Edward come in Scotland with gret armyis, baith be see 
and land. How the Duke of Gilder was discomfist, and how Erie 
David Cumin was slane. Chap. VIII. p. 429. 

How Andro Murray was maid Governoure of Scotland. How 
King Edward returnit with new army in Scotland ; and how 
Inglismen war discomfist at Panmore. Chap. IX. p. 431. 

How William Talbot, and Richard Montagew war vincust be 
Scottis. Of the deith of Andro Murray. Of sindry vassalagis 
done be William Douglas ; and of gret derth in Albion. 

Chap. X. p. 433. 

How the BaUioll fled in Ingland. Of gret vassalage done be Ro- 
bert Stewart, and AVilliam Dowglas. How King David returnit 
in Scotland ; and how William Douglas was banist. 

Chap. XL p. 435. 

How King David rewardit the airis of thaim that war slane at Dup- 
hne, and Halidon hill ; and how he invadit Ingland, sindry 
times, with gret injuris. Chap. XI I. p. 438. 

How King David, at the request of France, invadit Ingland mth 
gret displeseris ; and how he was takin at Durame. How Ing- 
lismen conquest gret boundis in Scotland. 

Chap. XIII. p. 440. 

How William Dowglas recoverit sindry landis out of Inglismennis 
handis, and invadit Ingland with gret displeseris ; and how King 
Edward wrocht gret trubill in Scotland. 

Chap. XIV. p. 444. 


Of the battall of Poiteris. How King David was redemit ; and how 
he punist his baronis for thair fleing fra him at Durame. 

Chap. XV. p. U6. 

Of gret trubill that fell in Scotland, be King Davidis seeound ma- 
nage. Of his deith. Of sindry gret clerkis and mervellis sene 
in Albioun. Chap. XVI. p. 449. 


How Robert Stewart was maid King of Scottis. Of his sonnis and 
douchteris ; and how the realm was tailjeit to thaim. 

Chap. I. p. 45L 

How the Erie of Marche brint Roxburgh; and how Inglismen 
war sindry times discorafist be Scottis. Chap. II. p. 453. 

Of gret pest in Scotland. How Inglismen was discomfist at Sulway. 
Of the message send be Charlis of France ; and how the surname 
of Lyonis tuke thair beginning. Chap. III. p. 455. 

Of gret cruelteis done be Inglismen aganis Scottis. How the King 
of France send gret support to Scottis. Chap. IV. p. 457. 

How King Richard invadit Scotland, with gret cruelteis. Of gret 
vassalage done be William Douglas. Chap. V. p. 459. 

How Robert Stewart and William Douglas did gret vassalage in 
Ireland. How James, Erie of Douglas, vincust Hary Perse, in 
singulare battall ; and how he segit the New Castell. 

Chap. VI. p. 461. 

How Inglismen war discomfist at Otterburn, the Erie of Douglas 
slane, and the Perse brocht presoner in Scotland. How the 
Hepburnis tuke thair beginning. Chap. VII. p. 464. 

How Robert, Erie of FifFe, was maid Governour of Scotland. How 
Alexander, bastard sonne to King Robert, was punist for his 
tyranny; and of King Robertis deith. Chap. VIII. p. 467. 

Of King Robert the thrid. Of the deith of William Douglas, lord 
of Niddisdale. How the clannis of Clankayis and Glenquhat- 
tanis faucht at Perth. Chap. IX. p. 468. 


How King Robert maid his son Duke of Rothesay, and his brothir 
Duke of Albany. Of gret vassalage done be the Erie of Craw- 
furd. Chap. X. p. 470. 

How Schir Robert Morlo was vincust be Hew Traill. How Hary, 
Duk of Longcastel, conquest the croun of Ingland, and deprivit 
King Richard. Chap. XL p. 472. 

How the mariage betwix the Duk of Rothesay and the Erie of 
Marchis douchter, was dissolvit. Of the trubill that come thair- 
throw. Chap. XII. p. 474. 

How King Hary come in Scotland with gret army. Of the deith 
of the Duke of Rothesay ; and how the Scottis war discomfist at 
Nesbet, be the Erie of Marche. Chap. XIII. p. 475. 

How the Scottis war discomfist at Homildoun. How Hary Hait- 
spur, and Thomas Perse, his brothir, wes slane at Schrewisbery, 
and the Erie of Douglas tane. Chap. XIV. p. 477. 

How James, secound son to King Robert, wes tane be Inglismen. 
Of the tennour of the letteris send with him. 

Chap. XV. p. 480. 

Of the gret lamentation maid be King Robert the thrid, for the 
taking of his sonne; and of his deith. Chap. XVI. p. 483. 

How the Universite of Sanct Androis tuk beginning. How gret 
virtew and police was brocht in Scotland, be King James the First. 
How gret skaith fallis in this realine, be promotion of vitius pre- 
latis. Chap. XV XL p. 485. 

How the Erlis of Buchquhane and Wigtoun went, with gret ar- 
myis, in support of France ; and of the deith of Duk Robert. 

Chap. XVIII. p. 488. 

How the Duke of Clarence was slane, with mony othir lordis of 
Ingland, at Bawge. Of the deith of King Hary and King 
Charlis. Chap. XIX. p. 490. 

How ambassatouris war send in Ingland, for redemption of James 
the First. How the Franchemen and Scottis war discomfist at 
Vernoll ; and of gret vassalage done be the madin of France. 

Chap. XX. p. 493. 



How James the First was redemit. Of his coronation and actis. 

Chap. I. p. 496. 

How Duke Murdo, and his two sonnis, war justifyit be King James. 
How the Erie of Cathnes was slane at Inverlochty, and the Erie 
of Mar vincust. Chap. II. p. 499. 

Of gret justice done be King James the First, in al partis of Scot- 
land. Of the nativite of James the Secund. Of sindry actis 
done be the said nobill prince, James the First. 

Chap. III. p. 501. 

How the Bischop of Sanct Androis, be lang precheing, dissuadit 
the riatus custome of bankettis. Chap. IV. p. 503. 

Of the sege of Roxburgh. How the King brocht mony craftismen 
in this realme. How Paule Craw was brint, and the charturaris 
of Perth foundit. Chap. V. p. 505. 

How the Erie of Marche was forfaltit. Of sindry vassalage done 
be the Erie of Mar ; and of his gret industry and wisdome. 

Chap. VI. p. 507. 

How Denmark and Scotland war aggreit of all debaitis. How 
King James douchter, Margaret, was maryit on the Dalphine of 
France ; and how the Perse was discomfist be the Douglas, at 
Piperdene. Chap. VII. p. 508. 

Of the slauchter of King James the First ; and of the punitioun 
that was maid thairfore ; and of sindry mervellis sene in Albioun, 

Chap. VIII. p. 510 

VOL. I. 


VOL. I. 



^ 1 

Ergus, the First King of Scottis; in the First Buke, 
Chap. VI. p. 15. 

Ferithais, the secund king ; in the Secund Buke, Chap. 
II. p. 34. 

Maynus, the thrid king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. III. p. 37. 
Dorvidilla, the feird king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. IV. p. 38. 
Nathak, the v king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. V. p. 40. 
Rewtar, the vi king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. VI. p. 41. 
Rewtha, the vii king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. X. p. 47. 
Therius, the viii king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XL p. 49- 
Josyn, the ix king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XII. p. 51. 
Fynnane, the x king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XIII. p. 53. 
Durstus, the xi king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XIV. p. ^^. 
Ewin the First, and xii king; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XV. 
p. 58. 


Gillus, the xiii king; in the Secund Biike, Chap. XVI. p. Gl. 
Ewin the Secund, and xiv king ; in the Secund Buke, Chap. XVII. 

p. 64. 
Edeir, the xv king; in the Thrid Buke, Chap. I. p. 71. 
Ewin the Thrid, and xvi king ; in the Thrid Buke, Chap. V. p. 8^2. 
Metellane, the xvii king; in the Thrid Buke, Chap. VI. p. 84. 
Caratak, the xviii king; in the Thrid Buke, Chap. VII. p. 86. 
Corbreid, the xix king; in the Feird Buke, Chap. I. p. 113. 
Dardannus, the xx king; in the iv Buke, Chap. VII. p. 128. 
Galdus, the xxi king; in the iv Buke, Chap. VIIL p. 131. 
Lugtak, the xxii king ; in the v Buke, Chap. I, p. 164. 
Mogallus, the xxiii king; in the v Buke, Chap. II. p. 166. 
Conarus, the xxiv king; in the v Buke, Chap. VI. p. 175. 
Ethodius the First, and xxv king; in the v Buke, Chap. VIIL 

p. 179. 
Satraell, the xxvi king; in the v Buke, Chap. XII. p. 187. 
Donald the First, and xxvii king; in the v Buke, Chap. XIII. 

p. 188. 
Ethodius the Secund, and xxviii king ; in the v Buke, Chap. XVII. 

p. 196. 
Athirco, the xxix king; in the vi Buke, Chap. I. p. 198. 
Nathalak, the xxx king; in the vi Buke, Chap. II. p. 200. 
Findok, the xxxi king; in the vi Buke, Chap. III. p. 204. 
Donald the Secound, and xxxii king; in the vi Buke, Chap. IV. 

p. 206. 
Donald the Thrid, and xxxiii king ; in the vi Buke, Chap. V. 

p. 207. 
Craithlint, the xxxiv king ; in the vi Buke, Chap. VI. p. 209. 
Fincormak, the xxxv king ; in the vi Buke, Chap. X. p. 220. 
Romak, the xxxvi king; in the vi Buke, Chap. XIL p. 224. 
Angusiane, the xxxvii king; in the vi Buke, Chap. XIII. p. 227. 
Fethelraak, the xxxviii king; in the vi Buke, Chap. XIV. p. 230. 
Eugenius the First, and xxxix king; in the vi Buke, Chap. XVI. 

p. 233. 
Fergus the Secund, and xl king ; in the vii Buke, Chap. V. p. 256. 
Eugenius the Secund, and xli king; in the vii Buke, Chap. XII. 

p. 271. 


VOL. 11. 

DoNGARD, the xLii king; in the viii Buke, Chap. IV. p. 11. 
Constantine the First, and xliii king ; in the viii Buke, Chap. VII. 

p. 20. 
Congallus, the xliv king; in the viii Buke, Chap. VIII. p. 22. 
Conrannus, the xlv king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. I. p. 59. 
Eugenius the Thrid, and xlvi king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XI. 

p. 82. 
Conwallus, the xlvii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XIV. p. 89. 
Kinnatill, the xlviii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XV. p. 91. 
Adane, the xlix king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XV. p. 91. 
Kenneth the First, and l king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XVIII. p. 99. 
Eugenius the Fourt, and li king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XVIII. 

p. 99. 
Ferquhard the First, and lii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XIX. 

p. 101. 
Donevald, the liii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XX. p. 103. 
Ferquhard the Secund, and liv king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXI. 

p. 107. 
Maldwine, the Lv king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXII. p. 110. 
Eugenius the Fift, and lvi king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXIII. 

p. 111. 
Eugenius the Sext, and Lvii king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXIV. 

p. lis. 

Amberkeleth, the lviii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXV. p. 115. 
Eugenius the Sevint, and lix king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXV. 

p. 115. 
Mordak, the lx king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXVI. p. 117. 
Ethfine, the Lxi king; in the rx Buke, Chap. XXVII. p. 119. 
Eugenius the Aucht, and lxii king; in the ix Buke, Chap. 
XXVIII. p. 120. 


Fergus the Secund, and lxiii king ; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXIX. 

p. 121. 
Solvathius, the lxiv king; in the ix Buke, Chap. XXX. p. 123. 
Achaius, the lxv king; in the x Buke, Chap. I. p. 126. 
Conwallus, the lxvi king; in the x Buke, Chap. VI. p. 14f3. 
Dongallus, the lxvii king ; in the x Buke, Chap. VII. p. 143. 
Alpine, the lxviii king; in the x Buke, Chap. VIII. p. 146. 
Kenneth the Secound, and lxix king; in the x Buke, Chap. IX. 

p. 150. 
Donald the Feird, and lxx king ; in the x Buke, Chap. XIII. p. 

Constantine the Secound, and lxxi king ; in the x Buke, Chap. 

XV. p. 173. 
Ethus, the lxxii king; in the x Buke, Chap. XVIII. p. 179. 
Gregoure, the lxxhi king; in the x Buke, Chap. XIX. p. 181. 
Donald the Fift, and lxxiv king ; in the x Buke, Chap. XXII. 

p. 193. 
Constantine the Thrid, and lxxv king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. I. 

p. 197. 
Malcolme the First, and lxxvi king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. II. 

p. 201. 
Indulphe, the lxxvii king; in the xi Buke, Chap. III. p. 203. 
Duffus, the Lxxviii king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. IV. p. 205. 
Culine, the Lxxix king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. VT. p. 211. 
Kenneth the Thrid, and lxxx king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. VII. 

p. 213. 
Constantine the Feird, and lxxxi king ; in the xi Buke, Chap. XI. 

p. 228. 
Grime, the lxxxii king, in the xi Buke, Chap. XII, p. 230. 
Malcolme the Secound, and lxxxiii king; in the xi Buke, Chap. 

XIV. p. 237. 
Duncane the First, and lxxxiv king; in the xii Buke, Chap. I. 

p. 252. 
Makbeth, the lxxxv king; in the xii Buke, Chap. IV. p. 26J. 
Malcolme the Thrid, and lxxxvi king ; in the xii Buke, Chap. VII. 

p. 271. 


Donald the Sext, and lxxxvii king ; in tlie xii Bake, Chap. XTII. 

p. 288. 
Edgar, the lxxxix king; in the xii Buke, Chap. XIIL p. 288. 
Alexander the First, and xc king; in the xii Buke, Chap. XV. 

p. 293. 
David the First, and xcr king; in the xii Buke, Chap. XVI. p. 

Malcolme the Fourt, and xcii king; in the xiii Buke, Chap. L 

p. 307. 
William, the xciii king ; in the xiii Buke, Chap. IV, p. 314. 
Alexander the Secound, and xciv king; in the xiii Buke, Chap. 

XI. p. 333. 
Alexander the Thrid, and xcv king; in the xiii Buke, Chap. XVI. 

p. 344. 
Johne Ballioll, the xcvi king ; in the xiv Buke, Chap. I. p. 360. 
Robert the First, and xcvii king; in the xiv Buke, Chap. VIII. 

p. 380. 
David the Secound, and xcviii king; in the xv Buke, Chap. I. 

(p. 409}) to the end thairof. 
Robert the Secound, and xcix king ; in the xvi Buke, Chap. I. 

p. 45L 
Robert the Thrid, and c king ; in the xvi Buke, Chap. IX. 

p. 468. 
James the First, and ci king; in the xvii Buke, Chap. I. to the 
end thairof, p. 496. 

James the Secound, son to James the First, was the cii King of 
Scottis. He had gret trubill, certane yeris in the beginning of his 
regne, be conspiratioun of his principall baronis, aganis him : bot, 
at last, he dantit thaim all. And efter that he had rong xxiv yeris, 
and brocht all his subdittis to gret tranquillite and peace, he was 
slane at Roxburgh, be sklice of ane gun, that brak be ouircharge- 
ing, the xvii day of August, the yeir of God, mcccclx. And for 
certane reasonable causis moving us, we have left the history un- 
writtin, baith of James the Secund, Thrid, and Feird, quhill time 
mair ganand occur. 

't) • 


James the Thrid, son to James the Secound, wes the cm kin 
richt different fra the chance and fortoun of his fader, in govern 
ance of his realme : for he began with gret tranquiUite, with peace 
and justice ; bot, at last, be conspiration of the maist part of his 
baronis, aganis him, he was slane, the xi day of Juny, the yeir of 


James the Fourt, son to James the Thrid, was the civ kin<r : and 
had his reahne mony yeris in gret tranquiUite, be equall ministra- 
tion of j ustice, throw al partis of his realme : all theift, reif, and 
slauchter, dantit be his soverane justice. Quhil, at last, fortoun 
began to invy his gret felicite, and causit him to move weir aganis 
Ingland, for the action allanerly of France, that he micht, be his 
battal, draw the King of Ingland out of France, quhilk was invad- 
ing it, for the time, with maist awfuU and dangerous weris ; and 
come to the bordouris Avith ane hundreth thousand armit men. 
And efter that he had won the castell of Norame, with mony othir 
strenthis of the bordouris of Ingland, he abaid xx dayis, but ony 
battall, quhill the two part of his army war skalit fra him. At last, 
ruscheand ouir feirsly on his ennimes, but ordour, was slane at 
Floddon, with mony of all his nobillis, the ix day of September, the 
XXV yeir of his regne, the yeir of God, mdcxiii. 

James the Fift is the cv King of Scottis, regnand now, with gret 
felicite and honour, abone us ; the maist noble and vailyeand prince 
that evir rang afore his time : quhom God conserve, and grant him 
grace to persevere in j ustice, with lang empire, and gud successioun 
of his body ! Amen. 

C^ Tf ^tix tntiiQ tje Itamis of tje itinsis* 


^rofjeme of tfje Itistorg, 


How Marciall Buke, pas to the nobill Prince, 

King James the Fift, my soverane maist preclare. 
And gif sum time thow gettis audience, 
In humill wise, unto his grace declare 
My walkrife nichtis, and my lauboure sare: 

Quhilk ithandly hes for his pleseir tak ; 
Quhill goldin Titan, with his birnand chare, 
Hes past all signis in the Zodiak ; 

Quhill besy Ceres, with hir pleuch and harrois, 

Hes fild hir grain gis full of every corne ; 
And stormy Chiron, with his bow and arrois, 

Hes all the cloudis of the hevinnis schorne ; 
And schill Triton, with his windy home, 

Ouirquhemlit all the flowand occean; 
And Phebus turnit under Capricorne 

The samin greis quhare I first began. 


Sen thow art drawin sa compendius, 

Era flowand Latine into vulgar prose ; 
Schaw now quhat princis bene maist vicius, 

And quhay hes bene of chevelry the rose : 
Quhay did thair kiiigrik in maist honour jois, 

And with thair blud our hberteis hes coft ; 
Regarding nocht to de amang thair fois, 

Sa that thay micht in memory be brocht. 

Schaw, be quhat dangeir and difficill wayis 

Our antecessouris, at thair uter michtis, 
Hes brocht this realme with honour to our dayis; 

Ay fechtand, for thair hberteis and richtis, 
With Romanis, Danis, Inghsmen, and Pichtis : 

As curtas reders may throw thy proces ken. 
Thairfore, thow ganis for na cative wichtis ; 

Allanerly, bot unto nobill men, 

And to sic personis as covettis for to heir 

The vailyeand dedis of our progenitouris ; 
And how this cuntre, baith in peace and weir, 

Bene governit unto thir present houris : 
How forcy cheiftanis, in mony bludy stouris, 

(As now is blawin be my vulgar pen,) 
Maist vailyeandly wan landis and honouris ; 

And, for thair virtew, calUt nobill men. 

For nobilnes sum time the loving is, 

That cumis be meritis of our eldaris gone. 
As Aristotill writis in his Rethorikis, 

Amang nobillis, quhay castin thaim repone, 
Mon dres thair hfe and dedis one be one ; 

To mak thaim worthy to have raemore, 
For honour to than- prince or nation, 

To be in glore to thair posterite. 

VOL. I. 


Ane othir kind thair is of nobilnes, 

That cumis be infusion naturall ; 
And makis ane man sa full of gentilnes, 

Sa curtes, plesand, and sa liberall, 
That every man dois him ane nobill call. 

The lion is sa nobill, as men tellis, 
He cannot rage aganis the bestis small, 

Bot on thaim quhilkis his majeste rebellis. 

The awfull churle is of ane othir strind. 

Thoucht he be borne to vilest servitude, 
Thair may na gentrice sink into his mind, 

To help his freind or nichtbour with his gud. 
The bludy wolf is of the samin stude : 

He feris gret beistis, and ragis on the small ; 
And leiffis in slauchter, tyranny, and blud, 

But ony mercy, quhare he may ouirthrall. 

This man is born ane nobil, thow will say, 

And gevin to sleuth and lust immoderat ; 
All that his eldaris wan, he puttis away ; 

And fra thair virtew is degenerat : 
The more his eldaris fame is elevat, 

The more thair life to honour to approche, 
Thair fame and loving ay interminat ; 

The more is ay unto his vice reproche. 

Araang the oist of Grekis, as we hard, 

Two knichtis war, Achilles and Tersete ; 
That ane maist vailyeand, this othir maist coward. 

Better is to be, sayis Juvinall the Poete, 
Tersetis son, havand Achilles sprete. 

With manly force his purpos to fulfill ; 
Than to be lord of every land and strete^ 

And syne maist cowart, cumin of Achill. 


Man, callit ay maist nobill creature, 

Becaus his life maist reason dois assay, 
Ay sekand honour with his besy cure, 

And is na noble quhen honour is away. 
Thairfore, he is maist nobill man, thou say, 

Of all estatis, under reverence, 
That vailyeantly doith close the latter day, 

Of native cuntre, deand in defence. 

The glore of armis and of forcy dedis, 

Quhen thay ar worthy to be memoriall, 
Na les be wit than manheid ay procedis. 

As Plinius wrait in Story Naturall, 
Ane herd of hertis is more strong at all, 

Havand ane lion aganis the houndis foure, 
Than herd of lionis arrayit in battall, 

Havand ane hert to be thair governoure. 

Quhen fers Achilles was be Paris slane, 

Amang the Grekis began ane subtell plede ; 
Quhay was maist nobill and prudent capitane, 

Into his place and armour to succede ; 
Quhay couth thaim best in every dangeir lede, 

And saif thair honour as he did afore : 
The vailyeant Ajax wan not for his manhede, 

Quhen wise Ulysses bure away the glore. 

Manhede but prudence is ane fury blind, 

And bringis ane man to schame and indegence. 
Prudence but manhede cumis oft behind, 

Howbeit it have na les intelligence 
Of thingis to cum than gone, be sapience. 

Thairfore, quhen wit and manhede doith concurre, 
Hie honour risis with magnificence ; 

For glore to noblis is ane groundin spurre. 


Sen thow contenis mo vailyeand men and wise, 

Than evir was red in ony buke, but dout ; 
Gif ony churle or velane the dispise, 

Bid hence him, harlot : he is not of this rout ; 
For heir ar kingis and mony nobillis stout, 

And nane of thaim pertenand to his clan. 
Thou art so full of nobilnes per tout, 

I wald nane red the, bot ane nobill man. 

Thus to all nobillis sen thow art dedicat, 

Schaw breifly how, be my gret deligence, 
Ilk story be the self is seperat. 

To mak thaim bowsome to thine audience. 
Schrink nocht, thairfore, bot bide at thy sentence, 

Sen thow art armit with invincible trewth. 
Of gentill reders, take benivolence, 

And cure of otheris na invy nor rewth. 

Pas now to licht, with all thy sentence hie ; 

Groundit, but feid or assentatioun. 
In naturall and morall philosophic ; 

With mony grave and prignant orisoun. 
Maid to the reders eruditioun, 

Be the renowmit Hector Boetius ; 
Supportit oft with Scoticronicon, 

To make thy mater more sententius. 

Bring nobill dedis, of mony yeris gone, 

Als fresche' and recent to our memorie, 
As thay war bot into our dayis done ; 

That nobill men may have baith laud and glorie, 
For thair excellent brut of victorie. 

And yit, becaus my time lies bene so schort, 
I think, quhen I have oportunite. 

To ring thair bell into ane othir sort. 


Leir kingis to halt all peple vitius, 

And na sic personis in thair hous ressave ; 
And suffir na servandis avaritius, 

Ouir scliarp exactionis on thair subditis craif ; 
That not be done without thair honour saif : 

Sekand na conques be unleful wanis. 
Schaw mony reasonis, how na king micht haif 

His baronis hartis and thair geir atanis. 

Schaw how the kingis life and governance, 

The murrour of leving to his peple bene ; 
For as he luffis, be his ordinance, 

The same maneris ar with his peple sene : 
And, thairfore, kingis lies na oppin rene, 

To use all pleseiris as thaim likis best. 
The hiear honour and office thay sustene, 

Thair vice is ay the hiear manifest. 

Schaw now quhat kind of sovmdis musicall 

Is maist semand to vailyeand cheveleris : 
As thondran blast of trumpat bellicall, 

The spretis of men to hardy curage steris ; 
So singing, fidling, and piping, not efferis 

For men of honour nor of hie estate, 
Becaus it spoutis swete venome in thair eris. 

And makis thair mindis al effeminate. 

Be mony reasonis of gret experience, 

Schaw how na thing into this erd may be 
So gud, so precius, as ane virtuus prince : 

Quhilk is so nedefull to this realme, that we. 
But him, lies noclit bot deith and poverte. 

Schaw how na gard, nor armour, may defend 
Unhappy life and cursit tyranne, 

Gif thay continew, but mischevus end. 


Persuade all kingis, gif thay have ony sicht 

To lang empire or honour singulare, 
To conques favour and luf of every wicht, 

And every wrangis in thair realme repare : 
For quhen thair subditis are oppressit sare, 

And findis na justice in thair actionis ; 
Than risis nois and rumour populare, 

And drawis the noblis in sindry factionis. 

Schaw quhat punition, be reason of justice, 

Efferis to thay unhappy creaturis 
That nurisis kingis in corrupit vice. 

And schaw quhat truble, quhat vengeance, and injuris 
Continewaly into this realme enduris, 

Quhen men obscure and avaritius 
Hes of the king the giding in thair curis, 

And makis the nobillis to him odius. 

Schaw how gret baronis, for thair evill obeisance, 

Aganis thair prince, makand rebellion ; 
Dejeckit bene fra thair hie governance. 

And brocht to finall exterminion. 
Schaw how na hous of gret dominion, 

Na men of riches nor excellent micht. 
May lang continew in this region ; 

Becaus the pepill may not suffer hicht. 

Schaw how of kirkis the superflew rent 

Is ennime to gud religion, 
And makis preistis more sleuthfull than fervent 

In pietuus werkis and devotion ; 
And not allanerly, perdition 

Of commoun weill, be bullis sumptuus, 
Bot to evill prelatis gret occasion 

To rage in lust and life maist vicius. 


Schaw how young knichtis suld be men of weir, 

With hardy sprete at every jeoperdie, 
Like as thair eldaris bene sa mony yeir, 

Ay to defend thair reahne and hberte ; 
That thay not, be thair sleuth and cowartre, 

The fame and honour of thair eldaris tine. 
Apprise ilk stait into thair awin degre, 

Ay as thay leif in morall discipline. 

Schaw furth ilk king, quhill thow come to the prince 

That regnis now in gret felicite : 
Quhais anciant blud, be hie preeminence, 

Decorit is in maist excellent gre. 
Without compare, of hie nobilite ; 

With giftis mo of nature to him gevin, 
Gif nane abusit in his youtheid be, 

Than evir was gevin to noble under hevin. 

Thocht thow pas furth, as bird implume, to hcht, 

His gratius eris to my werke implore : 
Quhare he may se, as in ane raurrour bricht, 

So notable story is baith of vice and glore, 
Quhilk nevir was sene into his toung afore ; 

Quhairthrow he may, be prudent governing, 
Als Weill his honour as his realme decore, 

And be ane virtuus and ane noble king. 

t dTints* 

Ccr ^tivtittv follobjis tj)t i^istorif mxa CrontMis of 

<^cotlanti» ComptUt anti neiMlt? corrtclut, fir 

tje i^euntntr antJ Nofilt Cleritt, iHaistrr 

^tctov Motttf €f)minon of ^fiertitnf ♦ 

Cranslatit, laitlg, fie iHaister Slojne 33tlUnUtn, 

^vcf^t^tnt at iHurtai?, C|)annxin at Jaus, 

^t tje commantj of t])t ittit^t ^it, 

2aul)t (i^xctlUnt ant» HofiU J^tincr, 

Sames, tjr fi of t]bat name, itins of ^eottis* ^ntr 

limprentit in Ctrinfiursf), fieCJomas 5f9auitr-- 

»on, Uhjellpnfl fornens tje jTtere Mgnlr* 

%\)t JFtrst iSufee, 




How Gathelus, our first progenitour, Uft the land ofGrece, and come 
in Egypt, and maryit Scota, dochter to King Pharo ; and of Ms 
ctiming to Spanye. 

Fter the maner of othir pepil, the Scottis, dc- 
sirand to schaw thair beginning richt anciant, 
schawis thame, be this present Historie, dis- 
cendit of the Grekis and Egyptianis. For, as 
auld cronicHs beris, thair wes ane Greik, namit 
Gathelus, sonne of Cecrops, King of Athenes, 
__^ otherwayis sonne of Argus, King of Argives. 

Gathelus, be his insolence, maid mony heirschippis in Macedone 
and Achaia, quhilkis war certane landis of Grece ; and, becaus he 
couth not suffer the correctioun of freindis, he left his native cun- 
tre of Grece, and come in Egypt, with ane cumpany of siclik young 
men, fugitivis, as he wes, fra thair cuntre. In this time rang in 
Egypt Pharo, the scurge of the pepil of Israel : quhais son, foUow- 
and his faderis iniquite, wes drownit eftir, with all his army, m 

VOL. I. A 


the Reid Seis, be punitioun of God. Gathelus wes the more ple- 
sandly resavit in Egypt, that he apperit, be his cumpany, to support 
King Pharo aganis the Moris and pepill of Ind; quhilkis, be un- 
provisit and haisty incursionis, wastit all the landis and townis of 
Egypt to Memphis, the principall ciete of his realme. Thus had 
Pharo sene ane miserabill rewine of all his realme, war nocht he 
changit the governance of the empire of Egypt be industry of Moyses, 
to quhome, be command of God, the army of Pharo wes committit. 
Pharo, be supple of Gathelus, wan ane maist dangerus battall agane 
the Moris, and brocht thame to sa hie rewine, that he tuk thair prin- 
cipall ciete callit Meroy. Gathelus, eftir this happy victory, returnit 
in Egypt ; and, becaus he wes ane lusty persone, Strang of body, 
with greit spreit, he conquest baith the favour of the king and his 
familiaris. This plesand victory generit mair invy than glore to 
Moyses ; for the Egyptianis hatit all the blud of Israeli : and, thair- 
fore, Moyses, knawing the hatrent of Egyptianis persewing him ilk 
day to the deith, fled out of Egypt in Inde, to saif his life. Gathe- 
lus, for his victorius and vailyeand dedis, wes maid generall-lieute- 
nand to all King Pharois army ; and, becaus he wes ane lusty per- 
son, semely, and of the blud riall of Grece, with prudent ingine, he 
gat King Pharois dochter, namit Scota, in mariage, with part of thay 
landis in heritage quhilk laitlie war tane be force of battall fra the 
pepill of Israel. For thir causis the Grekis began to rejos, seand 
thair capitane in sic familiarite with the prince ; traisting thairthrow 
sumtime to have ane sicker dwelling-place in Egypt. Schort yeris 
eftir Pharo deceissit : eftir quhome succedit to the croun of Egypt 
his Sonne, Bochoris Pharo, quhilk opprest the pepill of Israeli with 
mair servitude and tyranny than did his fader. Apperit thus na es- 
perance of liberie to the said pepill, quhill Moyses returnit furth of 
Ind in Egypt, to schaw the command of God to this Bochoris Pha- 
ro, for delivering of the said pepill out of servitude. Eftir this, 
Egypt wes punist with uncouth plagis, becaus thay held the pro- 
phecy of Moyses in derisioun Thus war the Egyptianis sa astonist, 
that thay inquirit thair Goddis of remeid ; be quhome wes answerit, 
the present plagis, quhilkis rang amang thame for that time, war na 
thing in respect of the terrible and grevous plagis quliilkis war ap- 
peirand to cum haistely on thame. Gathelus, astonist be this re- 


spons, and seand the pepiU presently tormentit with sorrowful plagis, 
tuk ferme purpos to leif Egypt, and erar to assailye the chance of 
fortoun for sum uthir dweUing, than to abide the manifest venge- 
ance of Goddis ; and, thairfore, maid provisioun of all thingis ne- 
cessar to saling : and come out of the mouth of Nile, with his wife, 
his frendis, and servandis, Grekis and Egyptianis, for feir of the said 
plagis, the yeir fra the beginning of the warld, mmm.dc.xliu. Ef- 
tir mekill wilsum travell be the seis Mediterane, he arrivit in the 
land of Numide ; quhare he wes stoppit be the inhabitantis to land. 
Eftir this he pulht up salis, and, be lang and paneful travell, he ar- 
rivit in ane part of Spanye, caUit than Lusican, quliilk wes eftir, be 
his arriving thair, callit Portingall, that is to say, the Port of Ga- 
thele. Quhay may surely affirme ane mater of sa greit antiquite ? 
Gathelus, sowpit be lang travell, and havand na thing to refresche 
his cumpany, landit his folkis, to seik littallis and uthir necessaris, 
to cumfort thaime eftir thair wery labour. In the meine time, the 
inhabitantis of that regioun gaderit aganis him with arrayit battal ; 
nochttheles thay war discumfist, and put to flicht. Throw this vic- 
tory, Gathelus and his folkis grew in esperance of gud fortoun ; 
traisting, eftir sa lang and wilsum travel, to put end to thair la- 
bouris, and have ane stabill and permanent abitUng in the said re- 
gioun. Eftir this victory, the inhabitantis maid ane band of peace 
with Gathelus, and assignit to him certane landis, quhair he suld 
have his dweUing in times cuming. Schort time eftir, he biggit ane 
toun apon the revair of Munde, quhilk wes callit that time Brathare, 
bot now it is caUit Bersale. Nochttheles, the inliabitantis dredand 
that thir new pepill of oncouth blud suld incres haistely in riches 
and strenth beside thame, wes penitent of the contract be thame 
maid ; and, thairfor, be assistance of thair nichbouris, arrayit thame 
in battall aganis Gathelus : and first send certane armit men to in- 
terrup thair bigginnis ; sine maid thame self reddy to cum in the 
staill. Gathelus, weill advertist that this battel movit aganis him 
micht suffer na delay, arrayit his folkis to meit his ennimes ; exhort- 
ing thame to do vailyeantly for thair hvis and honour, and to have 
sicker esperance of victory, sen the battell wes to be led be thame, 
quhilkis war victorius, aganis thair vincust ennimes, quhUkis had na 
exercition nor knawlaige of chevalry. The inhabitantis seand thir 


strangeai'is cum in batell with michty curage and spreit, in ane on- 
couth cuntray, dred, gif thay war vincust in the said battell, thay 
suld be brocht to perpetuall servitude, and thairfor desiint Gathelus 
to ane commoning. In the quhilk thay gaif to him, be new ap- 
pointment, certane landis in the north part of Spanye, calht now Ga- 
licia; for thay had in prophecy, ane strange pepill suld cum sum- 
time to dwell in thay boundis : and commandit him to pas with his 
pepill in the said partis, quhilkis suld be brukit be him but ony im- 
pedimentis in times cuming ; and promittit, gif ony pepill hapnit to 
invade him, to assist to his support. 

Hcna Gathelus beildit the Ciete ofBrigance, and namit all his Pepill 
Scottis. How he send his tzvo Sonnis in Ireland. And of his de- 

He band roborat in maner forsaid, Gathelus maid sacri- 
fice, as the use wes in thay dayis, to his Goddis ; sine 
past to the north partis of Spanye, and thair, with amite 
confident with the inhabitantis thairof, beildit ane toun 
callit Compostella; quhair he, resident in princely dignite, maid 
lawis, to caus his subdittis to lif togidder in justice. Eftir this, he 
callit all his pepill Scottis, for afFectioun that he had to his wife callit 
Scota ; on quhome he gat two sonnis, Hiber and Hemecus. The 
Spanyeartis, na thing rejosing of the brudy spreding of Scottis, dred 
the samin sumtime to rise to thair displesour : thus tuke thay ferme 
purpos to bring the Scottis to uter distruction. Gathelus, knawing 
weil thair ordinance, brocht furth his pepil array it in battel. Than 
followit ane richt dangerus and doutsum battel ; bot at last the vic- 
tory succedit to Scottis. Nane of thir parteis war glaid of the chance 
that fell be this battel ; for the maist forcy and vailyeant capitanis 
war slane on athir side. Thus war thay constranit on ilk side to seik 


peace ; quhilk wes finalie tretit under thir conditionis : Baith thir 


pepill in times cuming sal ceis thair weris, and every ane of thame 
sail life on thair awin lawis, and rejos the samin landis, but impedi- 
mentis, quhilk thay possedit afore this last battel, but ony further 
persecutioun. Throw quhilk it hapnit, ane certane of thair pepill, 
be proces of time, to be send efter in Ireland. Sicker peace thus 
standing amang the two pepiU, Gathelus, sittand in his chiar of mer- 
bill, within his ciete of Brigance, governit his pepill in justice. This 
chiar of merbill had sic weird, that it maid every land, quhair it wes 
found, native to Scottis ; as thir versis schawls : 

The Scottis sail bruke that realrae as native ground, 
Geif weirdis fail! nocht, quhair evir this chiar is found. 

Throw quhilk hapnit, that the said chiar of merbill wes eftir brocht 
out of Spanye in Ireland ; and out of Ireland in thay partis of Al- 
bion, quhilkis wer callit eftir Scotland. In this chiar all kingis of 
Scotland war ay crownit, quhil the time of King Robert Bruse : in 
quhais time, beside mony othir cruelteis done be King Edward Lang- 
schankis, the said chiar of merbill wes taikin be Inglismen, and 
brocht out of Scone to London, and put in to Westmonistar, quhare 
it remanis to our dayis 

Gathelus, seand his pepil incres in Brigance with mair multitude 
than micht be sufficiently nurist, thocht mair expedient to bring hi.s 
pepil to sum othir part, quhair thay micht be esely sustenit, than to 
violat his band of faith ; and, thairfore, be counsal of prudent men, 
he send exploratouris, to spy gif ony landis war within the occeane 
see, to quhilkis he micht bring ane pai't of his pepill. For the fame 
was, fornens Spanye, to the north, wes ane He, inhabit with rude 
pepill, havand na lawis nor maneris. Sic thingis knawing to Ga- 
thelus, he brocht all the schippis he micht get to the nixt port, in 
quhilkis he put baith his sonnis, Hiber and Hemecus, with marinaris, 
weirmen, and othir thingis necessare thairto ; and commandit Jliber, 
as admirall, to pas to the said He, quhilk is now callit Irland. Thir 
two sonnis of Gathelus puUit up salis, and, with fortunat windis, ar- 
rivit, the fift day efter, in the said He. And, efter that thay had landit 
thair folkis, thay affixit thair tentis on the nixt strenthis. The rude 
pepil of this He, astonist be cuming of thir weirmen, fled, with thair 
bestial and guddis, to thair cavernis. Hiber, eftir his cuming, send 


certane armit men to se quhat pepill inhabit this He. The weirmen 
tjuhilkis war send for this effect, hapnit to cum apon the said pepill, 
fleand, as said is, with thair guddis ; and, be aventiire, ane part of 
thaim slew, and otheris brocht as prisoneris to thair admirall. Hi- 
ber, knawing be sindry signis the land plentuous, commandit, gif the 
pepil wald be plesandly subdewit, that na forthir invasion be maid 
on thaim. The pepil seand him mercifull, randrit thair self and 
thair guddis ; and he ressavit thaim with sic benivolence, that he 
sufferit thame to incres with his pepil under ane name and lawis ; 
and left his broder to governe thaim be his autorite and justice. 

Sic thingis done, he maid sacrifice in the honour of his Goddis, 
to send felicite to his pepill : sine returnit in Spanye, levand behind 
him ane Strang garison, with wiffis and barnis, to inhabit this land, 
and to keip the same under obeysance of his broder Hemecus. Hi- 
ber, at his returning in Spanye, fand his fader Gathelus deceissit. 
Eftir quhais deith he wes maid king ; and began to eik the boundis 
of his empire ; and wan sindry townis fra the Spanyeartis : havand 
with him at all timis ane Strang gard of men ; be quhais pissance and 
chevalry he dantit the pepill on sic maner, that he wes haldin in gret 
estimatioun and reverence amang the said pepill. Thus war thay 
constranit to seik his peace. 

Efter this last band of peace, the Scottis grew in Spanye, quhilk 
wes namit than Hiberia, fra Hiber, with sic amite, that baith the 
pepill grew under ane name and blude, with sic tender and freindly 
benevolence, that, but ony memoree of auld injuris, ilk man set him 
to defend his nichbour as his brothir or fader, baith in weir and 
peace. Of this Hiber discendit, be lang progressioun, ane gret po&- 
terite, efter him linealy succeding ; amang quhom wer mony nobill 
and famous princis, as Metellius, Hermoneus, Ptolomeus, Hibertus, 
and Symon Brek. 


Cj&a)?. CBttti. 

How Hemecus govemit Irland ; and, how Symon BreJc wes maid 
King eftir Ms deitli. 

Uhill sic thingis war done in Spanye, Hemecus, quhilk 

Hj^^ri wes left, as said is, be his brother Hiber in Ireland, go- 
|1 Q 11 vernit the same in gret felicite, and namit the samin Hi- 
~^^ hernia, fra Hiber, quhilk is calht in our langage, Ire- 

*and. This He wes inhabit in thay dayis be two pepill : the Scottis ; 
and the auld inhabitantis of it, quhilkis war gottin, as sum auctouns 
sayis, be giandis. Hemecus govemit baith thir pepiU in gret jus- 
tice, havand na les respect to the seissoun, as the time occurrit, than 
to the maneris of the pepill undir his obeysance ; knawing well, na 
thing micht bring the pepill sonar under ane freindschip and band 
than sic doingis : and yit he micht nevir bring thaim to that effect. 
Schort time eftir, Hemecus deceissit. Eftir quhais deth rais ane 
odious debait, quha suld be governour; every natioun contending 
to have the lord of thair awin blude. Quhill at the last thay creat 
two governouris : betwix quhom rais continuall battall and slauchtu- 
on athir side, throw ambitioun and birnand desire to be governour 
of the said He. Efter lang battaUis, thir two pepill, brokin with sin- 
dry displesouris, war constranit to tak peace: howbeit the same 
schort time indurit ; ilk ane of thaim persewing othir with battal. 
And yit thay dwelt mony yeris togiddir be interchange of weir and 
peace. Quhill at last the Scottis, brokin ilk day with mair injuris, 
send thair ambassatouris to Metellius, quhilk wes that time regnand 
above the Scottis in Spanye ; desiring, be thair lamentabill regrait, to 
have support aganis the auld inhabitantis of Ireland ; and schawand 
thame ane wild pepill, impacient to suffir oncouth empire above 
thame ; throw quhilk the Scottis micht have na tranquilite, without 
the said pepill wer mair haistelie dantit. The message of Scottis 
was the mair acceptabill to Metellius, that it concernit the commoun- 
weil baith of the Scottis of Spanye and Ireland, discending, be lang 


progression of a linage and blud. King Metellius nocht refusit thair 
desiris ; traisting the samin to succeid na les to the honour and glore 
of himself, than to the profFet of his freindis : and, thairfore, send 
his thre sonnis, Hermoneus, Ptolomeus, and Hibert, with ane army 
of vailyeant men in Ireland ; quhair thay, with richt dangerus bat- 
tal, vincust the auld inliabitantis of the said He. Sic thingis done 
in Ireland, Hermoneus, the eldest brodir, returnit in Spanye ; levand 
behind him his two brethir, Ptolomeus and Hibert, quhilkis governit 
the pepill of that land mony yeris eftir in gret tranquillite and jus- 
tice, and maid la\ns effering to the rite of thay dayis, and instruk- 
kit the preistis to mak sens and sacrifice to the Goddis, on the same 
maner as the Egyptianis usit. Thus incressit the pepill mony yeris 
eftir in gret felicite and riches. Bot, as the natiu-e of men is, ouir 
greit prosperite engeneris evil maneris, and causis men to wirk fre- 
quent displesouris on thaimself, quhen thay find na ennimes to in- 
vaid thaim at hame ; thir pepil, eftir lang peace, war devidit in two 
opinionis, contending for the governance and administratioun of this 
realme. Thir two partis had all uterlie distroit othir, war not thay 
war reconseld togiddir be ane nobill man namit Thanaus, principal 
man undir the king ; quhilk wes send afore as ambassatour to the 
said He, rejosing of the felicite succeding to his frendis, to caus 
thaim, be his prudent consultation, to incres togidder under a mind. 
This Thanaus, be his honest behavingis, was haldin amang thaim 
of gret prudence, havand bot newtrall affection to baith the partyis ; 
and persuadit thaim, at thair conventioun, to remove all contentionis 
rising amang thaim, and to cheis ane, quhom thay thocht maist ex- 
pedient, to be thair king, and be obeysant to him in all thair gover- 
nance ; for na thing micht be in erd sa gud as ane gud king. Throw 
this persuasioun, the pepill tuk sic fervent desire to have ane king, 
that, all injuris beand reparit, thay commandit Thanaus to cheis him 
king quhom he thocht maist expedient. Than said Thanaus, " I 
" knaw your mindis sa devidit in sindry factionis, that na man that 
" is participant thairwith may be esaly your king. And, sen your 
" mindis is to have ane newtral person to regne above you, thair is 
" now in Spanye ane nobill man, of gret severite and justice, namit 
" Symon Brek, weill accustomit with your lawis, and linealy cuming 
" of ^letellius, your ancient progenitour; quhais sonnis sumtime 


" nocht only supportit you quhan maist danger occurrit, bot gover- 
" nit you mony yeris efter, in gret tranquillite and justice ; qulaais 
" posterite yit remanis amang you in maist honouris. I think this 
" Synion maist abill to be your king." The partyis, herand the name 
of Symon Brek, war glad to have him king, becaus that name wes 
haldin richt fortunat in thay dayis. And, but ony lang tary, thay 
send thair ambassatouris in Spanye, to caus this Symon to cum in 
Ireland, to ressave the crown thairof. Symon knawdng, be degest 
avisement, the entent of thir ambassatouris, providit ane flote of 
schippis ; and, finaly, be prosper windis, arrivit in Ireland, quhair 
he wes solemply ressavit, and cro^mit in the chiar of merbill, quliilk 
wes brocht out of Spanve as maist riche jowell in thay dayis. 

Svmon wes the first king that rang above the Scottis in Ireland, 
fra the beginning of the warld, mmmm.d.iv yeris; fra the flude of 
Nov, ; fra the beginning of Rome, lx yeris ; fra the em- 
pire of Brutus in Albion, cccc.lxxii yeris; before the incarnatioun 
of God, DC.xcv yeris. This Symon governit Ireland in gret pros- 
perite, be counsel namely of Thanaus ; to quhome he gaif sindry 
landis, hand in the south partis of Ireland, beside the rivere of Bir- 
sus, quhilkis landis ar now calht Dowdale ; quhair the said Thanaus 
dwelt efter, with the pepill that he brocht with him out of Brigance, 
the famous ciete of Spanye. Thir pepill war callit Brigandis ; of 
quhome efter, be proces of time, discendit mony nobill and vailyeant 
men, quhilkis come efter vriih Fergus, the first King of Scottis, in 
Albioun : be quhome all thay landis of Scotland, quhilkis ar now 
calht Gallowav, wes calht Brigance ; quhais inhabitantis war fundin 
ay full of manheid, and strangest ennimes to Romanis and Britonis, 
as we sail efter heir. 

This Symon governit Ireland in gud felicite, and deceissit, the 
fourty yeir of his regne. 

VOL. I. 


Of the gret Posterite qfScottis regnand hi Irelatid efter Symo)i 
Bixh. Of the first cuming of Scotth and Pichtis in Albion ; 
and hoxc the Pichtis icar alliat xcith the Scottis. 

YiAiox deceissit, as said is, his sonne Faiiduf wes maid 
king-. Efter him, succedit Ethione. Efter Ethione, suc- 
cedit Glaucus. Efter Glaucus, succedit Nathasyll. Efter 
^^J^^^J^ Nathasyll, succedit Rothesay. This Rothesay Aves the 
first king that send ony Scottis in the His of Albion. The first He 
that he inhabit, he caUit it Rothesay, fra his name. The remanent 
His wer callit Hebredes, fra Hiber, the eldest sonne of Gathelus. 
This Rothesay herand the deth of his fader, Nathasyll, returnit in 
Ireland ; quhair he, be generall vocis of the pepill, wes maid king. 
The yeir that Scottis wer brocht out of Ireland in Albion, was 
fra the empire of Symon Brek in Ireland, cc.xvi yeris ; fra the be- 
ginning of the warld, mmmm.dc.xvii yeris. The Scottis cuming out 
of Ireland in this maner, spred in sindry Ihs of Albion, liand to the 
gret north thairof, and devidit thaim in sindry tribis. The first He 
that thay tuk possessioun of, as the Croniklis schawls, wes namit 
Ardgaell, fra Gathelus ; quhilk now, be corruptioun of langaige, is 
callit Ardgyle. The Scottis, devidit be this maner in sindry tribis, 
chesit certane capitanis to every tribe, to governe thaim baith in time 
of weir and peace ; havand the name of thair capitane in sic reve- 
rence, that quha sa evir tuke the samin in vane war na les punist 
than thay had manesworne thair Goddis : attour that thay maid in- 
vocation thairto, quhen maist irubill occurrit ; as sum divinite war 
in the samin, to preserve thaim fra all danger. This consuetude 
perseverit, monv veris efter, in the His. 

Nocht lang efter, a banist pepill, namit Pichtis, come furth of Den- 
mark, to serche ane dwelling place ; and, efter that thay war inhibit 
to land baith in France, Britane, and Ireland, thay landit in Al- 
bion. Sum authouris sayis, thay come first in Orknay ; and, sone 


efter, in Cathues, Ros, Murray, Mernis, An^us, Fiffe, and Lou- 
thiane : and expellit all the pepill, that inhabit that region afore thair 
cuming. Thir pepill war callit Pichtis, outhir for thair semely per- 
sonis, or ellis for the variant colour of thair clething ; or ellis thay 
war namit Pichtis, fra the Pichtis namit Agathirsanis, thair anciant 
faderis. In probation heirof, Orknay wes calht the auld realme of 
Pichtis. Siclike, tlie seeis betwix Cathnes and Orknay war namit 
Pentland Firth ; and all the landis, quhilkis ar now callit Louthiane, 
war callit than Pentland. Sum authouris sayis, thir Pichtis wer the 
residew of Hunnis, banist be Flemingis ; and come first in Britane 
to seik ane dwelling, quhair thay, be sorrowfull battall, lost H umber, 
thair king, be Lotrine and Camber, sonnis of Brutus, quhilk began 
the empire of Britane. This opinion is plesant, war nocht the dait 
of yeris is descordant to the history ; for Brutus, and his sonnis, war 
mony yeris afore thair cuming in Albion. Of thir Pichtis writis 
mony auld and recent authouris, to quhom applaudis Cornelius 
Tacitus, in the Life of the Romane Agricola; quliare he naiiiis 
the Scottis cuming of Spanyeartis, and the Pichtis, of Almanis. 
Of quhatsumever natioun thay ben discendit, treuth is, efter thaii- 
cuming in Albion, thay war ane civill pepil, richt ingenious and 
crafty baith in weir and peace. Sone efter thair cuming in Albion, 
quhilk wes fra the beginning of the warld, mmmm.dccc.lxvii yeris, 
thay creat ane king to governe thaim in justice, and began to niaik 
policy in bigging of munitionis, townis, and castellis. And, becaus 
thay knew al pepil but successioun abill to perische, thay send thair 
ambassatouris to the Scottis, desiring to haA^e thair dochteris in ma- 
riage : and schew, thocht thay war of oncouth blude, tliay suld noclit 
be vilependit, sen thay, with na les prudence than manheid, hes ouir- 
set incredibill dangeris baith be see and land ; and now laitly con- 
quest, throw benevolence of the Goddis, richt plentuous landis, with 
sic peace and tranquillite, that nane othir pepill may clanie thaim be 
reason : confiding surely, gif the Goddis support thaim, be thair 
awin industry, to be equall to ony thair nichtbouris baith in peace 
and weir. Forthir, gif the Scottis condiscendit to thair honorabill 
desiris, it micht fall, the two pepill incres togidder sa Strang under 
ane blude, that thay micht the better resist the fury of ennimes, 
quhen evir it hapnit thaim to be invadit. 


Tliis legatioun wes unplesand, for the first time, to Scottis, think- 
and unworthy to have ony societe or manage with ane uncouth and 
banist pepill; yit, be degest avisement, thay fand thair commoun 
weil wes noeht rising to sic pissance, that thay micht resist the Bri- 
tonis, quhilkis hatit thaim sen thair first beginning. Heirfor, to 
augment thair commoun weill, and to maik thaim the more Strang 
aganis the Britonis, thay wer profovmdly resolvit to have ahance 
with the Pichtis, and to gif thair dochteris in mariage, undir thir 
condicionis : Ilk ane of thaim sail rejose, in time cuming, all thay 
landis quhilkis thay rejosit afore the mariage. And to concurre to- 
gidder ^vith thair hale pissance, als oft as thay Avar invadit be enni- 
mes. He that maid offence to ony ane of thaim, sail be reput as en- 
nimy to thaim baith ; and, als oft as the croun of Pichtis come in 
pley, the king to be chosen of the nerrest of the womannis blude. 
Thir condicionis plesand in all sidis, the Scottis gaif thair douchteris 
in mainage to the Pichtis. 

C&ap* JFtftfj* 

Hoiv the Britonis, he thair quent slichtts, dissolvit the band of alli- 
ance betwix the Scottis and Pichtis. Of the truhill that fell thair- 

He Britonis tuk na litil suspitioun of this mariage, 
dredand gif thir two pepill incressit togiddir under ane 
blude, to be sa Strang in schort time, that nothir micht 
[i] the said Britonis for the time present, nor thair poste- 
ritc, be sufficient to resist the pissance of thir two pepill ; and, thair- 
for, tuke purpos to distroy thaim baith, and to invade thaim erar 
with fraudefull slichtis, than ony force of battall. And, to bring 
thair purpos to effect, thay devisit to rais sic seditioun betwix thir 
two pepill, that ilk ane of thaim sail invade othir with battall ; and 
fra that ane war cleirly distroyit, this othir, brokin with the same 
weiris, micht be the more facil pray to thaim. Yit, to covir thair 


slichtis more secretly, thay supersedit thair intention for thre yeris, 
to avise gif proces of time micht gif ony better occasioun to move 
battall. The same time, be affinite afore contrackit, the Pichtis 
multiplyit with ane brudy successioun : quhairthrow the two pepil 
grew in equal benevolence ; the Pichtis gevand thair industry to po- 
lecy and labour of thair handis, and settand thair ingine to beilde 
munitiounis and townis for defence and agmentation of thair com- 
moun weil ; the Scottis exerceing thaim in craft of hunting, balking, 
and nurising of thair bestiall ; havand na othir riches bot it only 
that grew be thair store ; and war daily clothit in haberjone of mailye, 
■Vv'ith bow and arrowis, in ithand exercition ; als reddy, at all times, 
to defend thair livis, landis, and liberteis, as thair ennimes war to 
invaid thaim in set battal. 

In the menetime the Britonis send thair ambassatouris to the 
Pichtis : havand gret wounder quhy thay preferrit the Scottis to 
thaim ; sen thay war ane pepil full of riches and glore ; quhais fa- 
mous chevalry wes knawin in France, Almany, and othir sindry re- 
gionis be seeis and landis; havand ane riche realme, repleit of all 
minis of mettall, sa plentuous of every frutis necessar to the use of 
man, that thay micht do hie pleseir to thair nichtbouris, als weill in 
weir as peace. Be contrar, the Scottis war ane ondantit pepill ; ha- 
vand rude and wild maneris, but ony humanite ; confiding mair in 
thair fuliche audacite, than ony prowes or vertew; and dwelling 
amang strait and barrant montanis, and rejosing in na thing sa me- 
kill as in murdir of men and beistis. Attour thay had be prophecy, 
that the Pichtis suld be exterminat and uterly distroyit be Scottis, 
without thay socht the more haisty remeid. For thir causis, desirit 
thaim to mak ane new band of confideracioun with Britonis, to that 
fine, the Scottis may be outhir expellit out of Albion, or ellis brocht 
to uter distruction ; be quhilkis doingis, thay micht have incredibill 
commodite, rejosing baith thair realmes but ony feir, in times cum- 
ing. And, to gif thaim the more provocatioun to attempt this be- 
sines, thay promittit to support thaim with men, money, and vitallis, 
at thair pleseir. 

This message had the more credit, that the Pichtis had afore ane 
vehement suspitioun, that the brudy spreding of Scottis suld sum 
time fall to hie dammage of thair posterite : als na thing micht have 


causit tliaini mair to move battall aganis the Scottis, than the re- 
sponsis of thair Goddis, conciirrand to thair awin suspition. At 
last the Pichtis, be lang consviltatioun, answerit, thay contrackit af- 
finite with the Scottis mair of necessite than ony hartly frendschip ; 
quhais conuippit manneris war richt unplesand to thaim. Nocht- 
theles, sic oportunite may cum, be proces of time, that thay micht 
have sufficient occasion to move weir aganis the Scottis, as tliay de- 
sirit : for na thing micht be sa acceptabill to thaim as the amite and 
fallowschip of Britonis ; providing klwayis, the said Britonis maid 
thaim sufficient help, quhen time requirit, aganis the ScottivS. Sic 
besines done, as occurrit for that time, the ambassatouris war dis- 

Schort time eftir, the Pichtis, seikand occasioun to move battall 
aganis the Scottis, commandit, be general edict, na Scottis to be 
found within ony townis or landis of Pichtis, efter ane prefixit day, 
under pane of deth. The Pichtis, efter that this day wes ouir past, 
slew all Scottis that war found within thair townis, munitionis, and 
roumes, as brekaris of thair lawis. The Scottis, richt unpacient to 
sustene sa hie injuris, ceissit not quhill thay had slane als mony of 
the Pichtis as wer afore slane of Scottis. Incontinent, be liaisty 
trubil rising in this maner, wes sa lamentable murdir on athir side, 
that ilk ane of thame slew othir at thair recountering, regarding no- 
thir affinite, blude, time, nor place. 


Hozv the PicMis and Scottis maid thair ordinarice to invade ot/iir be 
hattell Hoic Ferqnhard, King of Irland, send his sonne Fergus, 
xciiti ane army, in support of Scottis agwiis the Ptchtis ; and. 
How the said Fergus 'wes maid King. 

N this maner the peace dissolvit, the Pichtis denuncit 
battell to Scottis : efter quhilk followit continual incur- 
sionis on athir side. Attour, that every thing suld be 
u^^^^a done erar be consultatioun than be inmoderat hatrent, 
■he Pichtis providit al thingis necessar for battell ; in quhat wise, and 
be quhat capitanis it suld be led ; quhidder thay suld abide the cum- 
ing of thair enimes, or invade thame within thair awin rounns. 

The same time, the Scottis convenit in Argyle; quhau- the capi- 
tanes war devidit in sindi'y opinionis concerning this battell. Sum, 
accusing the tresonable slichtis of Pichtis, desirit to pas on thame 
haistely, as wrangus and manesworne pepiU, brekaris of than- faith, 
quhais injure wes sa importabill, it micht suffir na delay. Otheris 
thocht expedient, sen the mater wes wechty, to invade thair enmmes 
with hid shchtis and gud ordour. In the mene time, rais up ane 
agit man, and said in this maner : " I knaw weill, my hartly frendis, 
" this injure of Pichtis is sa intollerabill and odius, that we suld 
" rusche haistely to harnes to revenge the same. Nochttheles, all 
" besines bene weill done that procedis be gud avisement. And, sen 
" ire avahs nocht but strenth, knaw weill, this battell that ye intende 
" to move, sail be na les aganis the Britonis than Pichtis ; howbeit 
" ye have nocht that craft of chevelry nor pissance to resist thame 
" baith. For thir causis, I thinke na besines sa profitable, as to 
" send ambassatouris to our aunciant progenitouris of Ireland, to 
" have thair support in this maist dangerus cais. Forther, sen plu- 
" ralite of capitanis, as oft occurris, rasis seditioun, best is to chese 
" ane amang us to have empire above the laif ; under quhais coun- 
" sel we saU fecht for our livis and liberteis, aganis ane fals and 


" manesworne pepil, quliilk lies invadit us but ony occasioun of in- 
" juris." This last opinioun wes maist apprisit. 

The Scottis sone efter send thair ambassatouris in Ireland, com- 
plenand the wickit offence done be Pichtis, and desiring support. 
Ferquhard, quhilk wes that time King of Scottis in Ireland, sore 
niovit, for displesure done to his frendis the Scottis in Albion, send 
his Sonne Fergus, ane wise and vailyeant prince, to thair support ; 
and, to give thame the more esperance of permanent and sonse weird, 
he send with thame the fatale chiar of marbill. Fergus wes the more 
plesandly ressavit be the Scottis, that thair commoun weil wes ap- 
prochand to hie dangear be ane maist perellus battall. Efter his 
cuming, ane counsel] wes set in Argyle, in the quhilk Fergus said 
in this wise : " Maist vailyeant pepill, ye se ane cumpany of nobill 
" men, as ye desirit, cuming in this your regioun to resist the fury 
" of ennimes. The faderis are sa reuthfull to thair childrin, that 
" nane offence may be done to thair said childrin, bot the same re- 
" turnis to thair dishonour and schame. We ar dettit to you as fa- 
" deris to thair childrin ; schaw you thairfor oure childrin, as we 
" sail schaw us your faderis. Lat ane injure be commoun to us 
" baith, sen we ar conjunit togidder in blud and amite ; that glore 
" and honour may redound to us, and proffite unto you. Yit ane 
" thing bene necessar to avise; quhidder the empire of ane or of 
" mony be mair proffitabill for your commoun weill .'' And quhilk 
" of thame ye think maist profitabill sail be plesand to us, sen we, 
" be favoure and benevolence of Goddis, ar happely arrivit in your 
" regioun, and cuming only for your singulare weill and support."* 

The counsel, efter this orison of Fergus, thocht pluralite of capi- 
tanis unproffitabill ; and, thairfore, be degest consultatioun, condis- 
cendit to be governit be empire of ane king ; and this king to have 
empire on thame als weill in peace, as in every trubil appering aganis 
thair ennimes. Attour, to remove all suspitioun of hatrent, becaus 
ilk tribe desirit ane king of thair awin linnage, thay chesit Fergus, 
baith for his nobill blude, and othir his excellent virtuous, to be 
thau- king ; attour he wes sa provin in manheid and justice, that na 
capitane of the tribis micht be comparit to him. Fergus, chosin king 
in this maner, wes crownit in the fatale chiar of merbil, quhilk he 
brocht with him, be respons of Goddis, to stabill his realme in Al- 


bion ; and wes the first king that rang above the Scottis in that re- 
gioun : fra the beginning of the warld, mmmm.dccc.lxix yeris ; afore 
the incamatioun of God, yeris ; fra the beginning of Rome, 
cccc.xx 3^eris; fra the impire of Brutis in Britane, dccc.xxxvii 

How King Fergus come, with gret ordinance, aganis the Pichtis. 
How the dessait of Britcmis wes discover it baiih to Scottis and 
Pichtis. And of the orison maid be Fergus to the King of 

He Scottis rising on this maner, as we have schawin, in 
Albioun, King Fergus gave his hole mind and attend- 
ance to resist the injure of this battall, movit be the 
Pichtis ; and, efter that he had calht all the capitanis 
afore him, he commandit every ane of thame to be reddy to pas with 
him, with careage hors, of fourty dayis vitallis : and, becaus he knew 
na thing mair odius than seditioun amang weirmen, he maid afald 
concord amang his pepill, and commandit thame to be obeysant to 
thair capitanis, with sic ordour that none of thame waver fra thair 
fallois, in aventure thay fall as pray to thair ennimes. Sic thingis 
done, he maid sacrifice in the honoure of his Goddis, according to 
the use that wes in thay dayis; praying the Goddis, to take ven- 
geance of the party that gaif first oceasioun of battall aganis othir ; 
and to grant him sic felicite in his just defence, that victory may 
succede to him but hevy dammage of his pepill. 

Quhill the Scottis war at thair besines, the Pichtis assemblit ane 
army, with na litill gareson of Britonis concurrant to thair support. 
Apperit, on athir side, ane wickit and unnaturall bergane betwix two 
pepil, freindis and cieteyouris, faderis and sonnis. The Pichtis come 
first in the Scottis landis : aganis quhome, with na les curage than 
manheid, went Fergus, with anciant armis displayit in forme of 

VOL. I. c 


baner ; in quhilk wes ane reid lioun, ranipand in ane feild of gold, 
with thunderand steir, awfully dingand his bak, as is the gise of the 
gentill lioun, quhen he enforsis him to wraith. Fergus wes the first 
that bure thir armis in Albion; and, efter him, thay Avar ay the 
amies of all kingis discending of his linnaige, to our dayis. 

Quhill the Scottis and Pichtis wer arrayit in otheris sicht, the army 
of Britonis sti^de arrayit on cbeich, nocht far fra thame, devisand be 
quhat slichtis thay micht distroy thame baith ; with ferme purpos, 
qulien the Scottis and Pichtis wer jonit togidder, and the tane of 
thame discomfist, than the party victorius suld finaly be distroyit be 
thair fresche army : and quhen thir two pepill war distrojdt be this 
slicht, the Britonis micht rejose baith thair realmes in Albion, but 
ony feir, in times cuming. This subtel slicht wes discoverit to Fer- 
gus be ane banist Briton. Throw quhilk it hapnit, that baith the 
armyis, movit na les be feir of ennimes than be thair awin propir 
dammage, supersedit battall certane dayis. 

In the meine tnne, King Fergus desirit ane commoning with the 
King of Pichtis, apon hie materis, concerning na les the weill of 
Pichtis than of Scottis. The King of Pichtis refusit nocht the com- 
moning, and met King Fergus with ane few cumpany of his nobillis ; 
the oistis standing on ilk side, arrayit. Than said Fergus in this 
maner : " Of times riche townis, and pepill contending for the supe- 
" riorite, lies brocht thaimself to miserabill rewine, and thair enni- 
" mes to hie commoditeis ; quhilk thingis sail nocht faill to cum on 
" us, gif we happin to fecht this day. The occasion of battell, quhilk 
" ye movit first aganis us, desu'is nocht at this time to be discussit, 
" lauchfull or injust ; howbeit, the Scottis lies sustenit of your pe- 
" pill importabill injuris but ony redres. Yit, gif it be leful erar to 
" schaw the verite than ony flurisand wourdis, the desu'e of king- 
" doiune, and slicht of Britonis, lies movit you to battall. Ye wald 
" nevir have invadit us, your faderis, war nocht the Britonis, oure 
" commoun ennimes, lies devisit the same, be quent slichtis, to baith 
'-' our mischeiffis. And quhidder thir thingis be trew or fals ye may 
" best discus ; howbeit na reasone may perswaid me to beleif ony 
" otliir, bot this battall sal cum, gif we continew, to the irrecover- 
" able dammage of us baith. Gif we fecht, quha doubtis bot vic- 
" tory sail be uncertane ? for we ar of equal pissance. Suppone we 


" be vincust, quhilk may nocht succeid but undemus murdir of you, 
" than sail ye be ane facill pray to your enninies ; bringand thaini 
" to triumphe and honour, and yourself to misire and servitude. 
" Quhat thing may be more odius, or more detestabDl, than the 
" sonnis to invade thair faderis ? We ar faderis ; ye, our sonnis : 
" your sonnis ar our nepotis : and, quhidder we be vincust or vic- 
" torious, ye sail defoull yourself with maist terribill offence aganis 
" the Goddis. Heirfor, lat us commoun of peace, as nichtbouris and 
" freindis alliat togidder ; and consider quhat infinite dammage this 
" battall sail do to us, and quhat commodite to our commoun enni- 
" mes. And gif ony injure be done be Scottis to yovu' pepill, it sail 
" be redressit be me ; to that fine, that we, quhilkis ar of ane proxi- 
" mite and blude, may evade the quent slichtis devisit be Britonis 
" to baith our dammage, and invade our ennimes with the samin 
" tressoun that thay devisit for us ; that reason and justice may seme 
" mail* pissant amang us, than hatrent or invy : for, I beleif, na 
" othir way is sa souir to stabiU our pepill in this He of Albion." 

Ofsindry consultationis maid he Pichtis ; and how thay war re- 
counseld with the Scottis. 

He King of Pichtis answerit to thir wordis of Fergus, 
that he micht nocht, be his private autorite, dissolve 
tliingis done be publik counsell of his nobillis. This 
battall, that he movit, wes decernit be publik, and nocht 
be private counsell : nochtheles, he wald glaidly avise with his no- 
billis, quhidder thay wald half weir or peace ; and sal convene to 
the same place, with thair mind. 

Als sone as baith the kingis returnit to thair tentis, the King of 
Pichtis rehersit the wourdis of Fergus afore his counsell, and schew 
how the same day behuvit thaim nocht only to have fochtin aganis 
the Scottis, bot aganis the tressoun of Britonis ; and, to verify his 
entent, he brocht certane Britonis in testimonial! thairof : attour the 


inoportune sollicitation of Britonis, desiring battal aganis Scottis, 
maid the slicht more credibill to Pichtis. The Pichtis, arising un- 
prudently in this mater, Avar devidit in two opinionis. Sum allegit, 
the amite of Scottis wes to be refusit ; for thay have persewit the 
Pichtis with sa mony slauchteris reiffis, the same may nocht be dew- 
ly redressit. Heirfor, all thair alliance, all thair condicionis and 
peace, aucht to be contemnit; for sic thingis may nocht indure, 
quhare reif, injure, and hatrent, ar moreestemit, than faith, reason, 
and justice. Otheris said, the amite of Scottis wes baith honest and 
necessare ; becaus thay did monj^ pleseiris afor to Pichtis, and mo- 
vit na battall quhil thay war first injurit. And, sen the Britonis war 
conuiion ennmies baith to Scottis and Pichtis, force is to thaim to 
be reconseld, or ellis to be schamefully doung out of Albion. At- 
tour the affinite and blude rising betwix thaim suld put end to thair 
weris ; sen na thing is more detestabill to the Goddis, nor abhomi- 
nabil to mortal creaturis, than thay pepil to move battall aganis othir, 
quhilkis ar alliat under ane commixtioun of blude. Thairfor ap- 
perit na thing sa gud to Pichtis as to have freindschip of Scottis ; 
ies than thay purposit, to rendir falset, hatrent, and evil dedis, for 
faith, luf, and gud thankis. Eftir that mony of the Pichtis war ge- 
vin to peace, ane of the Pichtis, ennemy to Scottis?, becaus his bro- 
der wes slane in this last battall, said on this wise : " How is this 
" blind contentioun rising amang vou, maist vailyeant men ? Have 
" ye nocht sufficient experience of the falset and cruelte of Scottis r 
" Delite ye ony forther to assailye, gif ony band may be kepit with 
" unfaithfull pepill, full of fers ingine and cruelte, borne to our uter 
" mischeif.'' Beleif ye the respons of our Goddis be vane .^ Svdd 
" we nuris this pestilencius vennome, to the finall perdicioun baith 
" of us and our realme ? This bludy and tressonabill pepill, gif our 
" Goddis schawls the verite, sail nocht fail to rais amang us ane 
" flame that sail nevir be sloknit."" To this Avickit man answerit ane 
othir Picht, and said, " Ye suld nocht be movit be the respons of 
" Goddis : for gif thay be of determit verite, tha}' vaay nocht be 
*' eschewit ; gif thay be fals, thay suld nocht be dred. Heirfor all 
" injuris, done be ony slicht and tressoun of athir partyis, suld be re- 
" movit : and, to saif oure honestie, lat nevir oure aith and band be 
" brokin in oure defalt ; becaus we have sufficient experience in our 


" dayis, quhat notabill vengeance bene takin apon mony nobil and 
" vailyeant campionis, quhen thay had nocht thair faith nor Goddis 
" in reverence. Lat us returne to the band of Scottis, sen the same 
" mav nothir be dissolvit but offence of Goddis, nor yit but incre- 
" dibill schame ; sa that we may persevere in kindnes, but offence 
" othir to the immortall Goddis, or our tender freindis : als nature, 
" the moder of everv thing, constranis us to luffe our faderis, for 
" thay luffe our barnis, thair nepotis. It is nocht necessar, thair- 
" for, to have ony battal ; bot erar to luffe our freindis, that we be 
" nocht in derisioun to our ennimes." Als sone as thir Avordis war 
said, the wiffis of Pichtis, quhilkis followit the army for luffe of thair 
husbandis, fell on kneis, with ruthfull teris, praying thair husbandis 
to violat nocht thaimself with schameful slauchter of thair faderis : 
" It is better to us and our barnis,*" said thay, " to de ony maner 
" of deith, than to se our faderis and husbandis sla3^and othir, Avith 
" cruell wondis." The Pichtis, movit sum part be luffe of thair 
wiffis and barnis, sum part be reverence of thair Goddis, condiscen- 
dit to have peace vath the Scottis, under thir conditionis : ^Redres 
maid on ilk side. The Britonis, quhilkis wer movaris of this battall, 
sail be haldin ennimes to baith the pepil. All othir chargis to be at 
the pleseir of the two kingis, quhidder thay list to strength peace 
under the auld conditionis or new ; and, gif thir conditionis war nocht 
sufficient to roborat the peace, Avith quhat othir conditionis the two 
princis thocht maist ganand. Sone eftir, ane day Avas set to renewe 
the peace. The Britonis, quhilkis come in support of Pichtis, 
heirand this concord, returnit hamc, dredand the samin to succede, 
to thair litill proffet. On the day affixit, the Scottis and Pichtis war 
agreit on al debatis, efter the tenour of the auld band, Anth thir ncAv 
conditionis : Ilk ane of thu' tAvo pepil sal leif content of thair aAAnn 
rowmes ; supporting othir, als weiU in honour as in profit, quhen 
hie and difficil chargis occurris, aganis thair ennimes. The injuris 
done to ony ane of thaim, sal be reput commoun to thaim baith ; 
and, quhen it was necessar to thaim to fecht aganis thair ennimes, 
baith the pepill sail convene togidder under ane mind and ordinance. 
The peace beand roborat in this maner, baith the kingis returnit 


Hoxo Coyll, King of Britonis, was slane, and his Army discoinjist 
be Scottis and Pichtis. 

Oyll, King of Britonis, herand at York, the Scottis 
and Pichtis confiderat in maner foresaid, was richt sor- 
rowfull ; for he dred thir two pepil to incres sum time 
to his hie displeseir. Astonist heirof, and nocht knaw_ 
nig be quhat ingine he micht distroy thaim baith, for his shchtis 
afore come to htill effect; he tuke ferme purpos to have experience, 
gif the Scottis, quhome he held for ane vagabound and banist pe- 
pill, of uncouth blude, Strang in murdir of bestis, durst fecht aganis 
his pepill, full of glore and chevalry. Yit he supersedit this mater 
for two yeris, to s^ gif ony proud insolence micht gener new divisioun 
amang thaim, quhairthrow he micht find sum better occasioun to 
nivaid thaim be battall; for he understude na sickir tranquillite 
nor peace micht be had amang his pepill, during the fallowschip of 
Scottis and Pichtis under ane concord and blude. Heirfor, to rais 
sum occasioun of battal betwix thir two pepil he send ane cumpany 
of Britonis, in few nowmer, to invade the bordouris of Pichtis with 
frequent heirschippis ; and quhen the same, be reason of trewis, was 
desirit be Pichtis to be reparit, the Britonis schew thaim nevir ac- 
custumate with sic corruppit dedis of thift ; and said, the same wes 
done be Scottis allanerly. At last the ground of this sHcht was so 
serchit and brocht to licht, that the same was provin cleirly on the 
Britonis; throw quhilk the two confiderat pepill tuke sik hatrent 
aganis the said Britonis, that, efter incredibill slauchter of thair pe- 
pil, thay invadit thair realme, and brocht ane multitude of bestial 1 
out of the saniin. 

King Coyll, impacient to suffer this outraige, maid him to wirk 
that thing be force of armes, quhilk he micht not do afore be slicht 
of ingine : and assemblit sone efter ane huge nowmer of pepil, with 
gret ordinance of battall ; and entrit at the west bordouris of Scot- 


land, and affixit his tentis on the river of Dune ; invading the countre 
with continuall heirschippis, fire, and slauchter. Fergus, weill ad- 
vertist of thair doingis, commandit the bestiall and guddis to be 
drevin to the montanis; and, with thaini, commandit the wiffis, 
barnis, and othir febill creatouris, to pas to the strenthis of the said 
montanis, to eschew the fury of ennimes. Sic thingis done, be com- 
mandit, be general proclamationis, al fensabil men to be reddy, in 
thair best avise, to resist thair ennimes. Howbeit he desirit na thing 
mair than to prolong the battal ; that, be lang tary and penurite of 
vittalhs, his ennimes micht be wery and irkit. 

In the mene time, ane Scot tresonabilly fled to King Coyll, and 
discoverit to him every thing devisit be King Fergus. Incontinent, 
King Coyll send dm Britonis to take the said pray of bestiall fra the 
montanis ; and that he micht, be untraist suddante, the moi'e cruelte 
exerce, he maid his army reddy to invade the Scottis on the nixt 
morrow. Sic thingis schawin to Scottis and Pichtis be thair scur- 
riouris, apperit na litill affray in thair army. Than Fergus tuke 
consultatioun of his nobillis quhat was best to be done. Mony of 
thaim, astonist be multitude and curage of Britonis, dissentit to bat- 
tall. Utheris exhortit him thairto ; saying, thay war ane sufficient 
army, and determit to fecht for defence of thair Aviffis, barnis, and 
Uberteis, to the deith, sa that he wald assist to thaim. Attour it 
wes na les necessar than honorabill to assailye the chance of battall ; 
for victory is gottin erar be manheid and prudence, than ony mul- 
titude of pepill. Efter divers opinionis, it was concludit, that Fer- 
gus, with his folkis, at the first vigill, sail set on the wache of Bri- 
tonis ; and the King of Pichtis, with his folkis, sal pas ouir the wai- 
ter of Dune, quhare the army of Britonis lay, to cum haistely on 
thair bakkis, als sone as thay heir the nois ryis be Scottis. Sic 
thingis done with manheid and prudence, to submit the residew to 
the chance of fortoun. 

The samin nicht, Fergus, as was devisit, slew, be gret jeoperdy, 
the wache of Britonis ; and nocht only braik thair trinschis, bot en- 
terit fersly within thair tentis, afore King Coyll was advertist of his 
cuming. Incontinent rais ane terribill clamour amang the Britonis, 
fast raschand to harnes, to resist this haisty effray ; quhen suddanly 
the Pichtis come on tliair backis, suspekand na thing les than sic ir- 


ruptioun of ennimes. The Britonis, nocht weill walkinit of thair 
sleip, war invadit on al sidis, and discomfist or thay micht cum to 
array ; amang quhome King Coyll, unwarly kepit be his nobilUs, 
was slane. In memory heirof, the place quhare he was slane was 
namit efter Coyll ; quhilk regioun remanis yit under the same name, 
or, litill different thairfra, calht now Kyle. 

Of King Fergus orison to his Nohillis ; and how the Croun of Scot- 
land icas tailyet to him and his successouris. 

Fter this victory, the Scottis and Pichtis, with display it 
baner, convenit on ane litill mote. The residew of Bri- 
tonis, quhilkis war eschapit fra this battall, be thair fle- 
ing under nicht, herand thair king slane, and thair ar- 
my discomfist, send ane herald to desire peace. The Scottis and 
Pichtis, more insolent efter this victory than afore, rebutit the Bri- 
tonis, and denyit peace : nochttheles the two kingis, quhilkis knew 
Weill the gret pissance of Britonis, condiscendit to thair peticionis. 
Quhen the pray and spulye of this battall was equaly devidit amang 
the two pepil, effering to thair manheid and prowes, the two kingis 
returnit hame. 

Sone efter, Fergus convenit his nobillis in Argyle, and said in this 
wise : " Ye se, maist vailyeant campionis, how ye, be speciall favour 
" of Goddis, hes vincust your ennimes, and brocht your landis, be 
" wisdome and manheid, to sickir peace; and, thocht ye war un- 
" equale baith in nowmer and pissance, yit the Goddis hes bene sa 
" propiciant, that ye have vincust the ennimes quhome ye maist 
" dred in this erd. Ye have put down your noisum ennime, with 
" al his army, and ar richit with thair spulye. Thay that contem- 
" nit you afore, as febill, banist, and unarmit pepill, hes reuthfully 
" desirit your peace, niair necessar than honest to thaim ; to be ane 
" notabil exampill in timis cuming, how unsicker is to confide in ony 
" vane pissance of man. We knaw weill, how riche, how pissant 





" ar the Britonis baith be see and land : and the more riche thay ar, 
" the more schame redoundis to thaim, and the more glore to us ; 
" sen thay ar vincust be us, quhome thay held maist vile and febill. 
" We have usit our victory but ony cruelteis. We have vincust 
" our ire, to that fine, that the Goddis, quhilkis hes gevin us sa proud 
" victory, sail nocht find, be our perverst insolence, ony occasion to 
" bring us sum othir time in derisioun of ennimes; sen we nocht 
" exercit our hatrent on thir discomfist Britonis, fleing oure fury be 
" dirknes of nicht, bot sufferit thaim to depart with our mercy and 
" peace. Thus may we evidently se, that our wiffis, barnis, hber- 
" teis, and landis, quhilkis our ennimes intendit to have bereft us, 
" ar saiffit allanerly be favour of Goddis. Restis now to avise, be 
" prudent consultation, how we may eschew all dangier appering 
" in times cuming. Quhilkis thingis sail succede the better, gif we 
" have the Goddis in reverence ; kepand our band to Pichtis and 
" Britonis as we promittit; continewing the realmein the samin go- 
" vernance as ye devisit at our first cuming: providing allwayis, 
" that we remove seditioun, scurrilite, and avaricius leving, with 
" sic thingis as may induce hatrent amang you. Forthir, to maik 
" ilk persone leif on his awin, it war best to part all the landis of 
" this regioun be generall consent ; swa that every ane of us, con- 
" tent of his awin, may have na occasioun to injure his nichtbour; 
" for sic thingis sail caus us to incres in glore and honour to oure 
" freindis, and dredour to our fay is. And wald God I micht se you, 
" my deir pepill, rising in sic vertew afore my deid, that I micht, 
" with sickir esperance, schaw to your eldaris the weil appering to 
" thair posterite." 

Quhen Fergus had endit this orisoun, the pepill schew thaim red- 
dy to fulfill his desire ; and nevir to be governit, in times cuming, bot 
be the empire of ane king ; and nane to regne above thaim bot King 
Fergus blude : and, failyeing thairof, prayit the Goddis to send na 
les vengeance on thaim, and thair posterite, than fel sum time on 
thaim in Egypt and Spanye, for transgressioun of the command of 
Goddis. King Fergus gat charter and evidence of the crown of 
Scotland to him and his successouris in this sort ; quhUkis charteris 
war gravin in merbill, with imagis of beistis in forme of letteris, as 

VOL. I. D 


was usit in thay dayis ; sine gaif the samin to maist religious preistis, 
to be observit in thair tempiliis. 

How King Fergus partit the Landis of Scotland amang the Nohillis 
of his Realme. And of the Manei'is of Brigandis. 

Chort time efter, quhen the Scottis had refreschit thaim 
with hunting and othir exercitionis, King Fergus con- 
venit his nobillis, and said in this maner : " Now is the 
" time, maist prudent faderis*, sen our realme is stablit 
in gud peace, to part the landis of this realme, quilk ye rejose now 
" but ordour, amang you, and otheris that come with me out of Ire- 
" land in this regioun. To do this more plesandly, ar to be chosin 
" VII newtrall men amang us ; quhilkis sail devide this realme with 
" sic reasone and prudence, that quhare the landis ar maist plentu- 
" ous, sal be gevin the les ; and quhare the samin ar barrant, to be 
" gevin the more." 

The pepil, well applesit of this counsell, chesit sevin prudent men ; 
quhilkis considerit the boundis of Scotland, and devidit the samin, 
with marchis equally refering thairto. Thir prudent men returnit, 
the fourt moneth efter, to Argyle, quhare King Fergus was resident 
for the time : in quhais presence all the landis of Scotland war cas- 
sin in cavill amang the nobillis thairof. Be the first cavill, fell to 
Cornath, capitane, and his tribe, the landis of Cathnes, hand fornens 
Orknay, betwix Dummisbe and the watter of Thane. Secundly, to 
Capitane Lutork, fell the landis betwix the watter of Thane and Nes, 
callit now Ros. This Lutork come with ane band of vailyeant men 
out of Ireland with King Fergus in Albion. This land of Ros lyis, 
in breid, fra Cromarte to the mouth of the watter of Lochte; In 
this countre was the famous castel of Urquhart ; of quhilk the rewin- 
ous wallis remanis yit, in gret admiratioun of pepill. Thridly, to 
Capitane Warroch, fell the landis hand betAvix Spay and Nes, fra 
the Almane to the Ireland seis. The pepil of this land war callit 


Wares, be name of thair capitane ; bot, sone efter, thay war sa se- 
dicious. that thay Avar doung out of that countre, and the Murrayis 
brocht in thair roumis ; be quhom the landis war calUt Murray land. 
Be the nixt cavil, fell to Capitane Thalis, the landis of Boyne, Ainye, 
Bogewall, Gariot, Formartine, and Bowquhan. Thir landis war 
calht than undir ane name, Thalia, be name of thair capitane. Be 
the nixt cavil, fell to Capitane Martach, all the landis of Marre, 
Badeyenoch, and Lochquhaber. Be the vi cavil, fell to Capitane 
Nouance, the landis of Lome and Kyntier, with the hilhs and mon- 
tanis thairof, hand fra Marre to the Ireland seis. Be the vii cavill, 
fell to Atholus, the landis of Athole ; for he was discendit of the 
Scottis of Spanye, and come out of Spanye in Ireland, and out of 
Ireland he come with Fergus in Scotland ; ane vailyeant man, and 
Weill provin in fatis of armis. Be the viii cavill, fel to Creones and 
Epidithis, two capitanis of tribis, the landis of Strabraun and Braid- 
awane, hand west fra Dunkeld. Be the nint cavill, fell to Capitane 
ArgatheluSj the landis of Argyle. His folkis war namit Argathelis, 
fra Gathelus, thair first progenitour ; bot now thay ar callit, Men of 
Argyle. Be the x caAnll, fel to Capitane Lolgonas, the landis of 
Linnox and Clidisdail. Be the xi cavill, fell to Capitane Silurch, 
the landis of Siluria ; quhilk regioun is now devidit in Kyle, Car- 
rik, and Cuninghame, quhais pepill war richt engenius and fers. 
Be the xii cavill, fell to the Brigandis, the landis of Brigance, now 
callit Galloway. 

Thir Brigandis war ane vailyeant pepill ; and war devisit thairfor 
to dwell neir the Britonis, to resist thair incursionis, gif ony occur- 
rit. Ane certane of thir Brigandis wes banist efter for thair se- 
ditionis fechting; quhilkis confiderat thaim with ane cumpany 
of Pichtis, outrageous and wickit limmeris as thay war, and inha- 
bit thay landis quhilkis ar now callit Annandale, and put the Bri- 
tonis out of the same : quhais posterite grew sa full of fury, that 
thay invadit thair nichtbouris with all maner of cruelteis. The we- 
men past with thair husbandis to battall, and faucht mair cruelly 
than did the men; havand na mercy quhare thay war victorius. 
Thay eschamit to be takin in battall ; and rejosit to de fechtand. 
Quhen thay saw thair freindis vexit with lang and irrecoverabill ma- 
lideis, that thay sail nocht de in thair bed, thay slew thaim be the 


swerd. This land of Annandale hes ane strait entres, and circulit 
on every side outhir with seis, mossis, or sinkaiid sandis; throw 
quhais difficill enteres hapnit, that the inhabitantis thairof dwelt in 
cavernis, levand on thair incursionis and thift ; regarding nouthir the 
empire of Scottis, Pichtis, nor Britonis ; and had continual wachis, 
als weil be nicht as day. Als sone as thay Avar advertist of ony in- 
vasouris, thay drew thaim pertly to thair wappinnis ; on sic maner, 
that quha abstenit, or cowartly absentit thaim, quhen sic chargis 
occurrit, Avas efter slane be thair wiffis at thair returning. Thay that 
sufFerit thaimself to be taikin as prisoneris, Avar haldin ay sklavis to 
thair Aviffis, quhill thay, be sum honest wassalege, recoverit thair ho- 
nour. Thair AA-iffis Avar commoun ; the barne wes haldin his son, to 
quliome he Avas maist like in vissage. 

Al othir boundis of Scotland Avar than in the Pichtis handis ; as 
the Meirnis, Angus, Steremond, GoAvry, Stratherne, Perth, FifFe, 
Striveling, Callender, Calderwod, Louthiane, Mers, Tevedale, with 
othir the remanent dailis, and the Scherefdome of Berwik. 

How King Fergus maid concord hetwix the Princis of Ireland; and 
Jiow he perist, returnand be the Ireland Seis. 

Uhen Fergus had devidit the landis of Scotland in this 
maner, and brocht the same to sicker peace, he tuke 
ferme purpos to nuris his pepill in gud maneris : and, 
to do all thingis the better, he began at justice ; but 
quhilk na pepill may leif togidder. He maid sic lawis to punis theft 
and slauchter, that all the bestiall and gudis of Scotland war saiffit 
in the feildis but ony trubill Efter this, he beildit the castel of 
Berigone in Lochquhaber. This castell standis in the Avest part of 
Scotland, foment the His; quhare he exercit his laAvis to that fine, 
that his pepil micht be drawin thair the more esaly, for exercitioun 
of justice. He past the remanent of his dayis in tranquillite and 
peace A\dth his nichtbouris, the Britonis and Pichtis ; gevand his in- 


gine, to caus his pepill incres togidder under ane benevolence and 
concord. Quhill, at last, he was chosm ane juge-arbitrall, to discus 
certane hie debates falling amang his freindis of Ireland. 

Sone efter, the said Fergus, accumpanyit Anth ane certane of his 
nobillis, past in Ireland, and pacifyit thaim of all debattis. This 
wes the last act he did; for, efter the agreance, this nobill prince, 
returning hame throw the Ireland seis, be ane wickit tempest was 
drevin apon ane crag; quhare he perist, with all his nobillis, the 
XXV yere of his regne. In quhais memory, the crag, quhare he pe- 
rist, is namit yit Crag Fergus. 

In his time rang Esdaill, King of Britonis : and Cruthneus Ca- 
meloun, King of Pichtis; quhilk biggit efter, apone the watter of 
Carron, the ciete of Camelon, the principall chimmes of Pichtis; 
quliare sum time wes ane gud havin, to ressave schippis contrar the 
winter stormes, thocht it be alterit now, be nechgence of pepill, and 
turnit in ane medo. This ciete of Camelon resistit, mony yeris efter, 
to the Britonis and Romanis; quliill, at last, Kinneth, King of 
Scottis, quhilk put the Pichtis out of Albion, brocht it to uter sub- 
versioun. This Cruthneus biggit the town and castell of Edin- 
burgh, namit sum time the Madin Castell ; for al the nobil wemen 
of Pichtis war nurist within this casteU, in crafty labouris of thair 
handis, quhil thay war reddy to mary. 

And sa endis heir the First Buke of thir Cronikhs : in the quhilk 
we have sene, how the Scottis first began ; and how Fergus was the 
first king that brocht justice and lawis amang thaim. Now we will 
schaw the residew of the kingis succeding efter him, in the same or- 
dour as thay rang. 

Clje ^ecuntf Bufee. 




Hoia the Scottis, efter King Fergus deith, contendit for the CroiV9i ; 
and how it was inhibit, that yoking Childrhi sail be Kingis. 

Ergus on this maner perist, ane day was set 
be the counsel to cheis the king. Quhen the 
day was cumin, the nobillis war devidit in sin- 
dry opinionis ; for Fergus had two sonnis, of 
young and tender age. Sum men thocht, it 
wes ane odius thing, baith to God and man, 
to defraude the ayris of King Fergus, thay 
beand pupilHs, of thair faderis heritage ; putting his hous to sic uter 
dishonour and skaith ; he doing, in his time, sa mony nobill actis, 
for thair commoun weill. Otheris said, young barnis war unabill 
for ony publik administration. For ane king suld be ane prudent 
man ; havand wisdome and manheid, baith to resist the fury of his 
enimes, and to punis trespassouris be his auctorite and justice; 
othir wayis, na pepill micht leif togidder : for the fame of ane no- 
bill prince is ane gret firmance to his realme. To this answerit Sem- 


bathis, capitane of Argyle, in maner following : " Nane is amang 
" you, gud freindis, that is nocht movit, be mony reasonis, to defend 
" the barnis of Fergus ; sen he, be incredibill lufFe, brocht to us, in 
" our extreme neid, ane Strang army, be quhilk he nocht allanerly 
" deliverit us of maist dangerus battal, bot maid of our ennimes 
" freindis, and of this land ane realme, and decorit us with honest 
" lawis. Hes he nocht dantit the pissant Britonis, ane pepill full 
" of riches and chevalry ; and put thaim baith out of the boundis 
" of Scottis and Pichtis ; gevand to us sic iustitutionis, that we may 
" leif, as otheris nichtbouris, but feir of ennimes, gif we have na dis- 
" centioun amang ourself ? Quha sail think us worthy to have kind- 
" nes, gif we defraude thir barnis of his just heritage ? What dis- 
" pleseir sal we do to our ennimes, gif we do sic importabil schame 
" to our prince? Lat Fergus goist knaw us gud men, luffaris of 
" vertew, and not unmindful of gud dedis ; with the same mind, as 
" he left us, to his posterite. Ressave, now, his eldist sonne to the 
" crown, gif ye have ony respect to your faith ; gif ye had ony fa- 
" vour to him during his lif : otherwayis, ye sail be odius to the im- 
" mortall Goddis and men." The pepill war sum part movit be thir 
wourdis. Than Frauchtaus, chiftane of Brigandis, said in this ma- 
ner: " I se you, belovit freindis, contending heir, quhithir it be 
" more expedient to have Fergus young sonne, unabil to regne for 
" his minorite, or ane othir prudent man, to be king. I think Sem- 
" bathis mind suld be lovit, gif na thing bot kindnes suld be consi- 
" derit in electioun of ane prince. Nane is that misknawis amang 
" you, how odius and detestabill it is to defraude King Fergus 
" sonnis of thair kindly heritage. Na sic cruelteis, as I beleif, is in 
" our mindis. Occurris nocht at this time to decerne mf Fergus son- 
" nis suld immediatly succeid, bot only to se how the crown may be 
" kepit hale to thair perfite aige. Quhat vengeance, skaith, and 
" dammage, sail fall on us, and our commoun weill, gif we, accor- 
" ding to Sembathis mind, suffer ane barne to be our king ? First 
'* sail rise amang us ane birnand occasion of hatrent ; for thair is 
" mony amang us equall to othir in power and rentis. Attoure the 
" empire and governance of this realme, during this young kingis 
" minorite, sail be gevin to ane of us : and he that governis the 
" realme during the kingis minorite sail be king for the time, and 


" honorit amang us, with aiictorite, reverence, and every other ho- 
" noris that efferis to princely estait. Quhay is he that will nocht 
" besely contend for that honour ? Suppone ane of us obtene this 
" office, this man sail be king for the time, and sal riche his awin 
" hous. And als oft as ony thing occurris to be done for the com- 
" mon Aveill ; as, ambassatouris of gret realmes to be rewaixlit, or 
" armyis to be send apon our fayis ; this man, that regnis during 
" the kingis minorite, sail convert him only to our gudis. We sail 
" be constranit to gif him our substance. We man nuris ane ava- 
" ritius cumpany of limmers about him, nothir for the weil of the 
" king, nor his reahne. It is ane thing to have na admiratioun. 
" Ane man is plesant sa lang as he is privat, howbeit he alter his 
" maneris quhen he is clothit with pubhk auctorite ; for gud for- 
" toun and gud maneris ar seildin grantit at anis to levand creatouris. 
" Finally, quhen this young king is cumin to age of xiv yeris, and 
" takis on him the governance of the realme, he wil be accumpanyit 
" with suspitious pepill ; and maik him to repair al wrangis done to 
" his leigis within his tender aige, and do al sic besines as is requirit 
" for the commoun weill; howbeit he can do na thing that time, for 
" laik of wisdome. Than, quhen he hes maist neid of wise counsa- 
" louris, he sal suffir nane to be with him bot thay only that will 
" assist to his vice. Than sal thay corruppit rutouris, his minions, 
^' be salut as kingis, and haldin in reverence amang us, nochtwith- 
" standing thair insaciabill avarice, but schame. Quhay sail have 
" the curage or spreit to punis thaim for feir of this insolent prince .'' 
" Forthir, to behald ane young prince regnand above ony realme, 
" is siclike as quhay wald se the commoun weill sweyand down. 
" Than sail we have theiffis and oppressouris, takand oure gudis 
" baith in burgh and land without punitioun; than, for laik of jus- 
" tice, sail be ithand slauchteris, the realme devidit, the pepill but 
" bridil and governance, and may nocht leif in faith and justice. 
" Thairfore said the wise Salomon, ' Vengeance and sorrow sail the 
" pepill have, that hes ane younge king.' For thir reasonis, I think 
" the barnis of Fergus suld be gevin to wise preceptouris, to lerne 
" lawis, gud havingis, and maneris ; that thay may be abill efter to 
" goveme the realme : and, as now, the governance of the realme 
" to be gevia to Ferithais, thair eme, or to ony othir abill man 


" quhome ye think expedient, be quhais auctorite the crown sail 
" remane reddy to be gevin to thaim at thair parfite age : and, als 
" sone as the king deis, thir barnis to succede immediatly to the 
" crown, gif thay be abill thairfore ; and, during the kingis lif, thay 
" sail be honorit as immediat successouris to the crown efter the 
" kingis detli. Be this way, ye may saif the barnis of Fergus un- 
" defraudit of thair kindly heritage. Gif we desire to eschew the 
" sprout of sedicioun, with innomerabill inconvenientis efter follow- 
" ing ; gif we desire baith to defend our self, and bring our commoun- 
" weil to proffet ; this electioun of princis suld be observit ; for it is 
" conforrae to the mind of Fergus, qvdiilk, during his lifFe, wald 
" nevir have socht ony singular e proffet, in dammage of our com- 
" mounweill." 

Quhen Ferithais had endit this orisoun, the counsall assentit 
haill to his opinionis, and, be plane consent of Parliament, maid 
actis. Quhen it hapnit thair king to deceis, levand behind him young 
children gottin of his body, the nerrest of the kingis blude, and ablest 
to do justice, sail rejose the crown for his time. Efter his deith, the 
kingis son sal succeid to the crown, but pley, gif he war abill thair- 
to. It was def endit be that samin act, that na barnis be kingis. 
This consuetude was kepit mony yeris efter : throw quhilk rais me- 
kill troubill in this realme ; for oftimis the fader brother, regnand 
in the minorite of his nevo, kest his extreme besines to distroy him ; 
siclik the nevo to his fader brother, for ambitioun of the crown : 
throw quhilk occurrit continual slauchteris of kingis and nobillis, 
to the gret trubill of the realme, and dammage of the commoun- 

VOL. I. 


Of King Ferithais; and of his deith. 

E thir actis afore rehersit, Ferithais, brother to King 
Fergus, was chosin king. This prince, efter his elec- 
tioun, maid ane orisoun to his nobillis. The effect thair- 
of was, That he wald nocht ressave the crown for riches, 
ambition, or dignite, bot only to svipport his nevois, quhill ane of 
thaim war abill to succeid ; and, becaus he was left tutour-testamenter 
be thair fader, he wald leif na thing undone that micht avance the 
commounweill, othir in weir or peace, with na les affectioun to his 
nevois, than thay war his awin sonnis. Sine he exhortit the nobillis, 
to make sic support and favour to his said nevois, that nocht he, bot 
thay, suld appere to governe the publik weill ; havand in perpetuall 
remembrance, the honorabill actis done be thair nobil fader, King 
Fergus. He desirit als, grave and wise preceptouris to be chosin to 
his said nevois ; that thay micht incres als weill in vertew and science, 
as in yeris, but ony dammage of ennimes. And, finaly, declarit, he 
wald accept na publik gouvernance on him, quhil thir thingis war 
first providit. 

Sic thingis done, Ferithais was crownit in the fatall chiar of mer- 
bill, and ressavit the kingis armis; in quhilkis was ane scherand 
sword, with septoure, crown, and tressour, in maner of ane weirly 
trinsche, for defence of his realme in liberte, and punition of trans- 
gressouris be justice. Fra thens, thir war ay the nobill armis of 
Scotland, but ony variance, quhill the time of King Achaus, quhilk 
maid the first band of confideratioun, betwix us and France, with 
Charllis the Magne, King of France, and Romane Emperour : be 
quhilk confideratioun was eikit to the tressour, foure goldin liUyis, 
with four goldin crocis, set in equale ordour about the tressour ; to 
signify, the Scottis hes ay inviolatly kepit the Cristin faith, but ony 
spot of heresy, sen thay first tuke the same. 

Sone efter, ane convention was maid betwix the two kingis of 
Scottis and Pichtis ; in the quhilk war sindry utilites devisit for the 


Weill of the two realmis. New peace was ratifyit ; and punitioun 
maid on limmaris and movaris of sedition and trubill betwix the two 
realmes ; and redres maid, on all sidis, for observatioun of the peace 
in times cuming. Sic thingis done, the two kingis returnit hame. 

Sone efter, Ferlegus, eldest sonne to King Fergus, be motioun of 
his familiaris, and otheris corruppit men, that micht nocht suffer 
justice, began to hate his eme, Ferithais, with purpos to distroy 
him. At last, seand his wickit purpos cum to litill effect, he gade- 
rit ane cumpany of evill disposit men, and desiri^ the crown to be 
gevin to him, as just heritour thairof. Ferithais dredand, gif he war 
repugnant to thir desiris, to be cruelly invadit, answerit, he suld ex- 
oner him glaidly of the crown at the nixt conventioun, on the same 
maner as it was gevin to him : for he was nevir of purpos to beir 
auctorite langar than ony of his brother sonnis war abill to suc- 
cede ; and desirit na thing sa mekill, as to se ane of thaim rejose the 
empire, that he might schaw, efter his deid, to Fergus, the sicker 
weill appering to his posterite. And, forther, he desirit his said ne- 
vo, to pas with him to the conventioun ; in the quhilk he suld baith 
exoner him of al auctorite, and do every thing sa far as pertenit to 
the Weill of King Fergus hous. 

This plesand answer so mesit the mind of Ferlegus, that all ha- 
trent for that time beand amovit, thay convenit baith togidder afore 
the nobillis in counsall, quhair King Ferithais said in this maner : 
" I traist it be nocht unknawin to you, wise faderis, quhen it was 
" disput amang you, be quhat wise this realme micht be governit in 
" the minorite of Fergus sonnis, ye gaif me the crown, thocht I was 
" unworthy, nocht only to governe it be justice, bot that the same 
" suld remane hale, quhill the sonnis of Fergus war abill to regne. 
" Quhat travell, quhat incredibill danger, have I sustenit, baith for 
" your commoun weill and felicite of this realme, now rising in ho- 
" nouris ! And, sen na thing is mair patent to you than sic besines, 
" I will omit the residew thairof, that ye may have na occasioun to 
" deme me arrogant, or desirus of fenyet glore. I war richt inhu- 
" mane, sen I have na airis of my body, gif I wald defraude my 
" brother sonnis of thair kindly heritage, or transfer the samin in 
" ony uncouth blude. Ferlegus, my cousin, and just heritour to the 
" crown, clames the samin fra me of gud reason ; for he is young, 


" lusty, of hie engine, of Strang and lusty body to sustene gret 
" chargis, and sail be every day more abill to gov erne this realme : 
" be contrar, I am feblit be lang aige, and desiris to be relevit of 
" hevy curis. I beseik you, thairfore, that the publik administra- 
" tioun, quhilk I ressavit be your auctorite, be gevin to my cousin, 
" sen he is abill, and I unganand thairfore. Na thing may be sa 
" plesand for me, as to have ane privat liife in times cumming but 
" ony pubhct chargis Ressave the auctorite, with mair gladnes than 
" ever it was gevin to me." 

The counsall, knawing weill quhat irremidiabil displesouris war 
appering to thair realme, gif this young and insolent prince Ferle- 
gus war maid king, continewit Ferithais in his empire, and requirit 
him to sustene the governance of the realme, as he did afore, but 
ony feir of his aige ; sen realmes ar governit mair be wisdome of 
aigit personis, than ony corporall strenthe. The nobillis wald nocht 
abrogat the lawis maid afore aganis the empire of young childrin ; 
and tuke gret indignation, that Ferlegus desirit sic thingis as war re- 
pugnant to thair commounweill. And thoucht thay ressavit him in 
thair counsal with reverence and honouris, yit thay severit him fra the 
pepill ; repreving him quhy he yeid fra the counsall of the wise no- 
billis, his keparis, and desiring the crown without thair advise ; to 
make it knawin, that he suld obey the counsal of his wise lordis. 
Ferlegus, brokin on this wise fra his purpos, maid him, with hevy 
cheir, to depart fra the counsall. The nobilhs, dredand sindry dis- 
pleseris to follow be his departing, brocht him agane be force, and 
kest all his corruppit counsullouris in preisoun : amang quhom ane 
was, that schew to the king in quhat maner his deith was devisit ; 
traisting, be revelatioun thairof, to get his lif saiffit. The pepill, 
heirand this tressoun, war sa commovit, that thay had slane Ferle- 
gus, war nocht the king pecifyit thair ire in time. And, thocht the 
king was advertist of this tressoun devisit in his slauchter, yit, to 
schaw him mair reuthfull than rigorus prince, he kest his mind to 
meis the fury of the pepill, and to keip his nevo fra displeseir. Fer- 
legus was gevin in new keiping of the nobillis ; bot his servitouris 
war punist to the deith. 

Ferithais, als sone as this conventioun was skalit, raid throw his 
realme for equall administratioun of justice ; quhill at last he was 


slane, within the nicht, be his nevo Ferlegus, thre monethis efter the 
first conspiration, the xv yeir of his regne. 

How Ferlegus was banistfor the slaucJiter of King Ferithais ; and 
of King Maynus. 

Eri THAIS slane, as we have now schawin, Ferlegus, the 
murderar, and all other that war gilty of the said crime, 
fled amang the Pichtis ; and finding thair na securite of 
his liffB, he fled in Britane, quhare he consumed the re- 
sidew of his dayis in gret misery. 

The nobilUs, efter the slauchter of Ferithais, convenit to the cas- 
tell of Dounstafage, in Argyle, for election of the king. Quhilk day, 
the counsall, movit of kindnes to King Fergus, chesit Maynus, his 
youngest sonne, the xxiv yeir of his aige, to be king. 

Maynus was ane nobil prince, richt different fra his bruthir, hav- 
and all vicious men in gret hatrent. He exercit justice equaly in 
his realme ; and gaif commission to his liegis to convene, and dres 
all debatis amang thaim self. The difficill materis, quhen thay oc- 
currit, was discussit be himself, anis in the yeir ; quhen he past throw 
his realme, balding his justice airis, for redressing of wrangis, and 
punitioun of trespassouris. 

The same time, Crynus, King of Pichtis, send ambassatouris to 
King Maynus, rejosing of his fehcite, and desiring the band of peace, 
maid afore betwix Scottis and Pichtis, to be renewit. King May- 
nus, Weill instruckit be his nobilHs quhat was to be done, ressavit 
thir ambassatouris, and condiscendit to thair petition. The peace 
ratefyit in this maner, the Scottis began to burgeoun in sicker peace. 
King Maynus knawing weill, na pepill may incres but justice, 
peace, and rehgioun ; and seand realmes, and every thing in erd, sa 
subdewit to the power of Goddis, that na devise nor ingine of man 
may avale bot gif the Goddis stand propiciant thairto, quhais beni- 
volence bene sicker gard and protectioun to all pepill ; tliairfore, to 


move his liegis to religioun, he eikit certane new cerimonis, to be 
maid in the honour of Goddis within thair tempillis. And, first, he 
ordanit ane huge stane to be rasit, on the south side of the said tem- 
pilhs, on quhilk thair sacrifice was maid. In memory heirof, re- 
manis yit in our dayis mony huge stanis, drawin togidder in forme 
of circuhs, namit be the pepill, the anciant tempillis of Goddis. It 
is na litill admiratioun, be quhat ingine and strenth sa huge stanes 
bene brocht togidder. 

The sacrifice usit in thay dayis, was ane portioun of cornis, cat- 
tellis, or ony othir frutis that grew apon the ground, quhilk was ge- 
vin to kirkmen for thair sustentatioun ; and offerit to the Goddis, 
quhen the samin was supez'flew, or mair than was sufficient susten- 
tatioun to the preistis. King Maynus foundat als ane sacrifice, to 
be maid monethly, in the honoure of Diane, Goddis of woddis and 
huntaris; and, thairfore, the pepill maid thair adoratioun to the 
new mone. Quhilk superstitioun was lang usit amang oure anciant 
faderis, with mony othir vane ceremonyis, efter the rite of Egypti- 

Quhen Maynus had governit his pepill in gud justice, and insti- 
tute thaim with thir and othir superstitionis plesand to the religioun 
of thay dayis, he resignit the crown to his sonne Dorvidilla, and de- 
ceissit, the xxix yeir of his regne : King Elgane regnand above the 
Britonis, and King Thaar above the Pichtis. 

Of King Dorvidilla ; and of his constitutionis, maneris, and deith. 

Aynus deceissit as we have writting, his son Dorvidilla 
wes maid king. Efter his coronatioun, he renewit peace 
with his nichtbouris the Pichtis and Britonis ; and schew 
him nurisar of tranquillite, detesting na thing mair than 
sic besines as gaif occasioun to battal ; and delitit in every thing that 
micht draw his pepil in peace. He tuke gret delite of hunting, 
rachis, and houndis ; and maid lawis, that grew-quhelpis suld nocht 


line thalr moderis, for he fand, by experience, houndls gottin in that 
maner unproffitabil for hunting. He ordanit als, that ilk nobill suld 
nuris twa rachis and ane hound to his hunting; and, quhen the 
houndis war manyeit be adventure of chais, to be sustenit on the 
comraoun gud. He ordanit, the slayer of ane wolf to have ane ox to 
his reward. Oure eldaris persewit this beist with gret hatrent, for 
the gret murdir of beistis done be the samin. 

The Scottis havand na occasioun of civill nor of uncouth weris, set 
thair ingine to precell all othir pepill in the craft of hunting, and 
maid divers lawis concerning the same. In the first, commandit, 
that quhais dog first bait the deir, suld have the hide thairof ; quhais 
dog bait nixt, suld have the heid and the hornis : the body curit to 
be at the pleseir of the maister of huntis ; the residew to be for the 
houndis. Gif ony contention rais amang the huntaris, to cheis ane 
juge, with all thair consentis, in the tempill of Diane, to aggre thaim. 
Thir lawis war maid be generall consent of the pepill, to nuris thaim 
in commoun pleseir, drawing fra thaim all occasioun of injuris and 
hatrent. Quhilkis lawis war kepit mony yeris efter. 

Thir constitutionis, and utheris devisit afore be Kinge Fergus, war 
colleckit togidder in tabillis, and gevin in keping to the wisest and 
maist profound Clark for the time, to shaw baith to the juge, and 
to the persone quhilkis war to be accusit, the punition conforme to 
thair demeritis ; that the pepill micht understand, the juge past nocht 
fra his boundis of justice in punitioun of crimes: attour, the counsal 
wald condampne na faltouris in thay dayis, quhill the lawis war first 
schawin, according to the fait. Throw quhilk it come in use, that 
all criminabill personis, seand thaim, be just sentence, condampnit 
to the deid, tuke the samin in pacience : gif ony punition was maid 
on thaim above the lawis, thay murmurit, as opprest be the jugis. 
This maner of justice remanis yit amang the His of Scotland, and 
may na way be abrogat ; for thair bene certane interpretouris of the 
lawis, but quhom thay can gif na richtuis jugement. 

Quhen Dorvidilla had roung xxviii yeiris, he deceissit at Beri- 
gone ; and left behind him ane young child, namit Rewthar, quhilk 
micht nocht succede, for the lawis maid afore aganis young children. 



Of the tyrane Ki7Xg Nathak ; and of Ms slauchter. 

Fter the deith of Dorvidilla, his brothir Nathak, ane 
fair and lusty persone, and abill, as apperit, to pubUk 
administration, was maid king. This prince rang skars- 
\y two yeris, quhen he opprest his pepill with sic servi- 
tude, that he was haldin for ane mischevous tyrane. He sufferit na 
lawis to be exercit ; he sptilyeit the commounis of thair riches and 
gudis; and persewit his nobillis with slauchteris and banissing. 
Thir doingis maid him odius to his hegis, and maid his empire richt 
unsicker ; and, thocht he oft times was counsallit be his freindis to 
abstene fra sic enormiteis, he desistit nocht, bot grew ay the more 
ill vice that he incressit in yeris, lyke ane bludy monstoure, but 
scharae and mercy. Yit his cruell and unhappy dedis war nocht lang 
unpunist : for Dowall, capitane of Brigandis, quhome he thocht afore 
to have slane for his ouir greit pissance, be assistance of mony uthir 
nobillis, conspirit aganis him. And, to bring his purpos the sonar 
to effect, he maid Rewthar, the sonne of King Dorvidilla, to be 
thair governoure ; to that intentioun, that gif thir hie attemptatis 
succedit nocht with sic feUcite as he desirit, the charge thairof suld 
allanerly redound to Rewthar. 

Dowall, to find occasion that he micht bring his purpos to effect, 
broucht this young Rewthar, with ane cumpany of armit men, in 
the samin place quhare King Nathak remanit ; and, quhen he sawe 
the mater dressit, as he devisit, to have occasioun of debait, he gaif 
displesand wourdis to King Nathak, saying, he was ane fals tyrane 
but schame, and nocht only spoilyeit Rewthar of the crown, bot 
rang with maist cruell and odius tyranny above the pepill; and, 
with hid slichtis and tressoun, hes slane ane gret part of all the no- 
billis. Nathak answerit agane, in his wod fury, that he was king be 
ordour of justice; and suld, thairfore, regne in times cuming con- 
trar the mind of Dowall and all otheres of his opinioun, in sic ma- 


ner; that the said Dowall sail never find him mair favorabill nor 
oratius than he was afore ; and declarit, within few dayis, he sail 
punis him, and al utheris of his opinioun, in the schai-pest sort that 
micht be devislt, for thair attemptatis. 

Dowall, movit vnth thir dispitfull wordis, ruschit forthwart with 
his complicis, and slew King Nathak, with all the nobillis that war 
of his mind, the secund yeir of his regne. 

How Rewthar, ane young Child, was maid King, contrar the lazcis. 
Hoxv Ferquhard, Capitaiie of Lome, was chasit he Dowall in the 
His ; and of' his Orison maid to the Pepill tlmiraf. 

Athak, the tyrane, slane, as said is, Dowall made ane 
conventioun ; and, be assistence of sindry nobiUis to his 
opinion, he crownit Rewthar in the chair of merbil. 
Mony of the nobillis war nocht content of thir doingis ; 
lavand gret indignatioun, that baith thair king was slane, and the 
lawis concerning the electioun of thair prince abrogat, be his privat 
auctorite; and ane younge childe maid kinge, aganis thair honourabili 
actis laitly maid for thair commoun weill, Thir nobillis, that war of 
this mind, maid ane privat conventioun togidder ; and amang thaim 
was Ferquhard, capitane of Kintyre and Lome, maich to King Na- 
thak ; ane man of subtill ingine, and havand gret ambition to the 

This Ferquhard, beleving the time ganand to conques the crown, 
with dissimilit mind, as he wald debait the actione of the commoun 
Weill, complanit baith the slauchter of Nathak be the cruell Dowall, 
and ane barne maid king, to the dammage of the pepill and com- 
moun Weill ; and exhortit, thairfore, the counsall to provide ane hais- 
ty remeid to resist the tyranny of Dowall, quhilk intendit to usurp 
the crown in name of Rewther ; and, gif the samin war nocht done, 
sic sedicioun and civill weiris saU rise haistely amang the chiftanis 
of thair realme, that the samin suld find ane haisty subversioun. 

VOL. I. F 






Skarsly war thir wordis said, quhen Dowall enterit, with ane band 
of men, and slew sindry nobillis in the counsall ; bot Ferquhard, 
evill woundit, eschapit with ane certane of his frendis, and fled in 
the Ihs ; quhare he convenit all the clannis and pepill thairof to ane 
counsall, and said in this maner : " Had Ave observit the lawis con- 
" cerning the election of our kingis, maist vailyeant pepill, it had 
" nocht bene necessar to me this day to make this orisoun; for we 
" micht have leiffit in gud tranquillite and peace under the empire 
" of Nathak, our wise and vailyeant prince, now laitly slane be 
" Dowall, the cruell tyrane. Attour, to aggrege this importabil 
" cruelte in mair dammaige of our commoun weill, he lies nocht on- 
" ly slane our king, bot intrusit ane young child in his place, in 
" plane derogatioun of oure lawis ; intending thairthrow, to bring 
" baith us and oure commoun weill to uter mischeif. I find na 
" thing, maist forcy campionis, that may seme us les, than to lurk 
" heir schamfuUy as effiminat pepill, eschcAving the wraith of oure 
" ennimes, and regarding nouthir our honour nor profTet ; sen thair 
" is na other way sa plesand to strenth our ennimes, and to febill 
" oure self. This maist cruel tyrane hes nocht only slane the no- 
" billis of this realme, bot slane the preistis and religious men ; and, 
" that na esperance suld remane in us to withstand his cruelte, he 
" hes tressonably put down all the vailyeant men that favorit us in 
" Albion. He haldis all the aigit men, that micht have proffit us 
" be thair wise counsall, in sic captivite, that thay ar na better than 
" deid. And, that he may oppres us with more pissance, he hes 
" marylt Rewther, ane young child, quhome he namis king, on the 
" douchter of Gethus, King of Pichtis. This unmercifull tyrane 
" hes devisit, as we are surely advertist, als sone as he hes vincust us, 
" to cut oure eiris, and put out oure eyne, that we may then remane 
" on hve, to our schame and perpetuall derisioun. Yit, wil ye con- 
" cur with manheid and wisdome to my opinioun, traist fermely, ye 
" sail nocht only eschew sic cruelteis, be favour of Goddis, bot pu- 
" nis him conforme to his demerites ; and beleif fermely, that all 
" thingis sail succede to us with hie felicite, gif we, with na les cu- 
" rage than wisdome, defend oure richt, oure liberte, and oure 
" faith: for we se oft times vailyeant and gret princis dejeckit fra 
" thsar honoure and imperiall digniteis, quhen thay applaudit to 


" tressoun and falset. Heirfore, gif we be men, and worthy to be 
" callit the posterity of oure nobill progenitouris, quhilkis nevir re- 
" fusit to assailye maist dangerus battalHs in thair just defence, lat 
" us defend our richt, our lawis, wiffis, and childrin, aganis this 
" maist odius tyrane ; and erar assailye extreme chance of battall, 
" than to leif in perpetuall schame. But dout, the Goddis sail be 
" propiciant to us for oure just persut ; be contrar, thay sail be re- 
" pugnant to our ennimes for thair tyranny. Lat us othir de with 
" honoure, or ellis have victory with triumphant glore, and revenge 
" the murdir of the king and his iiobillis, recently maid be this ty- 
" rane." 

How Ferquhard and Dowall, recountering uthir be plane Battall^ 
war haith slane, with all the NohiUite of Scottis and Pichtis ; the 
King of Pichtis slane, and the Xing of Scottis tane. 

He capitanis of the tribis, and pepill thairof, movit in 
gret hatrent be thir wordis, turnit all feir of deith in 
maist rageand fury; and baithit thair handis with mannis 
blude, as the rite was in thay dayis; and maid thair 
aithis, to revenge the slauchter of Nathak, and his nobillis, in the 
scharpest maner that micht be devisit. And, but more tary, thay 
gaderit ane army out of Ireland, Argyle, Lome, Canter, and othir 
partis adjacent; sine landit, with mony galyouns and lang faddis, 
in Albioun. Ferquhard, returning in this wise, drew mony of the 
pepill, quhare he come, to his opinioun ; and tuke thair aithis, outhir 
to revenge the slauchter of King Nathak, or ellis to de all at anis. 

Dowall, knawing his cumming, met him, with an army, at Beri- 
gone ; quhare it was cruelly fouchtin on all sidis : bot, at last, Dowall 
was discomfist, and sevin thousand men of his army slane ; and yit 
more slauchter had bene maid, war nocht the nicht severit thaim. 
On the morrow, Dowall, with furius hatrent, colleckit the residew 
of his army to new array, havand with him Gethus, King of Pichtis, 


and Rewthar, King of Scottis, with mony of all the nobillis of baith 
thair realmes. On the army adversar, was Ferquhard, with the in- 
habitantis of Cathnes, Argyle, Murray, and mony otheris of the 
His. Thir two armyis met finally togidder in mair fury than afore, 
and faucht neir to the uter exterminioun of thaim baith. 

In this unhappy battall was slane Gethus, King of Pichtis, with 
incredibill nowmer baith of nobillis and commounis ; and baith the 
chiftanis Dowall and Ferquhard slane, with all the nobilite of Scottis. 
This lamentabill and unhappy battall was fochtin with sic perseve- 
rant hatrent, that allanerly remanit viii hundred men unslane on 
baith the sidis. The residew of Ferqvdiardis army, to quhome this 
unplesand victory succedit, seing the feild left efter sa huge murdir, 
foUowit on the chais, with ithand slauchter, quhill thay come to the 
castell of Callender. Thair, was King Rewther tane. 

Throw this unhappy battall was maid sa terribill slauchter, that, 
mony yeris efter, nouthir Scottis nor Pichtis was left on liife, suffi- 
cient to inhabit this realme, nor yit to withstand thair ennimes. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis rear doung out of Albion be the Britonis. 

He Britonis, quhilkis war ay our ennimes, heirand this 
lamentabil distructioun of Scottis and Pichtis, cuming 
on thaim be unprudence of civill weris, traistit the time 
sufficient to make thaim rejose the hale empire of Al- 
bion ; and, thairfore, rasit thair army in maist weirly ordinance, and 
invadit sindry landis of Pichtis baith Avith swerd and fire. The 
Pichtis, brokin with the weiris afore reheirsit, and disparit of sup- 
port, gaderit all thair bestiall and gudis, with thair wiffis, children, 
and freindis, and come, be mony wilsome and difficil gaitis, to Ork- 
nay ; and, efter thair cuming, chesit Gethus, brother to King Ge- 
thus afore deceissit, to be thair king, and dwelt sindry yeris efter in 
the said regioun in gud peace and freindschip with the pepill thair- 
of : thairfore, Orknay was ay namit the aulde realme of Pichtis. 


The Britonls, herand the Pichtis departit in this wise, come in 
Penthland, Mers, and Tevidaill, and plenist all the strenthis thairof 
with thair gudis and pepill ; and, nocht lang efter, thay come in the 
Scottis landis. The Scottis, richt affrayit of thair cuming, and se- 
ing na other remeid, drew thaini to thair harnes and wappinnis, and 
met thaim in arrayit battall at Calder Wod. Nochttheles, the Scottis 
war discomfist, and two thowsand of thahn slane ; the residew fled 
heir and ^lair in sindry partis. The fame of this unhappy battall 
maid the pepill na les disparit, than all the nobill blude of Fergus 
had bene endit that day in Albion. 

The Britonis, proud and insolent be thir fehciteis, herand, be 
thair exploratouris, that ane certane of Scottis, quhilkis eschapit fra 
this last battal, war fled to Berigone, for defence of King Rewther ; 
(for he was in the said castell, with ane few nowmer of nobillis ;) and 
the residew of Scottis, with thair wiflis and barnis, fled in the His; 
gaderit ane army, be the ordinance of Denus, thair king, and lade 
ane sesre to the said castell. Nochttheless, the Scottis defendit it 
lang time ; quhil at last thay war drevin to sic penurite, becaus thair 
vittallis failyeit, that thay kest cavillis, quha suld be first devorit, to 
sustene the liffis of thaim that war within the hous. And, becaus thay 
saw the maist vailyeant campionis fall to be devorit in this misera- 
bill mse, thay devisit, the samin nicht, to ische on thair ennimes, 
and erar to revenge sum displesour on thaim, than miserably to de 
in that sort. And, that the king micht ische more esely with his no- 
blis, thay devisit, that Colane, chiftane of Lome, sal ische with ane 
hundreth men to the nixt montane. And as it was devisit, so fol- 
lowit; for Colane isching furth on this wise, and fechtand to the 
uter exterminioun of his fayis, was finaly slane, with all his folkis : 
and in the mene time, quhen he was maist ernestl}^ fechtand. King 
Rewther ischit at ane quiet posthern with his nobillis, and come 
hastely to the see, quhair schippis war reddy abidinge his cuming. 
Rewther, eschaping on this maner, arrivit in the His ; and, finding 
thair na securite of his liffe, he past in Ireland. The wiflis of the 
tribe of Lome, seing all thair husbandis slane afore thair ene, slew 
thaimself, that thay suld nocht remane in servitude of thair ennimes. 

The Britonis knawing finaly, how Rewther and his nobillis war 
eschapit, war sa commovit, that thay slew the residew of Scottis in 


all partis quhair thay war apprehendit ; sine garnist al the strenthis 
of Scottis with thair garisonis. The residew of the Scottis, savit be 
thair fleing, and seing thaimself nocht of pissance to resist the Bri- 
tonis, fled to the montanis; and debaitit thair miserabill liffis, be 
straitnes of the ground, with scars and hard f ude ; levand, in the 
somer, on milknes, rutis of herbis, and beryis ; and, in the winter, 
of wild flesche of the montanis : and sumtinie thay draif gret prayis 
of bestial, be dirknes of nicht, fra the Britonis, to sustene thair liffis. 
Thus stude the Scottis and Pichtis, that abaid in Albion, nere 
twelf yeris, under servitude of Britonis. 

How the Scottis and Pichtis recoverit thair Landis, and discomfist 
Sysyll, King of Britonis ; and of the residew of King Rewtheris 

Uhill sic thingis war done in Albion, King Rewther 
had on his wif, in Ireland, ane sonne, namit Thereus. 
And, not lang efter, be request of Gethus, King of 
Pichtis, he returnit in Albion, and landit at Lochbroun 
in Ros. Als sone as the Scottis war returnit on this wise in Albion, 
thay slew, be auld rite, the first man thay met, and bathit thair 
mouth and swordis in his blud ; sine prayit the Goddis to grant 
thaim sic felicite, that thay may condingly revenge the slauchter of 
thair progenitouris. Belive, thay maid thaim to pas forthwart to- 
wart the south : and, in the mene time, thay war advertist, that Ge- 
thus, King of Pichtis, was cumin within xxx milis to thaim, with 
ane gret army, that was send to thaim be thair freindis out of Al- 
bion, to help thaim to i-ecover thair landis. The thrid day efter, 
baith the armyis met togidder with gret triumphe ; and passing 
forthwart to the south, thay met all the Scottis and Pichtis, quhilkis 
war haldin the yeir afore under servitude. 

Sysyl, King of Britonis, herand thir tithingis, gatherit haistely 
ane army to reconter his ennimes. Incontinent, the confiderat pe- 




pill, but ony sicht to conques ony strenthis or gudis, entrit with au- 
ful army in Britane, and invadit the samin with gret injure and 
cruelteis. King Sysyll, to revenge thir cruelteis invadit the Scottis 
and Pichtis with haiste battall. Nochttheles, his army was finaly 

The hie and soverane manheid of King Rewther was principal 
occasion of this glorius victory ; and in memory thaii'of, the cuntre 
quhare the battall was fochtin is callit yit to oure dayis, Rethirdaill, 
that is to say, the Vale of Rewthir. This battall was sa cruelly 
fochtin, that baith the armyis war constranit to talk peace under thir 
conditionis: The Britonis sail render al the strenthis, lancUs, and 
townis, pertening to the Scottis and Pichtis ; and sal nocht invaid 
thaim, in times cuming 

The Scottis, Pichtis, and Britonis, levit mony yeris efter in gud 
tranquillite and peace. The yeir that King Rewther recoverit his 
realme, was, fra the beginning of the warld, mmmm.dcccc.xcv yeris ; 
afore the incarnatioun, cc.iv yeris; fra the beginning of Rome, 
D.XLVi yeris. King Rewther levit, the residew of his dayis, but ony 
uncouth weris or seditioun of his leigis; and deceissit, the xxvi yeir 
of his regne. 

Of King Remtha^ and his lawis and governance. How Ptolome, 
King of Egypt, send his Oratouris, to se the sitiiatloun of Scot- 

EwTHER deceissit, as we have schawin, his sonne The- 
reus wes of so tender age, that he micht nocht succeid 
to the crown, be reason of the lawis afore rehersit ; and, 
thairfore, his cusing Rewtha was maid king, for thay 
war brethir barnis. This Rewtha was the first king amang the 
Scottis that fand ingine to put nobill men, for thair vailyeant dedis, 
in memory, and maid riche sepulturis for the bodyis of thaim that 
war slane be Britonis in defence of this realme. He commandit als 






mony hie stanis to be set about the sepulture of every nobll man, as 
was slane be him of Britonis. In memory heirof, sindry of thaim 
reraanis yit in the hie landis ; that the pepill may knaw, sic men war 
vailyeant in thair dayis : throw quhilk it come in use, that the se- 
pulturis of nobill men was haldin in gret reverence amang the pe- 
pill. On thir sepulturis was ingravin imageris of dragonis, wolfis, 
and othir beistis ; for na inventioun of letteris was in thay dayis, to 
put the deidis of nobil men in memore. 

The commoun pepill was gevin, that time, to store of beistis, and 
teling of thair landis, but ony othir industry. Thus failyet al inge- 
nious craftis in this cuntre ; and, thairfore, King Rewtha brocht all 
maner of craftismen out of othir contres, and sparpellit thaim in sin- 
dry schiris of his realme, with feis and dewteis ; sum part to be ta- 
kin on the commoun purs, and sum part as thay micht win be thair 
laubouris. The heid of every ox that was slane, was gevin to the 
smith of that schire ; the crag, to the forester of the wod ; the toung, 
to the man of law ; half ane cost, to the sercheouris of thevis ; als 
mekill, to the wricht ; two ribbis of the cost, to the medcinar ; als 
mekill, to the surrurgiane : and, beside this, war gevin to thaim cer- 
tane mesouris of aitis and beir, becaus na change of money was in 
thay dayis. Throw parting of the ox in this wyis, rais up the an- 
nuell rentis in this land. 

Efter that King Rewtha had plenist his realme on this maner 
with craftismen, he was informit, that gret dammage fell oftimis to 
his pepill, be ignorance of evil medcinai'is ; and, thairfore, he inhi- 
bit, under paine of deid, that ony man exerce the art of medicinary, 
without thay war found richt expert, with lang experience thairof. 
Afore this time, na medcinaris was usit in this cuntre ; for al per- 
sonis, that Avar trublit with infirmiteis, war brocht to the marcat, or 
to ony other commoun place, quhare the pepill micht se thaim, to 
gif thaim counsall to use sic remedyis, as thay usit quhen thay con- 
valescit of thair maledis. It was ane thing richt odius in thay dayis, 
to visee nocht the pacient with comfort and consolation. 

About this time come certane oratouris fra King Ptolome of 
Egypt, to explore the maneris and situacioun of every pepill and 
regioun. Thir oratouris war plesandlie ressavit be the king; for 
thay war discendit of the Egyptianis, his forbearis. The king gart 


convoy thaim bath throw the realme of Scottis and Pichtis, accord- 
ing to thair desiris. Thir oratouris wrait in thair bukis the situa- 
tioun of hillis, firthis, iUs, townis, lochis, and castellis, within this 
region; with the lenth of dayis and nichtis, baith in winter and 
simer ; as thay war commandit be King Ptolome : quhilk gaif his 
ingine to discrive the situatioun of the erd, in every regioun and 
IHs quhare ony men usit to have passage ; with discriptioun of the 
montanis, firthis, and cieteis of the samin, be divers instrumentis of 
astronomy : be quhais deligence and laubour remanis now ane richt 
crafty and profRtable werk, namit, The Cosmographe of Ptolome, 
richt expert in mathematik. This ingenius werk was completit in 
the time of Adriane, the Empriour. 

Quhen thir oratouris had sene and degeisthe considerit this re- 
gioun, thay persavit the samin ritis, the same maner of writtingis, 
the same toung, and the same habit and cerimonyis, as was usit 
amang the Egyptianis ; and, for that caus, thir oratouris war the 
more plesandlie depischit of this reahne. 

King Rewther governit his realm cxiv yeris efter, in gret justice, 
but ony uncouth or civill weris : quhill at last he began to suspek 
his lang felicite ; and, thairfore, to prevene all calamite, gif ony war 
approcheand be mischance of fortoun, he resignit the crown to The- 
reus, son to King Rewther, the xvii yeir of his regne. 

Of King ThereibS, and how he was exilitfor his tyranny. How Co- 
nane, Chiftane of Brigandism was maid Govemour during Ms pro- 

Hereus ressaving the crown on this maner, apperit, the 
first sex monethis of his regne, to be ane virtewis prince. 
Bot sone eftir, he becam ane vicious tyrane ; involvit so 
with lust, that he had na regard to ressone, honesty, 
nor justice ; and was namit amang the pepill, the scornar of religioun. 

VOL. I. G 


The pepill, be imitation of this insolent prince, increscit every day 
more and more in corruppit maneris ; throw quhilk followit ithand 
slauchter of nobill men, with reif and heirschippis in all partis. 
Strongest thevis, and gretest oppressouris, war haldin in maist vene- 
ratioun and honouris. The commonis war sa disparit for the irre- 
coverable skaithis done to thaim, that thay traistit nocht possibil ony 
tyrane more vicious micht regne above thaim. The capitanis of the 
tribis, movit be thir insufferable offencis, thocht unworthy that ony 
noble men suld be misgidit be sic ane corruppit nionstour; and, 
thairfore, maid ane quiet conventioun amang thaimself ; in the quhilk 
thay concludit, baith to degraid him of his crown and kingdome. 
Thereus, heirand this conspiratioun of his nobillis againis him, was 
sa astonist, that he fled in Britane. At last, quhen he had socht lang 
time support of the Britonis to restore him to his realme, frustrat 
thairof, he consumit the residew of his dayis in misere at York, the 
XII yeir of his regne. 

Quhen Thereus was exilit on this maner, the nobillis of Scotland, 
that thair common weill sal incurre na dammage for laking of ane 
king, chesit Conane, capitane of Brigandis, to be governour. This 
Conane, efter that he was maid governour, tuke gret laubouris to 
meis al dissentionis that war rissin afore amang the nobillis be sleuth 
of Thereus. He punist theiffis, revers, and othir criminabill per- 
sonis, with sic severite and justice, that the bestiall and gudis lay 
thairfurth but ony trubil. Quhill at last King Thereus deceissit in 
Britane, be quhais deith his auctorite was expirit. 


Of King Josyne; and of the experience and preching of two Phib- 


Ls sone as the nobillis war advertist of the deith of The- 
reus, thay maid ane conventioun at Berigon ; in the 
quhilk, Josyne, bruther to Thereus, was maid king. 
^^^__^^ This Josyne renewit the peace with his nichtbouris, the 
Pichtis and Britonis, and held surrurgianis and medcinaris in gret 
reverence ; for he wes nurist, the time of his youtheid, with sic per- 
sonis in Ireland. He was ane gud medicinar, and had gud expe- 
rience of herbis. Our forbearis usit na othir medcin, in curing thair 
woundis or infirmiteis, bot herbis; and, in thay dayis, thair was 
nocht sa mony divers kindis of maladyis as now ar sene. Few in- 
firmiteis war sene that time, bot gravellis, caterris, and siclike mala^ - 
dyis, cumino- throw distemperance of cauld and donk humouris. 
The pepill leiffit with sa skars and naturall fude, that thay had nocht 
only lang dayis, bot war preservit fra all maner of maledyis. Noch- 
theles, fra the abstinence of our forebearis was set aside, than un- 
couth and deUcious coursis began to multiply sa amang us, that, with 
uncouth and strange metis, come uncouth and strange infirmiteis. 
And, becaus the unyementis and drogareis that our forbearis usit 
micht nocht cure the new maledyis, the pepill war constranit, throw 
importabil dolour incressing be the samin, to seke remeid be new in- 
gine and craft. And, sen our time is now sa venomit wath uncouth 
and superflew metis and drinkis, we thocht sum thing necessar to 
rehers the temperance of our forebearis in thair leving, with sic ma- 
ledyis and remedyis as war usit in thair dayis ; of quhilkis sail be 
schawin more largely efter, quhen time occurris more expedient. 

In the time of King Josyne, war brocht to his presence at Beri- 
gone, two venerabill Clerkis, of plesant visage, bot thay war almaist 
nakit. It is writtin, that thay war preistis of Spanye ; and, passing 


out of Portingale to Athenes, be unmerciful! tempest of sees war 
schip-brokin at Ros ; thair schip, and remanent pepil that was with 
thaim, perist, and thay only savit : and, becaus thay war philoso- 
phouris, and men of gret experience, thay war weill tretit. At last, 
quhen thay war xiv dayis refreschit efter thair walking and trubill 
of see, thay war brocht agane to the kingis presence. The king de- 
mandit thaim to schaw, quhat thay understude of the nature of the 
ground of Scotland, and of the maneris and religioun of the pepill 
thairof. Thir philosophouris answerit, thay micht nocht say perfite- 
]y to thir questionis ; becaus thay had nocht lang time to have ex- 
perience thairof, and als war sum part febillit in thair fantasyis, for 
the calamite laitly falling to thaim be storme of sees. Nochtheles, 
sa far as thay micht conjecture, thair was more riches and profFet 
to be gottin within the vanis of the erd of Scotland, than above ; for 
it was more gevin to winning of minis and metallis, than ony pro- 
duction of cornis. Thay knew this, said thir philosophouris, be the 
influence of the hevin. As to the maneris and religion of the pepiD, 
thay declarit, thair religion was nocht to be commendit ; for thay 
adorit imagis of brutall beistis, in forme of levand Goddis, as the 
Egyptianis usit : quhilk suld nocht be ; for God was that thing only, 
that contenit landis, sees, and every creature ; quhais perfite and ver- 
ray image can not be paintit nor devisit be ingine of man. It was 
necessar, thairfore, that the pepill suld leif thair idolatryis ; and adore 
allanerly the levand God, mover of the hevinnis, with sacrifice and 
prayer in thair tempillis allanerly, but ony imageris ; and, finaly, 
to leif in hope of reward, gif thay leifRt with clene lif and justice : 
uthirways, not was devisit for thaim bot dolour and torment. 

Thir philosophouris preching in this maner, inducit the pepill to 
leif thair idolatryis ; makand thair sacrifice and prayer allanerly to 
the mover of hevin, the eternall God. Thus Avar the pepill brocht 
to that way, that the sacrifice that was wont to be gevin to Isis and 
Apis, the Goddis of Egypt, was abrogat. Throw quhilk the Scottis 
war mony yeris efter sa religious, that thay made adoration only to 
God, the movar of the hevin : yit utheris war sa indurat in thair 
aAvn errouris, that thay couth nocht omit thair auld superstitionis ; 
and belevit firmely, that the son, mone, and otheris the sternis and 
lanternis of the hevin, war verray Goddis : for thay war sa obstinat 


and blindit in the auld arrour of Gentilis, diat quhen thay saw na 
thing in erd more bricht nor mervellus than the son, mone, and uther 
Uchtis of the hevin, thay belevit sum divinite thairin, and adorit 
thaim as Goddis. 

This history, sa far as it is now drawin, is coUeckit out of Vere- 
mond, Johne Campbell, and Cornelius Ireland ; quhom we have 
determit to follow, as maist autentik auctouris, to the end of this 
our quhatsumever werke. 

King Josyne was ane virtuous prince, and deceissit at Berigone, 
the XXIV yeir of his regne. 

Of King Fynnane and his Lawis ; and of the College ofClerkis in 

the lie of Man. 

Fter the deith of Josyne, his son Fynnane, ane wise and 
virtuous prince, was maid king. He was sa gret luff'ar 
of justice, that he richely rewardit all the capitanis of 
the tribis, quhare he fand thaim luffaris of the com- 
mounweill He gaif his hale attendance to win the hertis of his pe- 
pill, and maid na exercition nor ministration of justice but advise of 
his nobillis. He ekit the nowmer of his counsal with ma senatouris 
than was afore, to mak thaim the more renoumit. He maid ane law, 
that the king sail do na thing, concerning the publik administration 
of his realme, but advise of his nobilUs. He maid als ane uther law, 
that the king sail nothir denonce weir, nor treit peace, but advise of 
the capitanis of tribis. Be thir, and siclike constitutionis, King Fyn- 
nane conquest gret favour and benivolence of his pepill. Be this maner 
of governance, he maid him sa Strang amang his liegis, that he was 
nevir assailyeit efter with ony uncouth weris, and grew in gret aboun- 
dance of riches. Finaly, he set his mind to repare the religion of 
Goddis, for it wes decait in his faders time. First, he commandit 
the imagis of thair Goddis to be restorit to thair tempiUis, that the pe- 
pill micht have the samin in adoration as afore : and yit he wald 


nocht inhibit the pepill to adore the levand God, mover of hevin ; 
for that wes institute afore be the philosophouris. He sufferit his 
pepill to adore quhat God thay plesit. He wes the first king that 
institute Prelatis and Clerkis to be in this realme : and, that thir 
Clerkis suld remane togidder, he gaif thaim the He of Man, liand 
betwix Ireland and Britane, fornens Brigance, quhare thair princi- 
pall seit wes ordanit to be. 

Thir Clerkis convenit, ilk yeir, anis, at the command of the gret 
maister and bischop thairof ; specialie quhen ony hie and wechty 
materis occurit, concerning the defence of thair religioun or com- 
monweil. Thir preistis war namit Druides; and wes institute in 
this He, be advise of the king and his nobillis, to mak sacrifice in the 
honour of thair Goddis, and to instruk the sonnis of nobill men in 
virtew and science, siclik as thay war lernit at Athenes. It wes com- 
mandit, that ane of thaim, as bischop and maister, sail have juris- 
dictioun above the laif ; before quhom wes borne ane gleib of fire, 
in signe of his honour and divinite : efter quhais deith, ane othir, 
maist approcheand to virtew and cunning, wes chosin to succeid in 
his place. Thir Clerkis, throw thair ithand exercitioun, increscit 
sone eftir richt expart in morall and naturall philosophie; and wes 
haldin be the pepill maist just and haly creaturis. Thay maid lawis, 
to discus the doutis baith of publik and singular actionis ; and de- 
visit nocht onlie punitioun for all maner of crimes, bot ordanit con- 
dio-ne reAvardis to be gevin for al gud dedis. Thay cursit thaim that 
contempnit thair auctorite. This punition wes evir odious amang 
oure forbearis ; for the cursit pepill war, in thay dayis, resecat fra 
al o-ud cumpany, and not participant with the reward of honouris 
or digniteis, bot numerit amang the cumpany of infamit and wickit 
misdoaris. Thir preistis wer exemit fra all chargis of weir, and othir 
exactionis. Of thir preistis writtis mony auctourls ; affirming, thair 
ordour and religioun first found in Britane : for thay cal the hail He 
of Albion under ane name, Britane. 

Fynnane Aves ane virtuous prince, and na les honorit for his civil 
than religious maneris ; be quhilkis he decorit his realme. He ma- 
ryit his son Durstus on Agasia, douchter to the King of Britonis ; 
and conquest, be the samin, na htill glore and benevolence amang 
the Britonis. At last, he past to gif consolation to the King of 


Pichtis, quhilk wes liand that time in vehement fever at Camelon, 
quhare he deceissit, the xxx yeir of his regne. His body wes brocht 
to Berigone, an beryit amang the remanent sepulturis of his proge- 

Of King Durstus ; and how he was slane for his crueU tyranny. 

Ynnane deceissit on this wise, his sonne Durstus wes 
maid king. This Durstus, be insolent youth, wes gevin 
to drounknes and unbrideht lust ; and so diiFerent fra 
\ his faderis governance, that he haitit all thaim that his 
fader luffit. He brak the ordour of law that wes institute afore be 
his progenitouris, for ministratioun of justice. He usit na counsal 
in gret materis, bot onlie of thaim that favorit his vicious maneris, 
and culd find to him new maner of lustis. He was sa mischevous 
ane tyrane, that al the nobil men, that his fader usit on his secret 
counsall, war be him othir slane or banist ; or ellis, be feinyeit cau- 
sis, forfaltit of thair landis and guddis. And, finalie, he wes brocht 
to sic cruelte, that not onHe he slew thame quhilkis war odius to him, 
bot als slew al thaim quhare he belevit to get ony riches or guddis 
be thair deith. He repudiat his nobil quene Agasia, the King of 
Britonis dochter ; and gart his vicious harlotis deforce hir. 

Quhill this unhappy tyrane wes involvit with thir and sicUk abho- 
minable dedis, the capitanis of the His, Lome, Argyle, and Ros, 
be frequent conventionis amang thaimself, maid ane conspiratioun 
aganis him. So far haitit thir capitanis the rage of tyranny, that 
thay wald na langar abid at his opinion ; and to that fine, thay sail 
nocht appere as brekaris of the faith that suld be kepit to thair na- 
tural prince, thay schew thaim, be opin proclamation, nocht assem- 
bht to invaid the king, bot onlie to punis his vicious and unliappy 
counsalouris, be quhome the realme was brocht to sic enormiteis, 
that, without remeid war haistely providit, the samin suld pas to 
uter rewine. 


Quhill the capitanis foresaid war preparand thair armis on this 
maner, the commonis, richt desirus to distroy this tyrane, rais hais- 
tely on athir hand to assist to thir capitanis. Yit part of the com- 
monis wald nocht concurre with thir capitanis, beleving thaim nocht 
assemblit for ony common weill, hot only to usurpe the crown. 

Durstus, na Htil affrayit of thair assemblance, for he knew him- 
self gilty, maid him to flee ; and, seand na place sufficient to keip 
him, he send to the Britonis, desiring his quene Agasia to be send 
to him, with ane power of armit men, to resist ane certane of his no- 
billis, aganis him conspirit. At last, seand na support apperand, he 
began to turne his treasonabill mind to falset and slichtis, and tuke 
purpos to sla thir conspiratouris be sum hid waching ; beleving be 
that way only to eschew the danger appering. Incontinent, he send 
ambassatouris to thir capitanis, and fenyeit him sa penitent, that he 
wald reforme all ofFencis and injuris done be him in perditioun of 
the commounweill ; and promittit, nocht only to governe the realme 
in times cuming be thair advise, bot to punis his wickit counsalouris, 
quhilkis war occasioun of all displesouris be him done. It was als 
ane odious thing, to ane king to fecht aganis his subdittis ; specially 
quhen thay ar nocht set to degraid him of his crown, bot only to re- 
duce him to better estait. And, for the observation thairof, he wald 
bind him, in the tempill of Diane, under quhat astrictionis thay plesit ; 
and. gif that micht nocht be sufficient, he suld cum to thaim but ony 
assurance, and submit him to underly quhat correctioun thay pleasit. 
And, that his wordis micht have the more credit, he kest ane cer- 
tane of his servitouris in prisone, as he war to punis thaim to the 
deith for thair assistence to his vices. Otheris, of small estimatioun, 
he arrayit in precious clething, and send thaime to the said capitanis 
to be punist at thair plesour. 

The capitanis gevand haisteUe credence to his wordis, send Doron, 
capitane of the tribe of Lome, to take his aithis eftir his promis. 
Thus was Durstus brocht in the temple of Diane, and sworne be- 
fore the preist thairof with all aithis that couth be devisit, to ressave 
thir capitanis to maist tender freindschip, remitting the rankour of 
his mind, with al maner of crime that micht be imput to thaim; 
and not onlie to hald thaim as his faithfull and tendir freindis, bot 
to governe the realme in times cumming be thair avise. 


Als sone as thir capitanis, be vane confidence, were cumin to him, 
he ressavit thame sa plesandlie, that baith his wordis, visage, and 
contenance, apperit but' ony dissimilance. Thus was general! con- 
cord and blythnes maid on athir side. King Durstus, rejosing of 
this concord, calUt thir capitanis to ane banket, within his castell of 
Berigone. Als sone as thay war entrit, this unniercifull tyrane past 
to ane towr of the castell ; and, incontinent, certane armit men ruschit 
furth of the chalmeris quhare thay war hid, and slew thir capitanis, 
and all utheris that enterit in the castell, of tliair opinioun. The wiffis 
and matronis, that followit thair husbandis to this terrible banket, 
evil hurt and woundit in debait of thair said husbandis, past out of 
Berigone ^rith dolorus spraichis, crying vengeans on tliis cursit ty- 
i'ane, for violation n of his faith and promis. 

This treson and falset of Durstus was nocht lang unpunist : for 
al the remanent freindis of thir capitanis assemblit ane army, baith 
of men and wemen sufficient to beir Avappinnis, sa haistely, that thay 
laid ane sege about the castel of Berigone, or Durstus v^as advertist 
thau'of. Ane certane of tham past incontinent to the wallis, and 
said, thay suld have sone experience, qidiidder he was more crafty 
in treason or fechting. Durstus, disparit of help, come out of the 
castel, in his wod fury, with ane cumpany of evill arrayit peple ; 
and was sone spulyeit baith of his lifFe and crown, the nint yeir of 
his regne. And, howbeit he was ane vicious tyrane, he was buryit 
in ane kingly sepulture, amang his forbearis. 

VOL. I. 


Ofgret contention amavg the Capilanis. Of the ortsouyi maid he 
Charon, Capitane of Argyle ; and how Ewin, thejlrst of that 
name, xcas maid King. 

Urstds, slane in this maner, his sonnis fled in Ireland. 
Sone eftir, ane convention was maid to cheis the king. 
The nobilhs beand all of ane mind, eoncludit to suffir 
nane of Durstus blude to regne above thaim, in adven- 
ture that sum of thame svdd revenge his slauchter ; and, thairfore, 
thay tuke lang consultation, of quhat linage and blud the king suld 
be chosin. Sum desirit Ragaon, chiftane of the His, for he conspirit 
first aganis Durstus ; yit, becaus he favourit evill dedy men, he was 
repellit. Utheris desirit Cormanus, capitane of Lome. Thus war 
the tribis devidit in sindi-y vocis. 

Efter lang contention, Charon, capitane of Argyle, said in this 
maner : " Ye may have perfite experience, wise fadcris, be the ci- 
' vill weris of Dowall and Ferquhard, and now more recentlie be 
' the empire of wickit Durstus, how dangerus and unthankful! is 
' to all pepill to have ane cruell tyrane regnand above thaim ; for 
' be thay samin weris, this nobil realme, quhilk has bene debatit sa 
' mony yeris with gret manheid, wisedome, and curage, wes neir 
' brocht to finall eversione ; for be the samin weris, our nobillis war 
' slane, and our commonis brocht to sa vile servitude, that, gif the 
' samin had continewit, oure name and linage suld have perist in 
' Albione. Quhat miserie sustenit our faderis in Berigone, quhen 
' thay war constranit, be urgent nccessite, to saif thair miserable 
' livis on the fude of thair bowellis ! Quhat danger sustenit our 
' King Rewther, evading his ennimes be maist perellus ischeing, 
' quhen his realme was neir lost, and Colane, the vailyeant capitane, 
' slane, onelie for defence of him and his realme ! Quhat fury was 
' in thay nobill wcmen, that slew thaimself at Berigone, that thay 
' suld nocht leif in servitude of ennimes ! Quhat hes brocht our 


' nobillis to sic mesiry, that thay war banist, and socht suple at un- 

' couth reahnes ? Nocht bot sedition intestine amang thaimself. 

« The Britonis, for al thair riches and chevah-ie, micht nevir have 

' maid sic incursionis and heirschippis on our landis and peple, war 

' nocht we maid first ane reddy gait to thaim be our awin dissen- 

' tioun. It is, thairfore, to be eschewit, richt vailyeant men, that 

' this dissentioun, now rising amang you, cum nocht to dammage 

' of your commonweil. Ye have dehverit, now laitlie, the realme 

' of the tiranny of Durstus ; ye have sufficicnthe revengit the slauch- 

' ter of the nobilHs be his deith : now is the time maist ganand to 

' help oure materis. Tine nocht, my gud freindis, the victory be 

' civill dissentioun, that ye have conquest Avith gret labour. Ye se 

' the pepil glaid of Durstus deith, and desirus to have ane king be 

' your election. Quhil thay ar now at your opinioun, mak ane king 

' that will tak your part : otherwayis, na thing sal be amang yow, 

' bot civill weris, heirschippis, and slauchter baith of nobillis and 

' commonis ; and, in the meintime, sum of Durstus freindis sail 

' nocht onlie usurp the crown, bot sail punis yow for his slauchter." 

The nobillis and commonis, seand Charon of sic exellent visdome, 

gif to him power to cheis quhom he thocht best to be king. Than 

Charon, that the crown sal remane ay of the same blud, chesit 

Ewin, the first of that name, to be king ; for Durstus and Ewin war 

brethir sonnis. Thus was Ewin crownit in the chair of marbill, at 

Berigone. This castell was haldin certane dayis aganis him, be 

freindis of Durstus ; nochtheles, it was finalie randerit. 

This Ewin was the first King of Scottis that socht the aith of fi- 
delite fra his subditis ; that is to say, that his nobillis and subditis 
suld be leil and trew to him. Throw quhilk it come in use, mony 
yeris eftir, that all the capitanis of tribis, at thair electioun, con- 
stranit thair subditis to gif thair aifehis of fidelite ; quhilk rite is yit 
observit : for the pepill, dwelling in the hie land and His thairof, at 
electioun of thair capitane, haldis up thair handis to be leil and trew 
to him ; and, als sone as the capitane is chosin, thay past to the nixt 
mote, and defendis, under pane of deid, that nane of thaim name 
thair capitane with ony uthir sloggorne, bot with the auld name of 
that tribe ; and, quhen thay heir his name, to bek and discover thair 
held, with na les reverence than he war a God. I beleif, thairfore. 


that the pepill that dwelhs in hie land, or in the Ihs, quhen thair 
hieest besines occurris, sweris be the fute, or hand, or name of thair 
capitane, as sum hid divinite war in the same. 

Ewin, to stabil his reahiie in virtew, commandit the young chil- 
dren of his realme to be nurist with skars and hard f ude ; and to 
sleip erar on hard burdis, than on plumis or coddis; and to be 
ithandly exercit in swift rinning and wersling, to make thaim the 
more abill to debait his realme, quhen time requirit : and ordanit 
thaim, to abstene fra all thing that micht make thaim soft or effemi- 
nat. This virtuus prince past throw all the boundis of his realme 
for ministration of justice, and punist criminabill personis with sin- 
dry punitioun : some skurgit, and sum he punist to the deith. 

The samin time, come the ambassatouris of Pichtis, desiring, be 
the tenoure of confideratioun, to have support aganis the Britonis, 
quhilkis Avar laitly cumming, with gret incursionis, in the Mers, and 
purposit to sege thair ciete of Camelon. King Ewin, to support his 
confiderate freindis, come Avith ane haisty army aganis the Britonis. 
The Scottis and Pichtis, assemblit in this maner, went forth wart with 
na les curage, than victory had ben present in thair handis ; so far 
war thair mindis inflammit to revenge the injuris done to thaim in 
the yeris afore. The Britonis, na thing affrayit of thair cuming, 
met thaim, with na les ferocite, on the tothir sid, Followit, ane 
dangerus and cruell battall, fochtm lang time with uncertane victo- 
ry ; bot, at last, the nicht severit thaim, Avith richt soroAvfull and 
doutsum chance of battal. The confiderat kingis, seand thair army 
brokin, fled, under nicht, to Pentland hillis ; and the Britonis, bro- 
kin Avith siclike calamite, and disparit of ony new support, fled, on 
the same maner as disconfist pepill, and left thair carage behinde 
thaim. Als sone as the confiderat pepill Avar advertist heirof, thay 
returnit to the same partis quhare the Britonis war campit afore, 
and partit the spvdye thairof be custum of armis. Sic thingis done, 
King EAvin returnit to Bcrigon, and rcAvardit richely the freindis of 
thaim that war slane in this battall. Sum of his capitanis, for thair 
provin vassalage, war promovit to publik officis ; and othirs reward- 
it with riches and gudis. And, fra diens, he concludit to governe 
his realme in tranquillite and peace. He maid certane jugis to abide 
in sindry regionis of his realme, to minister justice to the pepil. He 


ordanit certane exploratouris to remane in ilk schire, that thay micht 
serche sornaris, theiffis, and reiffavis, and bring thaim to his lawis. 
And, that thir exploratouris micht continew in thmr office, he dotat 
thaim with sindry landis. In memory heirof, remanis yit to our 
days sindry infeftmentis of auld baronis, quhais landis war gevin- 
be virtuous princis for the samin caus ; howbeit thay exerce nocht 
the effect thairof. 

King Ewin biggit ane castel nocht far fra Berigon, callit than 
Ewin, efter his name ; now callit, Dounstafage ; and gidit his realme 
mony yeris efter, to the gret comniodite of his common weiil ; and 
deceissit, the xix yeir of his regne. 

How Gillus, bastard sonne to King Ewin, slew two Sonnis and two 
Nepotis ofDurstus, to make himself King; and how the thrld 
Nepot, Edeir, cschapit. 

Ftir deith of Ewin, his bastard son, Gillus, convenit 
the nobillis, to bury his fader. And, in the time of his 
obsequies, com Dothane and Dorgall, two sonnis of 

.^^__ Durstus, fast' contending for the crown : for thay war 

recwileldwith King Ewin afore his deth. Yit, becaus thay war two 
twinnis, borne at anis, the law couth nocht decerne, in thay dayis, 
quhilk of thaim had maist richt to the crown. Thus rais ane schame- 
ful debait betwix thir two brethir ; ilk ane of thaim set in othir 

slauchtir. ., j 

This Gillus was ane man of subtell ingine ; and, seikand occasioun 

to conquis the cro^^^l, ekit the hatrent of thir two brethir be mony 

shchtis, and armit thame in athir slauchter. At last, be appoint. 

ment of Gillus, thir two brethir war brocht togidder to be agreit, 

be avise of freindis, of all debatis, and ane of thaim to be maid king ; 

nochtheles, thay war sa extreme at this conventioun on athir side, 

that thay partit war freindis than thay met. 

Nocht lang eftir, thay war brocht agane be GiUus in ane secreit 


chalmer, Eftir laiig consultatioun it was concludit sum time to de- 
vide the crown betwix thaim, and sum time to mak ane of thaim 
king. Alwayis Gillus inflammit more thair hatrent than he mesit : 
and, in the mene time, certane armit men ruschit out of privat chal- 
meris, as thay war commandit be Gillus, and slew thaim baith. 

. Eftir thair slauchtir, Gillus ran heir and thair, with piteus cr3ds, 
schawin how he eschapit ane richt dangerus adventure, quhare 
the kingis sonnis war laid for his slauchter, and baith slane; and, 
incontinent, he commandit his freindis, that stude about him, to 
have him to sum sicker place ; for, gif he fled nocht in time, he 
suld be tint. His freindis, beleving al thingis trew as he schew, 
foUowit him to the castell of Dounstafage. Gillus entering in this 
wise within the castel, and finding mony of his opinion, arrayit his 
men in sindry ambuschementis, and commandit to sla all thaim 
that war repugnant to his desiris. Incontinent he callit the capi- 
tanis of the tribis to ane counsall, and began, be lang orisone, to de- 
test the insolence, avarice, and unnatural hatrent of the kingis sonnis, 
quhilkis, contending for the crown, hes slane thaimself. And on 
the same maner he detestit the bludy tyrany of Durstus, thair fa- 
der ; schawand, be mony reasonis, his sonnis unabill for the crown ; 
and gaif thankis, thairfore, to the Goddis, that the cunti'e was deli- 
verit of thair tyranny, and the tresson falling on thaimself, quhilk 
thay devisit for him. Finally, he schew the gret laubour, cure, and 
diligence, that he tuke baith for the common n wele, and to have 
brocht the kingis sonnis to concord; quhilkis as than war baith slane, 
he nocht knawand be quhat maner, bot narrowly eschaping with his 
lif. And, forthir, he schew, how his fader, King Ewin, left hira 
governour be his testament, with power to part all his tresoure and 
gudis amang the nobillis that luffit him during his lif. And, that 
the commoun weil micht suffer na dammage, he desirit the admini- 
stration of the realme to be gevin to him, quhill it war cleirly dis- 
cussit, quhay war just heritouris thairto. The capitanis, quhilkis 
war at this time within the castell, knawand weil his treason, to saif 
thair liffis, maid him king. 

Als sone as Gillus was maid king on this wise, to stabil the realme 
to him with sickir firmance, he tuk the aithis of his pepil to be his 
faithful liegis. Sic thingis done, he partit the tresure and guddis 


of King Ewin, as he promittit ; and, be that way, he conquest thair 
benevolence and favour. Nochtheles, the same ambition and avarice 
that movit him to seik the crown, remanit with him eftir that he was 
king : for he set his mind, be mony slichtis, to distroy all the lin- 
nage and blude of Durstus, that he micht rejose the crown but ony 
clame of otheris. And becaus he wes advertist, that Dothane, the 
Sonne of Durstus, afore slane, had thre sonnis nurist in the He of 
Man, under the wise Clerkis thairof ; of quhilkis the eldest, Lismorus, 
had XII yeris in age ; the secund, Cormacus, x yeris; and the thrid, 
Edeir, nocht thre yeir of age ; he went the nerrest way to the said He, 
with dissimilat mind, as he wald have brocht thir children to his castell 
of Dunstafage, to be fosterit thair with otheris nobillis sonnis of the 
realme. The eldest two, arrayit in thair best avise, met King Gillus ; 
quhome he maist tenderlie ressavit, and spendit the residew of the 
nicht in cherising thir barnis, that the gret maister and bischop of 
the said He suld have na suspition of his hid treason. On the mor- 
row, he began to common with the bischop and his clerkis, concern- 
ing thair religioun, constitutionis, and lawis. On the thrid day he 
maid sacrifice to his Goddis, with solempnit cerimonis; and eftir 
that he had left certane men behind him to sla the thrid sonne, 
Edeir, he pullit up salis, and arrivit at Dounstafage, havand with 
him the two eldest sonnis of the said Dothane, ^vith thair foster-fa- 
der and brether ; for, in thay dayis, the pcpill had na les affection 
to thair foster-brether and fader, than to thair awin naturall fader 
or brether. 

The youngest son, Edeir, was in sic infirmite, that na man bele- 
vit his hf. Als sone as he began to convales, he was brocht be his 
nuris to Argyle, quhare he was nurist lang time amang the desert 
craggis and montanis of that land : for scho suspeckit na gud to cum 
of his two remanent brether that come in Gillus handis. And, as scho 
conjecturit, so followit: for the first nicht that Gillus returnit to 
Dounstafage, he slew baith thir sonnis of Dothane, in the armis of 
thair foster-fader and brether. And, herand that tlie thrid son, 
Edeir, was eschapit, he become sa wod and furius, that he slew the 
men that he left behind him for his slauchter, at thair returning. 
And, fra thens, he set his uter besines to persew Edeir to the deith ; 


and ceissit nocht, quhill he was suerly advertist of his fleing in Ire- 

How King Gilhis xcas banisf. Hozv Cadal, Chiftane of Brigandism 
•was maid Governoy?', and slew Gillus in Ireland. And how Ewin 
the Secund xoas maid King. 

Ot lang efter, ane counsall was set at Dounstafage; in 
the quhilk Gillus schew, be lang orison, that he had 
deservit na litil favour of his nobillis and commonis for 
the prudent administratioun of his realme, gevand his 
uter bcsines baith to take away al movaris of sedicion, and to saif it 
fra dissention, and weris intestine, and fra the insolence of ane young 
prince ; and, thairfore, he desirit na suspition to be imput to him, 
howbeit the sonnis of Dothane war deceissit, as apperit, be the mind 
of Goddis ; for as thay ordanit kingdomes and empire to be, so have 
thay commandit na wemen nor barnis, bot men only of provin vir- 
tew, to have the samin in governance. Forthir, thair was sindry 
seditius men, and movaris of discord, the quhilkis was necessar to 
be drawin fra the laif. 

Als sone as Gillus had said thir wordis, he enterit, with ane cer- 
tane of his nobillis, in the castel of Dounstafage. Incontinent, he 
gart sla all the freindis of Dtu'stus, but ony miseration, quhidder 
thay war men, wiffis, or barnis. Mony of the noblis that stude 
about him, was richt astunist for this cruelte ; dreidand to be slane 
on the same maner. Gillus seand thaim affrayit, maid thaim conso- 
latioim ; for, gif thay continewit at his opinioun, thay sail leif in 
gret felicite in times cuming. Efter this, he kest his wickit mind ilk 
day to more cruelte, that he micht all uterly distroy all thaim that 
favorit Durstus. 

Quhen this bludy tyrane had roung certane time, with thir, and 
siclike inhumane cruelteis, unsemand to ane prince ; the capitanis and 
nobillis of Scotland assemblit ane army of chosin men fra all partis 


of the realme, and conspirit aganis him with sic prudence, that this 
tyrane wist nocht thairof, quhil thay war arrayit afore him at Doun- 
stafage. Gillus than, destitute of all support, and havand nane with 
him bot sa mony as war outhir haldin aganis thair will, or coft with 
his money, gat ane fischar bait, and fled in Ireland. 

Efter his fleing, his men war al yoldin to Cadall, chiftane of Bri- 
gandis, and baith his castellis, Berigone and Dounstafage, taikin. 
The nobillis, be gud advisement, that this tyrane, Gillus, suld be 
perpetually exilit, maid Cadall governour ; quhilk kest his extreme 
labour to persew Gillus to the delth ; and come finaly in the Ihs, 
quhare he fand Edeir, the thrid son of Dothane, qvihilk was savit 
afore fra the treasone of Gillus be his nurice, as said is. And be- 
caus the said Edeir was destitute of freindis, (for thay war al slane 
be Gillus,) he was send to Epiak, the principall ciete of Brigance ; 
to be kepit thair, quhil he war of more perfectioun and aige. 

Gillus, banist on this wise, complanit to the princis of Ireland, of 
the hevy injuris done to him be the Scottis; be quhome he was 
exilit, and spulyeit of his empire and kingdome ; throw quhilk na 
place was left sicker to him in Albion : and promittit, gif the said 
princis wald restore him to liis realme, to gif the His of Scotland 
fra the empire of Scottis, to be haldin perpetually of the dominion 
of Ireland. The Ireland princis, glaid of his promis, assemblit ane 
army to cum in Scotland for the same effect. 

Cadall, Weill advertist of thair ordinance, returnit to Dounstafage, 
and tuke consultatioun of the nobillis, how the said Gillus micht be 
esely resistit. Than was it concludit that Ewin, the secund of that 
name, sal be king ; for he was nepot to King Fynnane, gottin of his 
bruther, Dowal. 

Gillus, seand the see campis stuffit in all partis of Albion to re- 
sist his cuming, arrivit in the His ; quhare he exercit his cruelte but 
ony miseratioun or piete; sine tuke with him all the guddis that 
micht be caryit, and the remanent put in fire. King Ewin, impa^ 
cient to suffer thir injuris, providit ane flote of galyeonis and schippis, 
with marineris, weirmen, and other thingis necessar ; and send thaim 
with Cadall, his admu-all, in Ireland. Sone efter, Cadall pullit up 
sahs, and, with fortunat windis, arrivit in Ireland. At quhais cum- 

VOL. I. I 


ing went sic confluence of pepil to him, that he semit nocht only to 
vinous Gillus, bot all the pepill of Ireland. 

Gillus sone efter arrayit his folkis, and, be sound of trumpet, 
baith the armjis junit, and faucht with gret cruelte on ilk side ; 
quhill, at last, mony of Gillus folkis, wery and mate, specially thay 
that thocht it odius to fecht aganis thair native pepill, fled fra Gil- 
lus, and randerit thaim to Cadall. Than Gilkis, disparit of victory, 
raif of his coit-armour, and fled in a thik wod. Sone efter, certane 
annit men war send to seik Gillus ; and fand him finaly in ane dirk 
coif of the wod, neir famist of hunger ; and incontinent thay slew 
him, and brocht his heid to Cadall. 

This miserabill end maid Gillus, the secund yeir of his regne ; 
confiding ouir mekill in his tyranny and falset. 

Hoxa Cadall, returnand out of Ireland, lost the maist part of' his 
Army he rage of Sees. And of the consolatioun maid to him be 
King- Ewin. 

Fter the deith of Gillus, Cadall was returnand in Al- 
bioun, be the Ireland sees, with his victorious army : 
quhen suddandly rais ane unmerciful storme, and tur- 
nit all his glore of victory in desolatioun ; for, the ir- 
recoverabill skaithis falling be the said tempest, passit all the prof- 
fet of his victory. The miserabill moderis and wiffis, knawing thair 
husbandis and sonnis perist in the sees, convenit to the schippis, 
with hidduous spraichis and schowtis. Amang othir lamentabill 
sichtis, Cadall come to land in dolorus array, beu-and his handis to 
the hevin, and warying fortoun and the Goddis, that distroyit sa 
mony nobill and vailyeant men, converting thair glore of victory in 
supreme misery ; quhais dolorus havingis war sa petuous, that every 
man had compassioun thairof. 

King Ewin, richt sorrowfull of thir novellis, come, with gret dili- 
gence, to Cadall, and said in this maner : " Thou hes brocht to me 


" and my realme, maist vailyeant Cadall, na litill consolatioun ; re- 
" turning \\ath thy victorius army in Albioun, unbrokin be injuris 
" of ennimes. Thou hes vincust my ennimes in ane uncouth regioun, 
" fechtand manly, be displayit baneris, for the eis of my realme and 
" common weill. The tyrane GilUis, pump of every vice, is vincust. 
" Howbeit, his schamefuU fleingmicht be no support to him ; quhais 
" heid, schorne fra his body, is brocht in Albion, to that fine, that 
" he sal nocht want now, quhen he is deid, the schame and disho- 
" nour that he deservit for his tyranny in his lif. ]\Iy adversaryis 
" ar penitent of thair rebellioun, and brocht to my opinion. Our 
" army, be thy industry, ar saiffit but reproche amang thair un- 
" couth and strongest fais. Thou hes left na thing undone, that 
*' pertenit to ane forcy campioun. Na cans occurris to reclame aganis 
" fortoun nor the hevinnis ; for, thocht ane part of thy army be 
" perist, be tempest and rage of seis, yit thow, be benevolence and 
" favour of Goddis, ar saffit to the hie honour of this realme. Thow 
" arrivit in Ireland nocht but propiciant favour of the Goddis, re- 
" turning with sa riche spulyeis, but on}^ injuris of ennimes. And, 
" thocht thy ennimes rejose of the mischance falling to thy army, 
" yit na glore may succeid thairof to thaim. For the stait of eirdly 
" creatouris hes this condicioun: eftir prosperite cuiuis adversite, 
" and eftir adversite cumis prosperite ; proceding be reward of fa- 
" tal destineis, quhais affect may nocht be movit, nor yit eschewit, 
" be prudence of mortall creatouris. Thow hes, thairfore, na caus 
" to lament, bot erar to have thy adversite in pacience, saiffing the 
*' to ane better fort on. And sen na creatouris may remeid thir dis- 
" plesouris bot the Goddis, quhilkis governis the empire of men at 
" thair pleseir, schaw now ane plesand vult with us ; that thy 
" freindis and ennimes may knaw the, be ferme Constance, na mair 
" brokin in adversite, than proAvd in prosperite ; that thy spreit and 
" curage may appere als invincible, as thy body is in battall." 

Cadall heirand this consolatiovm of his prince, fenyeit al the cheir 
he micht : howbeit, he repentit sair, that this unmercifull tempest, 
that consumit sa mony vailyeant men, left him on live, to se thair 
mischeif and sorow. Of this calamite falling to Cadall, is sum part 
rehersit, be the poete Claudiane, and othir auctouris. 


Cfjap* Binttttntij. 

Ho'lO the Kh}gis of Scottis and Pkhtis rear all'iat togklder be Ma~ 
riage. Hoxc Balus, King ofOrknay, slexv himself he disperation. 
Of the raise comisall gevin he King Eicin to Edeir, 

IxG EAnn, eftir the slaucbter of Gillus, desiring to go- 
verne his reahiie in justice, visit all the boundis thairof, 
and punist faltoviris ; and gave to Cadall, for the faith- 
ful! service be him done, the io\a\ of Epiak, with sin- 
dry othir landis and townis of Brigance, in fre regahte. 

Nocht lang eftir, King Ewin, accumpanit -with his nobillis, met 
Gethus, King of Pichtis, on the borduris of Brigance, and renewit 
the band of peace v-ith Pichtis. This peace wes roborat be mariage ; 
for King Ewin maryit Siora, dochter of Gethus the Thrid, King of 
Pichtis. This mariage wes solempnisit be the bischop and preistis 
of the lie of Man. 

Nocht lang eftir, he wes advertist, that Balus, King of Orknaj, 
wes cumming, with ane flote of schippis, throw Pentland Firth, and 
maid na litiU heirschippis and slauchter in Ros and Cathnes. King 
Ewin, to meit thir attemptatis, assemblit ane flote of schippis with 
sic deligence, that Balus wes not advertist thairof, quhill he wes ar- 
rivit in sicht. The Orknay men, abasit of his suddand cumming, 
war constranit to gif battall : bot thay war sone discomfist ; and, be 
continewall chais, drevin to the scis, quhare ane part of thame es- 
chapit be fischear batis, and the residew vincust and slane. King 
Balus seing na way to eschape, that he sail nocht cum in his enni- 
mes handis, slew himself. King Ewin, throw this victory, conquest 
gret favour of his pepill. And, quhen he wes returning hame be 
the Ireland seis, he arrivit in the mouth of Lochtie, quhare he big- 
git ane town, callit Inverlochtie ; and maid thair ane sicker refuge, 
in the honour of his Goddis, defending, under pane of deid, that 
ony criminabill personis be abstrakit out of the samin, nochtwith- 
standing quhatsumevir crimis be thaim committit. This town wes 


eftir ane commoun port till all marchandis of France or Spanye, for 
the incredibill plente of fische swommand in thay seis. Of this town 
remanis nocht, in our days, saif onlie the ruinus wallis thairof; for 
it wes evertit be tlie Danis, as we sail eftir schaw. King Ewin big- 
git ane othir town on the river of Nes, quhilk is yit namit Innernes ; 
quhair sum time wes gret repair of marchandis, quhilkis come out 
of Almany to seik riche furringis ; as raartrikis, bevaris, and siclik 
skinnis, quhilkis aboundis in that regioun. This town remanis yit, 
under the auld name, full of marchandise and guddis ; howbeit it 
be oftimes heryit be evil nichtbouris liand thair about. 

King Ewin, as ane noble and illuster prince, baith in peace and 
weir, passit the remanent of his dayis but ony domistik or uncouth 
weris ; and peacefyit the seditionis that rais in the His be marveUus 
wisdome : for he detestit ay civill weris, als weiU quhen he wes in 
privat as in publik auctorite. Schort time afore his deith, he past 
to Epiak, to agre the sonnis of Cadall ; quhilkis feU in gret conten- 
tion, efter thair faderis deith, for his riches and guddis : nochtheles, 
tliis nobill prince aggreit thaim sone efter his cuming. And efter 
that he had done the obsequies for Cadall, efFering to the gise of 
thay dayis, he gart rais ane huge stane, gravin to the quik image of 
Cadall, apon ane hie mot ; and commandit the pepill to offer him 
wine and sens: for oure forebearis war dissavit, als weil as othir 
pepil, in thair arrouris. 

King Ewin, sorrowfull of the deith of Cadall, fell in hevy infir- 
mite ; and Avas sa disparit of his heill, that lie resignit the crown to 
Edeir, the thrid nepote of King Durstus, for he was just herytoure 
to the crown, as we have schawin. And to that fine, that Edeir suld 
be ane gud king, he counsalit him, to defende his liegis and subdittis 
fra all injuris ; and to do na man injure; and to geif na man office 
nor auctorite, that is ennime to justice ; and to dres all gret materis 
be himself, and the small materis to commit to his nobillis ; and to 
governe him ay in sic maner, that he may be worthy to regne above 
his subdittis ; and nevir to move battall les than he micht na othir 
wayis do ; and, quhen it was necessar to liave battall, to irk of na 
chargis pertening to weirly ordinance ; and to devoid him nevir of 
piete, for that virtew was maist semand in ane prince : and, finalv. 


commandit him, above all othir besines, to have his Goddis in re- 
verence, quhais favoure wes ane sover protectioun to all realmis. 
And quhen he had gevin this counsal to Edeir, he deceissit, the 
XVII yeir of his regne. Efter quhais deceis, was raisit ane crafty 
imaige, maid to his similitude ; quhilk was haldin mony yeris efter 
in gret veneratioun amang the pepill. 
And sa endis heir the Secund Buke. 

Clje %\)xiti Mnht. 




Of King Edeir ; and how he revengH the heirschippis maid he the 
tratoure Bredus in the His. 

Win deceissit in this maner, Edeir was crownit 
in the chiar of merbil. And, sone efter, he 
vesit all the boundis of his realme; quhais 
passaige was the mau' plesand to his nobillis, 
that he was gevin to hunting : for he dehtit 
in no thing more than in chais of wild beistis 
II with houndis and rachis, and specially of 
wolffis, for thay ar noisum to tame bestiaU. This regioun, tlirow 
the cauld humouris thairof, ingeneris wolffis of feirs and cruell na- 

King Edeir brocht the pepill to sic tranquillite, that thay levit 
mony yeris but ony oppression or injure of nichtbouris. Bot at last, 
Bredus of the His, cosing to Gillus afore rehersit, arrivit with mony 
schippis and galyeonis in Argyle, to revenge the slauchter of the 
said Gillus, and othir his freindis, slane in Ireland. The pepill, im- 


pacient to suffer the heirschippis and slauchter be him maid, com- 
plainit to King Edeir, quhilk was huntand on the nixt montanis for 
the time. King Edeir advertist heirof, past, that same nicht, with 
ane cumpany of chosin men to the sees, quhair the said Bred us was 
arrivit ; and, first, he brint all thair schippis and galyeonis, that thay 
micht have na refuge to fle in Ireland. On the nixt morrow, King 
Edeir persewit this Bredus and his complicis with sic manheid, that 
thay war finaly tane, and put to deith. Sic thingis done. King 
Edeir past in the His, quhare he punist sindry conspiratouris, tliat 
followit the opinioun of Gillus and Bredus. 

How the Britonis send Amhassatouris to King Edeir, for support 
aganis Julius Cesar. Of thair orison, and of King Edeiris an- 
sxver. And how the said Julius rvas doung out of Albion, he 
support of Scottis. 




Ls sone as Edeir had dantit all invasouris of his realme, 
he returnit to Dounstafage. In the mene time, come to 
him the amhassatouris of Cassibilane, King of Britonis, 
desiring support aganis Julius Cesar, Romane Empe- 
rour ; quhais army was reddy, with maist awfull ordinance, to cum 
in Albion. Edeir plesandly ressavit thir amhassatouris, and com- 
mandit thaim to propone thair eirandis. Sone efter ane nobill man, 
namit Androgens, said in this maner : " I will say na thing before 
" this famous auditoure, in the name of Cassibilane, King of Bri- 
" tonis, maist nobill prince ; saif it only that sal pertene baith to the 
" weil of thy realme and liegis. Nature, the wise moder of all crea- 
" touris, hes put in this He of Albioun thre vailyeant pepill ; nocht 
" to that behuffe, that thay suld leif in seditioun, and invaid othir 
" as beistis, but reasoun; bot to incres togidder under ane benivo- 
" lence and freindschip, that thay may be the more Strang to resist 
" uncouth ennimes quhenevir it sail happin thaim to be invadit. 
" Quha may beleif or traist the realme to stand sicker, quhen the 


" Britonis ar distroyit be Romanis? Bot gif sum man, be vane 
" esperance, wald traist the Romanis, quhilkis relffis sceptouris fra 
" kingis, to be the more plesand and merciful! to yow that youre 
" nichtbouris ar distroyit, thou may have cognossance, be dammage 
" of othir pepill, that this opinioun is vane. The Romanis, calland 
" thaimself, be proude insolence, lordis of the warld, quhilkis ar ha- 
" tit with all pepill for thair tirannie, ar determit to cum haistely in 
" Albioun, to subdew the samin to thair empire. Quhat othir thing 
" may we beleif the Romanis sail do, quhen thay have subdevvit us 
" Britonis, bot, with sichk avarice and tyranny, to reif fra yow Scottis 
" and Pichtis your landis, lawis, and liberteis ? Quhat othir thing 
" desire thay, bot to sit down in our landis, castellis, and townis; 
" and outhir to thrill us to maist schamefull servitude, or ellis to 
" banis the maist nobill and vailyeant men amang us ? Thair deidis 
" schawls Weill thair tyranny: as may be weil provin to us be the 
" re wine of Cartage, sum time the riche ciete, and brocht finaly to 
" nocht, fra it was randerit to Romanis, nochtwithstanding that it 
" abaid at thair opinion and faith. Forther, gif sa remot and un- 
" couth history may nocht move yow, behald the Gallis, your nicht- 
" bouris, quhilkis, als sone as thay war vincust be Romanis, war 
" thirlit to perpetuall servitude; thair munitionis, and every maner 
" of wappinnis tane fra thaim. It is nocht to be traistit, that Ro- 
" manis sail be more propiciant to us Albianis, gif we be vincust, 
" than thay have bene to otheris afore ; for ay the more incressis 
" thau: dominioun, thair tyranny is the mair insufferabill. Lat us 
" heirfore resist thir commoun injuris, with all our pissance equale 
" concurring. Best is to resist this violence of Romanis in the be- 
" ginning, in adventure thay grow efter sa Strang, quhen thair 
" power is junit togidder, that thay may nocht be resistit. Belt ye 
" thairfore, maist invincibil prince, with thy provin virtew, to sup- 
" port us be thir thy vailyeant pepil. Come, lusty gallandis, array- 
" it in battal aganis our common ennimes. Defend your anciant li- 
" berte, and have ferme esperance of victory ; sen our common en- 
" nimes, nocht content of the remanent boundis of the warld, be in- 
" saciabil avarice, and but ony occasion of injuris, intendis to sub- 
" dew this He, quhilk is severit fra all pepill, to thair empire. For- 

VOL. I. K 


'' thir, quhen ye, be favour of Goddis lies conquest victory, above 
" mony untellabil comoditeis, ye sail rejose youre liberte, and con- 
" quest glore immortall baith to yow, and your realme." 

Quhen Androgens had endit this orison, he was removit aside, 
quhill the noblis had advisit quhat was to be done. Eftev ripe de- 
liberation it was concludit, to send support to Britonis, to resist the 
commoun danger appering. Than King Edeir maid answer to thir 
ambassatouris on this wise : " Ye desire a thing, Aveil belovit Bri- 
" tonis, baith honest and proffitabill till our common weill ; movand 
" us to defend this realme, quhilk lies bene sa vailyeantly def endit 
" be oure progenitouris, fra extreme dangeir thairto appering. The 
" avarice, riches, chevalry, and pridfull empire of Romanis ar schawin 
' Weill to us be thaini that lies bene subdewit thairto. And, forthir, 
" we knaw weill, gif the Romanis subdew yow Britonis to tliair do- 
' minioun, tliay will invaid us nixt, and outliir thrill us to vile ser- 
" vitude, or ellis expell us out of Albioun. The dammage of Gallis 
" and Spanyartis, fra quhome our anciant faderis discendit, schewis 
" daily to us, quhat afflictioun and misery thay sustene that ar sub- 
" dewit to Romanis. It had bene mair honest to thaim, be my opi- 
" nion, to have fouchtin maist strangly to the deid in defence of 
" thair liberte, than to have reservit thair miserabill livis to sic 
" schameful servitude. We knaw the Britonis wil noclit tine thair 
" reahne, thair hberte, and lawis, but Strang bergane ; and, sen our 
" common weill may suffer na danger sa lang as ye Britonis standis 
" in sicker flrmance, we ar, be degest counsall, profoundly resolvit 
" to jeoperde our livis and guddis in defence of yow ; thinkand bet- 
" ter to de vailyeantly in that sort, gif sic thingis be plesand to the 
" Goddis, than to remane at hame, suffering yow, our tender freindis, 
" to be reft fra your landis and liberteis ; and, finaly, to rander oure 
" native Goddis, wiflis, and barnis, in our ennimes handis. For thir 
" reasonis, we will cans our army, in maist weirly ordinance, to be 
*' send haistely to London, in support of Cassibilane, King of Bri- 
" tonis. We will als require Gethus, our confiderat brother, the 
" King of Pichtis, to concur with us, be band of alliance, to the 
" same affect. And, we beleif, all thay that dwelhs in Albioun, be 
" respect thay have to the common weill, will heir us gladly in that 


" behalf; for the luf we beir unto our native cuntre, enforcis us with 
." invincibil body is to assist thairto." The ambassatouris of Bri- 
tonis, rasit in esperance of gret fehcite be this answere, returnit to 

Als sone as thir ambassatouris war dispaschit, King Edeir send 
two vailyeant men, Cadallane and Dowall, capitanis of Brigandis 
and Lome, with x.m chosin men, to London. The cuming of thir 
Scottis was the more thankfull to Cassibilane, that he was to fecht 
aganis the maist pissant ennime, Julius, dantour of the warld. 

In the mene time, Cassibilane was advertist, that Julius was ar- 
rivit within his sees, and brocht his army on land ; and the pepill 
fled that war left to resist his cuming on the see camp ; the nobil 
men, that vailyeantly resistit, slane ; and the Egill, quhilk is the an- 
senye of Romanis, prowdly displayit on hicht. Be thir novellis, na 
litill affray was amang the Britonis. Nochtheles, Cassibilane maid 
thame plesand consolation, and exhortit thame vehemently to battall, 
for defence of thair realme and hberte, than* M'iffis, barnis, and na- 
tive Goddis ; quhilkis ar sa deir to mortall pepill, that but thaim 
the lif of man is nothir plesand nor sicker. " Beleif na othir thino-," 
said he, " bot sicker victory ; sen your ennimes persewis yow be na 
" occasioun of injuris, bot only be thair insaciabil avarice," The 
Britonis war rasit in gret esperance of victory be cumming of 
Scottis and Pichtis ; for thay had na htill confidence in thair man- 
heid and chevalry. Incontinent, Cassibilane went forthwart with 
his hale power aganis the Romanis. And first he send his horsmen, 
with sindry wageouris in weir-cartis, to breke the array and ordi- 
nance of Romanis. At the first contering, was two smal incursionis 
be uncertane victory ; bot, at last, baith the armyis junit with thair 
hale power. FoUowit, ane doutsum battall, lang continewing with un- 
certane chance : quhill at last, be cuming of Welchemen and Corn- 
wal, sa huge nois rais be reird and sowne of bellis, that hang on 
thair bardingis, that the ennimes war affrait, and finaly put to flicht. 
The Britonis, with Scottis and Pichtis, that come to thair support, 
followit on the chace with sic fury, skatterit but array, that thay gat 
mair skaith than thay did to thair ennimes. The Romanis kepit sic 
ordour in thair fleing, and abaid sa fast togidder at thair ansenye, 
that thay maid thaim of times to renew battall, howbeit thay war 



nocht of poAver to resist. The Britonis, wide skatterit in sindr)' 
buschementis, eschapit nocht in thair chace but gret slauchter; 
quliill, at the last, nicht severit thaim. 

Als sone as Juhus persavit the chace endit, he gadderit the resi- 
dew of his folkis togidder, and send all the woundit men to his 
schippis, with purpos to revenge this outrage on the morrow, Noch- 
theles herand, on the morrow, that mony of his schippis war sa bro- 
kin be violent tempest, that thay war not abill to do him proffet; 
and dreidand that this calamite, fallin to his schippis, suld be na les 
curage to his ennimes than discomfitour to his awin folkis ; he super- 
sedit his intent, quhil he saw ane time mair ganand. Als sone as he 
had reparit his navy, he brocht all his folkis to new strength, quhare 
the Britonis micht nocht invaid him ; sine puUit up salis within the 
nicht, and returnit in France ; levand behind him ane huge pray of 
gudchs, quhilk micht nocht be turst for laik of schippis. The yeir 
that Julius come first in Albion, was fra the beginning of the warki, 
v.M.c.xxxix yeris ; afore the incarnation, lx yeris ; in the iv yeir of 
the empire of King Edeir. 

Hozo Julius returnit in Britane, and maid it tributar to Romane 


Uhen Cesar was doung out of Albion in this wise, the 
Albianis, that is to say, Scottis, Pichtis, and Britonis, 
partit the spulye found in his tentis, be custum of armis, 
rejosing of this glorious victory ; and maid sacrifice to 
thair Goddis, beleving perpetually to be deliverit baith of tlie wcris 
of Romanis, and all othir uncouth pepill, in timis cuming. Cadal- 
lane and Dowall richely rewardit be Cassibilane, returnit with the 
army of Scottis ; and schcw to King Edeir al thingis done in maner 
afore rehersit. Edeir, rejosing of thir novellis, commandit generall 
processionis and sacrifice to be maid in the honoure of Goddis. Than 
foUowit sa incredibil luf and kindnes betwix the Scottis, Britonis, 


and Pichtis, that thay apperit to leif in times cuming in perpetuall 

In the yelr following, King Edeir past to Innernes, quhare he, be 
sindry marchandis, was advertist, that Julius had pecifyit France 
to his empire, and was makand provision for ane new army to re- 
turne in Britane, to revenge the injuris done to him in the yeir afore. 
Edeir, sone efter, send his ambassatouris to Cassibilane, to schaw the 
hie dangeris appering to his realme ; and promittit to send, gif he 
plesit, x.M chosin men to his support, 

Thir ambassatouris, at thair cuming to London, schew thir offeris 
to Cassibilane. The Britonis, movit be vane arrogance, that the 
glore of victory suld not be tane fra thaim, refusit to have ony sup- 
ple of Scottis or Pichtis ; and answerit, thay war nocht brocht to sic 
febilnes, that it was necessar to thaim to have support al time quhen 
ennimes invadit thaim, and thay had the same pissance instantly be 
quhilk thay dantit the Romanis in the yeir afore. 

King Edeir, and his nobilhs, had na litill admiration of sic vane 
arrogance, to refuse support aganis sa pissant ennimes, the dantaris 
of the warld ; and jugit, thairfore, the nobil realme of Britonis, be 
proude insolence for ane smal victory, to sustene gret dammage. 
Quliilk thing was weiU sene in the end of thir weris : for Julius re- 
turnit sone efter in Britane. At quhais cuming, the pepill, that was 
left to resist him, affrayit be infinite multitude of schippis, fled to 
thair best refuge. Nochtheles, Julius was stoutly assailyet be Cas- 
sibilane, and thre sindry timis put abak; bot, at last, Cassibilane 
was discomfist, and all his vailyeant capitanis tane or slane. Cassi- 
bilane, brokin ilk day with irrecoverabill skaithis, and disparit of 
support, randerit him to Juhus ; and gaif plegis that his realme sail 
remane tributar as Romane province. Cassibilane, yoldin in this 
maner, was commandit to pay yeirly mmm poundis of silver to Ro- 
mane pepil, in maner of tribute. 


Ofsmdry message send he Jidius to Scottis and Plchtis, andqfthair 
answer. Of Julius Horf; and qfsindry opinionis concerning the 
first Foundaris thairqf. 

Ls sone as Julius had dantit the Britonis in this wise, 
he come to London, quhare he was ressavit with gret 
reverence and honoure : and, quhen he had tarryit thair 
certane dayis to refresche his army, he maid provision 
to pas on the Scottis and Pichtis. The motive of his weris w^as, be- 
caus the Scottis and Pichtis maid support afore to Britonis, the first 
time he come in Britane. Yit, afore lie maid o«y battall aganis thaim, 
he thocht best to assailye thair mindis be his ambassatouris, quhid- 
der thay list have weir or peace : Peace, gif thay wald be subdewit 
to Romane empire ; Weir, gif thay perversly wald contempne the 
same. Belive, he send ambassatouris to the two khigis of Scottis 
and Pichtis, to scliaw thaim, that all realmis, be favoure, as apperit, 
of the Goddis, war subdewit to Romanis. For the Goddis, be sin- 
dry revolutionis of time, has gevin the monarchy and empire of the 
warld to sindiy pepil ; that is to say, to Affricanis, Medis, Persanis, 
Grekis, and now instantly to Romanis. Yew placis ar foundin in 
the erd quhare the Romane chevalry is unknawin ; for thay, be fa- 
vour of Goddis, hes brocht all realmis and landis under thair em- 
pire. Thay have vincust Aphrik, Egypt, Araby, Joury, Perthia, 
Troy, Thebes, Asia, Macedone, Grece, France, and Spanye ; and 
now laitly, Britane. Al regionis circulit Avith the occeane sees, ar 
obeysant to Romane lauis. Na pepil ar in erd that knawis nocht 
the name of Romanis. Thair is na sicker leving nor honeste, bot 
only quhare the Romanis lawis hes dominioun ; for the senat and 
pepil of Rome ar the port and sicker refuge of all pepil, quhais glore 
is, to defend thair subdittis and freindis in justice and faith. For 
thir causis, it war na litill honour to Scottis and Pichtis to have so- 
ciete with Romanis, and be callit the confiderat freindis ; quhilkis 


hes sa mony cietes and realmis brocht to thair provinces, sa mony 
kingis under thair servitude. This is the command of Cesar and 
Romane pepill : quhilk suld be fervently desirit, for singular com- 
modite, baith of Scottis and Pichtis ; les, than thay avlU be rebelland 
to the Goddis, quhilkis hes determit to bring the hale warld under 
Romane empire. 

King Edeir, and his nobhs, herand this message, understude the 
colorit dissait of Romanis; and, thairfore, maid answer, sayng, 
Thay wald defend thair wiffis, children, landis, and liberteis, with 
al the power thay micht, to the uter end of thair lif ; and erar to 
jeoperde thaim to maist dangerus battall, than to leif in servitude. 
The fame of Romanis was nocht knawin to thaim, bot in sa far as 
thay war repute, above ingine of man, maist avaricious theiffis, and 
reiffaris of realmes ; depriving kingis be fenyeit causis and slichtis, 
and subdewing fre pepill, be unjust battall, to servitude. Forthir, 
gif the Romanis, movit but occasion of injuris, bot only of corruppit 
malice, hapnit to invade thaim be injust battal ; thay tuke the Goddis, 
quhilkis ar punissaris of injuris done to innocent pepill, in ^dtnes, 
to fecht to the deith for defence of thair landis, quhill ane of thaim 
war left on lif. The ambassatouris, havand sichke answer of the 
Pichtis, returnit in Britane. 

Quhen Julius had herd this answer of Scottis and Pichtis, he 
send to thaim his secund message, with mair dispiteful chargis than 
afore; as efter followis : " The gret Cesar, Romane counsull, per- 
" suadis the King Edeir, and yow Scottis, to submit yow to Ro- 
" manis, the maist pissant pepill of the warld, in adventure ye bring 
" youre self, be imprudent fechting, to uter exterminioun. Take 
" exempill, be irrecoverabill scaithis falling to uthir pepill for thair 
" vane rebellion. Behald the majeste of Romane pepill ! Consider 
" the magnitude of thair name ! Wil ye assailye thaim with chance 
" of battall, as the Britonis, your nichtbouris, hes laitly done ; 
" quhilkis, be fuliche bergane, ar outhir slane, or tane and brocht 
" to perpetuall servitude ? Quhat pissance have ye in respect of 
" Romanis, the concreouris of the warld .'' Have ye that vane con- 
" fidence, that Romanis, the dantouris of all pepill, may be vincust 
" be yow, the hinmaist pepill thairof .'' Or, beleif ye, that the warld 
*' may be deliverit fra servitude of Romanis be yow ? May your 


" power, quhilkis is nocht in respect of Romanis, restore the empire 
" of sa mony kingis distroyit? Knaw ye nocht, that thair is mony 
" Romane campionis, na les active than Cesar, baith in wisdome, 
" manheid, and chevalry, quhais illuster deidis hes decorit all re- 
" gionis quhare the sonne schinis? And yit it is more difficil to 
" vincus Cesar, him allone, than to vincus all the warld. How is 
" this presumptuous foly cumin toyow ? Contempne ye the Goddis, 
" quhilkis, be thair propiciant favour to Romanis, hes ordanit all 
" regionis to be to thaim subdewit ? Beleif ye, the Romanis wil be 
" sa irkit be straitnes of your craggis, montanis, or marressis, or be 
" penurite of vittallis, that thay may nocht abide in your regionis? 
" Beleif ye, to be sicker in your said montanis, with your guddis? 
" Ye ar dissavit, gif sic vane confidence be in yow ; for sic impedi- 
" mentis sal move na mair the Romanis fra thair purpos, than your 
" rowmis war plentuous, and full of every frutis necessar to sustene 
" thair weris. For the Romanis hes experience above ingine of man 
" in chevalry : sa agill of thair bodyis, that thay may dant all thor- 
" tour and difficill gatis ; swift of rink, and reddy to every kind of 
" jeoperde ; of skars meit and sleip, and accustumat with every dan- 
" ger that may occurre in battall ; and sa provident, that thay sail 
" caus vittallis, gif neid beis, to be brocht to thaim out of all re- 
" gionis adjacent : for Cesar hes ane ripe wit for every cais that 
" may occurre. Heirfore, gif ye have ony regarde to your weill, — 
" S^^ y^ ^^ prudent, — eschew warly ; that ye, by fuliche and luipru- 
" dent bergane, bring nocht youre self, your Aviffis, frendis, and 
" barnis, to irrecoverable dammage. Ye may have now honest con- 
" ditionis of peace afore the victory : quhilk ye sal nocht obtene 
" quhen ye, be force of battall, ar randerit ; for than sail ye, for 
" your rebellioun, be reft baith of your landis and honouris ; and, 
" finaly, be brocht to sic disperatioun, that ye sail nevir have espe- 
" ranee to recover your liber te."" 

Als sone as thir wourdis war said, sic fury and nois rais amang 
the Scottis, for thay war impacient of servitude, that thir ambassa- 
touris had bene maist cruellie slane, war nocht the law of pepill, 
quhilk our forbearis had ay in maist reverence, saffit thame. Noch- 
theles, answer wes maid to thaim be Cadallane, in the kingis name, 
as followis : " Suppois the Scottis, be sum opinionis, ar repute nocht 


" circumspect ; bot of fuliche and dull ingine ; yit thay ar nocht mo- 
" vit mair be Cesaris plesand and dissaitfull wourdis, than be his 
" awfull minassing, to lose thair landis and Uberteis but extreme 
" jeopardie of battall : for thay ar nocht in use to obey tyranis, and 
" revaris of realmes and kingdomes ; bot onlie to obey thair native 
" prince. And, thairfore, be degest avisement and counsall, thay 
" ar profoundly resolvit to have na amite nor alliance with Romanis, 
" becaus thair fair wourdis ar nocht but hid treason and falset : and 
" as to thair wrangus and injust weris, thay have the same in plane 
" diffiance ; committing thaim in thair just actioun, to the protec- 
" tion of Goddis." 

Juhus, richt commovit at this answer, maid his ordinance, but 
tary, to dant thair rebellion. In the mene time, he gatte lettris fra 
Labienus, his admirall, that Normandis and Piccardis, quhilkis war 
pecifyit at his departing, war rebellit: attoure, Carnutes hes rasit 
gret truble in France, and has slane ane man namit Transegerius, 
quhilk wes chosin be Romanis to be King of France, and to hald 
the same under the empire of Romanis. Julius, for feir of thir no- 
vellis, left his coming in Scotland; and, becaus vittallis war skant 
m his army, and na apperance of new vittallis to cum in Britane, (for 
It was the winter season, quhen tempestuus seis sufferis na passage 
of marchandis,) he gaderit the residew of his army togidder, and 
returnit in France , levand behind him Britane tributar to his em- 
pire, and the Scottis litill abasit of his weris. 

This historic of the cumming of Cesar in Britane, and subdewing 
of it to his empire, nocht far discordant fra the wourdis of his Com- 
mentaris, ar di-awn be us out of Verimond, Campbell, and othir 
authouris. Bot it is said in our vulgare croniclis, that Julius come 
to the Callendare wod, and kest down Camelon, the principal] ciete 
of Pichtis, efter that the samin was randerit to him ; sine left be- 
hind him, nocht far fra Carron, ane round hous of square stanis, 
XXIV cubitis of hecht, and xii cubitis of breid, to be ane memory of 
his curaing to the place. Otheris sayis, he usit this hous as his tent 
m al his viage, and had it ay tursit with him ; and, for that caus, 
it was callit Julius Hoif. Yit, becaus na famous authouris makkis 
mention of ony weris led be Julius aganis the Scottis and Pichtis, we 

VOL. I. L 


lat thaim pas, and will infer na thing in this werke, bot it only that 
may not be reprevit. As to this hous of Julius, it is round, as we 
may yit se, havand na windois bot above, in maner of the anciant 
tempillis, quhilkis ar yit sene in Rome, with benkis of stane round 
about within. The pavement hes bene of aselar stanis, and the Egill, 
quhilk is the Romane ansenye, craftely in it ingravin ; bot now, be 
roust of yeris, is worne away. In it was ane huge stane, standand 
to the south, on quhilk the Gentilis maid thair sacrifice. Utheris 
authouris Avrittis, this tempill was biggit be Vespasiane, in honour 
of Claudius, Emperour, and the goddes Victory, as the titill thair- 
of schew. Bot it was cassin down be Edward, the first King of 
Ingland of that name ; as we wil schaw mair largely heirefter. 

How the tratour MurJcet and Ms CompUcis warpunist. Of the deith 
of Kill g Edeir. Of the vicious King Ewin the Thrid; and of his 
lawis and deith. 

One efter that this difiiance was send to Julius, King 
Edeir assemblit anearmy frome allb oundis of his realme, 
to resist the Romanis ; for he knew nocht the impedi- 
ment of Juhus weris. And, in the mene time, quhen 
he was gaderit on this wise, come Murket, quhilk was nepote to 
Gillus afore rehersit, and arrivit with mony galyeonis in the lUs ; 
and slew, thair, baith wiffis, barnis, and agit personis, but ony re- 
sistence : for all fensabill men, as said is, war drawin out of thay 
boundis be King Edeir. Als sone as Edeir was advertist thairof, 
he send Cadallane, capitane of Brigance, with ane band of armit 
men, in the His; quhilk, sone efter his cuming, brint all the gal- 
yeonis and baitis, within the nicht, that pertenit to this Murket, 
and on the morrow he tuke this Murket, and hinggit him, with his 
complicis, on the gallons. 

King Edeir levit the residew of his dayis but ony uncouth or do- 
mistik weris ; and deceissit at Dounstafage, the xlvhi yeir of his 


regne ; the xxvi yeir of the empire of August, Emperour ; fra the 
beginning of the warld, v.m.c.lxxxiii yeris. His body was buryit 
in Dounstafage ; and about his sepuUure war rasit mony hie pillaris, 
in memory of his nobil deidis. This Edeir, for his singulare virtew, 
micht have bene caUit ane happy prince baith levand and deid ; war 
nocht he left his sonne Ewin, the thrid of that name, the maist vi- 
cius man in erd, heritoure to the crown. 

This Ewin, eftir deith of his fader, was maid king; and was be- 
levit be ilk man to have followit the futesteppis of his fader. Noch- 
theles, fra he was declarit king, he began to burgeon in every kind 
of vice ; so effeminat and soupit in lust, that he past above the com- 
mon insolence of youth. He had ane hundreth concubinis chosin of 
the nobillest matronis and virginis of his cuntre ; and, thocht he wes 
irkit of so surfet noumer, yit he couth nevir be saciat. And, be per- 
suasioun of limmers and harlottis, quhilkis he maid up of nocht for 
assistance to his vice, he banist ane certane of his nobillis, and 
otheris slew be hid waching, to the fine he micht the more esaly 
waik to his lust ; and set his mind to sla or banis, be fenyeit cau- 
sis, all thaim that haitit his vice. This abhominable tyrane, gevin 
on this wise to maist terribill cruelteis, envennomit the cuntre vi yeris 
with na les Infelicite than schame, be covmsall of certane diffamit 
creaturis, quhilkis, in hop of proffet, extollit and lovit all his go- 
vernance. Schortlie, this tyrane become sa avaritius and unthank- 
full, but ony reverence of the lawis of Goddis or men, that he spul- 
yeit his servitouris of al thair landis, riches, and gudis, that thay 
conquest under him. And, finalie, he grew in sic bhnd fury, that 
he nurist opinle, within hous, theiffis, to mak reiffis and heirschippis 
in the cuntre but ony punitioun ; and tuk ane large part thairof for 
his assistence. And, beside thir, and mony othir thingis unworthy 
to be reheirsit, he maid lawis, that his liegis sal have als mony wiffis 
as thay pleis, efFering to thair guddis. Ane othir law he maid, that 
wiffis of the commonis sal be fre to the nobillis ; and the lord of the 
ground sail have the madinheid of all virginis dwelling on the same. 
And thocht the first two lawis wes revokit eftir be counsall, yit this 
last law wes sa plesand to the young nobillis, that it couth nevir be 
abrogat, quhill the time of King Malcolme Cammore, and his blist 
queue Sanct Margaret; quhilkis thocht the samin sa injurius baith 


to God and man, that thay solistit the nobilUs to revoik the said law, 
takand thah-fore ane goldin penny, callit the marchetis : quliilk is 
yit payit to the lord of the ground, quhen virginis ar to be maryit, 
in redemption of thair honour and chaistite. 

Bot we wil returne to Ewin ; quhais horribill vices wes sa drevin 
in every mannis eir, that the nobillis thocht this effeminat monstoure, 
that wes gevin to sic cruelte and vices, unworthy to be thair prince ; 
and maid, thairfore, ane haiste conspiratiovm aganis him. Ewin, 
nochtwithstanding this conspiratioun, come with displayit baner to 
die feild, with ane certane evill arrayit men. Nochtheles, he wes 
sone vincust and tane. Eftir lang consultation, it wes commandit 
be the nobillis, that he sal be degradit of his kingdome, and remane 
in perpetual prison. It wes ordanit als, that Cadallane, during his 
life, sal be governour. Bot, in the first nicht that he wes put in pre- 
son, he wes slane be ane young child ; quhilk traistit, becaus he wes 
odious to the pepill, to get reward for his slauchter. Bot, on the mo- 
row, this child wes justifyit in presence of mony pepil. 

This end maid the unhappy tyrane. King Ewin ; and deceissit, 
the VII yeir of his regne, but ony airis of his body ; the xxxii yeir 
of the empire of August. 

Of King Metdlane. Of the nat'ivite of Crist, our Salviour. Of the 
gret fouth of Poetise Oratouris, and Philosophouris, that furisit 
in Ms time. 

Q^^^^^jej - Ftir the deith of King Ewin, the nobillis chesit Metel- 
"ipT"'^ ^ane, quhilk wes nepote to King Edeir, gottin be his 
-*^ ^ brodir Carron, to be king. This Metellane wes the 
®tmKfQ|. maist humill prince that rang above the Scottis, to his 
days ; havand na uncouth nor domistik weris during his time, and 
governit all materis, baith at hame and afeld, with gret felicite. 
He wes ane mercifull prince to his subditis, and richt religious, eftir 
the rite of thay dayis. He tuk gret labouris to abrogat the cursit 


lawis of King Ewin ; nochttheles, he wes so faschit be inopertune so- 
licitation of his nobillis, specially thay that war gevin to thair lust, 
that he wes constranit to desist. 

About this time come ambassatouris of Romanis to Kymbalyne, 
King of Britonis ; thankand him of his perseverance in peace and 
amite with the senat and pepill of Rome ; and schew to him, that 
the hail warld wes that time in peace, with more tranquillite than 
evir wes sene in ony time afore ; and exhortit the Britonis thairfore, 
be example of othir pepill, to keip peace and concord amang thaim, 
but occasioan of ony civill or uncouth weris ; for sic doingis perte- 
nit baith to the felicite of August, Empriour, and all othir pepill. 
Thir same ambassatouris come sone eftir to King Metellane, with 
sic hke exhortatioun. King Metellane heirand, be narratioun of 
tliir ambassatouris, that the farrest pepill of the orient socht amite 
of the Romanis, and send sindry goldin crownis to August, Empri- 
oure ; he thocht he wald nocht be so unplesand to contempne the 
majeste and magnitude of Romane pepill ; and send thairfore, with 
tliir ambassatouris, sindry riche jowellis, to be ofFerit to August, Em- 
prioure, and othir Romane Goddis in the Capitol. Be this way 
King Metellane conquest sicker amite of Romanis, quhilk mony 
yeris eftir indurit. Of this message, send be August to the Britonis, 
writtis Strabo, in his buk of geography, callit, The Discriptioun of 
the Erd; in quhilk is schawin the situation of Britane, with the 
maneris of the inhabitantis thairof. 

The warld beand thus in peace, Christ, our Salvioure, wes borne 
of the Virgine Mary, douchter of Anna and Joachim, in Bathelem, 
cite of Jowry, the same time quhen the scheiphirdis herd the an- 
gellis sing, quhen the thre kingis, gidit be the stern e, come to the 
place quhare our Salviour wes borne. Mony uncouth and strange 
mirachs apperit in the time of his nativite, as Haly Writ schawis. 
His nativite fell in the x yeir of the regne of Metellane ; fra the be- 
ginning of the realme of Scottis, yeris ; the xlii yeir of the 
empire of August; fra the beginning of the warld, v.m.c.xcix yeris. 
King Metellane rang mony yeris, in gud peace, doing na man in- 
jure ; and sa happy and plesand to his subditis, that his fame wes 
patent throw all boimdis of Albioun. He deceissit, the xxxtx yeir 


of his regne ; the xiv yeir of Tiberius, Empriour ; fra the nativite 
of Crist, XXIX yeris. 

In this time wes in Rome, the prince of Latine poetis, Virgill ; 
Horace, Ovide, Tullius, Marcus Varro, Strabo, Titus Livius, Sa- 
lustius, with mony othir naturall and morall philosophouris. Sic 
fouth of virtew and letteris multiplyit in thay dayis be fehcite of 
the birth of Crist, the gevar of science and grace ; for apperandlie wes 
nevir sene sa mony eloquent poetis and profound clerkis levand at 
anis as wes at that time, quhen God, clothit with nature of man, 
wes sene in the erd. 

Bot we will returne to our historic. 

Of King Caratak, and how he dantit sindi'y Conspiratouris of his 
Reahne. Hozo the Britonis, rehelland aganis the Romanis, war 
discomfist ; and qfthair Massaige send to the Scottis. 

Etellane micht have ben callit maist happy prince 
that evir rang above the Scottis, war nocht he decessit 
but airis of his body : throw quhilk the crown come to 
Caratak, son of the vailyeant Cadallane afore rehersit ; 
for he wes nepot to Metellane, gottin of his sister Europea. Cara- 
tak, eftir his coronatioun, ressavit the huge treasour and riches ga- 
derit be King Metellane ; and excedit all the pepill in Albion in 
nches. Nocht lang eftir, he past throw all the boundis of his realme : 
sine past with ane army in the His ; for the capitane thairof wes re- 
bellit aganis him. Nochtheles, he peacefyit all truble that rais be 
his seditioun, and punist the principall movaris thairof to the deith. 
All thingis peacefyit on this maner, he returnit in Albioun ; sine 
])ast to Carrik, quhilk wes the principal ciete of that schire. 

Quhil sic materis war dressit in Scotland, deceissit Kymbalyne, 
King of Britonis ; quhilk, in his youth, wes sa familiar to August, 
that he held ay the Britonis at the opinion of Romanis. Eftir quhais 
deith, Guiderius wes maid king. This Guiderius, seing the realme 


stabillit to him, thocht hevy, that the Britonis sulci leif under servi- 
tude of Romanis. Movit heirfore be vane esperance to recover his 
hberte, he convenit his nobiUis to ane counsall, quhare he, be lang 
orison, complenit, that his reahne and hegis war haldin under ser- 
vitude of Romanis ; and nocht onlie the said Romanis held all the 
strenthis of his cuntre garnist with sodjouris, bot resset his rebellis, 
and wald nocht restore the pledgis that war gevin to thaim, bot 
causit thaim to waist thair dayis in captivite and preson. Best is, 
thairfore, to rebell aganis the Romanis, and sufFre na langer thair 
yoke of servitude. The Britonis, inflammit be thir wordis, con- 
cludit, with generall consent, to suffer na langer the servitude of Ro- 
manis. Incontinent, thay ruschet to harnes, and slew all the Ro- 
manis that war found, or takin utouth thair munitionis or strenthis. 
In the mene time Guiderius gaderit ane army, to distroy all the 
garisoun of Romanis, afore ony nois of his rebellion war knawin in 
Rome. Nochtheles Claudius, Empriour, wes sone advertist thairof, 
and send two capitanis, namit Aulus Plancius, and Gneus Sentius, 
iu Britane, with mony Romane legionis, to dant the said rebellioun. 
Thir capitanis, at thair cumming in Britane, reparit al strenthis and 
munitionis, quhilkis war than under the Romane obeisance, with new 
vittallis, sodjouris, and utheris sic lik ordinance, to resist the Bri- 
tonis ; and, that thay suld not be segit within thair strenthis, thay 
brocht thair army to the planis, to be reddy for battall quhen thair 
ennimes hst invaid thame. Not lang eftir, Guiderius assailyeit the 
Romanis with arrayit battal ; notheles, the victory succedit to the 
Romanis : the Britonis eschapit, with smal dammage, be cuming 
of the nicht. Than folowit mony incursionis, with gret slauchter 
baith of Romanis and Britonis, continewing all the simer. At the 
cuming of winter, the Romanis held thaim within thair munitionis 
and tentis. 

About this time come certane ambassatouris, fra Guiderius, to Ca- 
ratak. King of Scottis, and said in this maner : " I think it reason- 
" abil, maist illuster prince, that thay that seikis support of strange 
" and uncouth realmis, as we now do, gif na amite nor kindnes be 
" deservit be thaim for gud dedis, to schaw than the thing that thay 
" desire to be honest and proffitabill. For thir reasonis, we Bri- 
" tonis, ambassatouris of King Guiderius, opprest with hevy weiris. 


and destitute of all supple and help, saif only of yow Scottis and 
Pichtis, ar cumin humilly to yow. Treuth is, the Romane pepill, 
quhilk daily invadis us with insufferabil injuris, ar sare ennimes ; 
richt pissant, baith in riches and chevalry, above the estimatioun 
of men. Nochtheles, thay may be vincust, for Cesar, the vail- 
yeant Emperoure, be your support and virtew, was doung baith 
out of our reahne and youris, howbeit all France, Spanye, Al- 
mane, Grece, Asia, Egypt, and Aphrik, obejdt to him : and thir 
Romanis, that now invadis us, ar bot the refuse of Cesaris army. 
And, but dout, thay may be vincust ; to your gretter honour, gif 
the Goddis be favourabil, that thay caU thaimself, be proude in- 
solence, Lordis of the Warld, and yow, the hinmest pepill thair- 
of. And, to ding thir oure commoun ennimes out of Albioun, 
we desire youre support, sen the samin may nocht be done be oure 
pissance ; the quhilk thing gif ye do, in remembrance of your an- 
ciant kindnes and amite, supporting us now in oure maist adver- 
site and dangere, ye sail conques, above youre honest victory, in- 
terminabill glore and honoure to yow and your posterite : First, 
becaus ye help us, quhilkis ar nocht persewaris bot only defendaris ; 
for na thing may be sa honest and plesand amang levand creatouris, 
as defend the actioun of common liberie and native Goddis : Se- 
cundly, ye sail deliver youre realme and pepill fra liie dangeir 
thairto appering ; for the Romanis, your deidly ennimes, intendis 
to subdew us, that the way may be the more patent to yow. And 
sen thir thingis ar manifest to yow, maist vailyeant campionis, gif 
ye have respect to the weil of yourself, or your landis, garnis youre 
realme with all maner of munitionis aganis the Romanis ; quhilk 
thing may be esaly done, gif ye and Pichtis equaly concur with 
us aganis ovu' common ennimes. For the samin, as we dare bauld- 
ly afFerme, saU pertene na Ics to youre common weill than to ouris ; 
for quhen the Romanis hes vincust us in battal, spulyeit us of our 
guddis, and subdcwit oure realme in forme of province, thay will 
he the more abil to subdew you to thair empire. Now is the time 
to assailye our ennimes in battall; quhill we have strenth, and 
quhil we maj, be help of othir, be sufficient to withstand thaim. 
Suthly, gif the Albianis will equaly concur togidder, all of ane 
mind, thay sail draw als mekill fra the Romanis, as thay have won 


" on ony othir pepill. Heirfore, lat the pissance of Scottis, Britonis, 
" and Pichtis, equaly concur togider to defend the common h- 
" berte. Lat us tak our wappinnis at anis, to resist the injure ap- 
" pering. And thocht we war vincust, (quhilk God forbeid !) it war 
" na reproche to us ; for than we ar not vincust with ane pepil, bot 
" with the pissance of the warld : and, gif we be victorius, as our 
" just actioun fermely belevis, the victory sail be na les glore and 
" proiFet to yow than to us, and ye sal be perpetually estemit with 
" all pepill." 

Of CarataMs answer. How the Britonis soltstit Normanis and Pi- 
cardis to rebellion. And Jiow the said Britonis "war discomfist he 
Romanis, and thair King slane. 

Aratak maid ansuer to this message in maner follow, 
ing: " Had ye Britonis nocht refusit oure supporte, 
" frely ofFerit to yow, quhen Juhus, the Romane coun- 
" sull, invadit yow with injust battall, it suld nocht have 
'" bene necessar to yow this day to seik support at us, nor yit suld it 
" have ben necessar to us to rais our army aganis sa pissant ennimes ; 
" for than, be juning of al our pissance togidder, we micht esaly 
" have vincust thaim, and bene deliverit of all dredoure, rejosing 
" oure rowmis in Albion with perpetuall rest. Yit better is, as thay 
" say, lait than nevir thrif. It is nocht now to be devisit, how we 
" micht have dantit the Romanis in time bigane ; bot how we may 
" eschew the hie dangeir now appering. Ye complane, that ye ar 
" injustly invadit be ane riche pepil, richt desirus to have dominion, 
" and to reif othir mennis guddis. Ye have bene subdewit to thaim 
" niony yeris, liiFand under thair servitude, in your awin defalt ; for 
" ye ar devidit amang yourself, be seditionis intestine : and, sa lang 
" as ye stand so, your common weill sail never be fre. Forthir, 
" your munitionis and strenthis ar stufRt with Romane sodjouris, 



" and your planis ar garnist with thair tentis. We heir als, that 
" Claudius Cesar and Vaspasiane ar advertist of your instant rebel- 
" houn, and reddy to cum, with mony legionis of pepil, in your 
" realme. I think, thairfore, sen ye ar brokin with sa many cala- 
" miteis and battaUis, howbeit the haill power of Albion war con- 
" currant with yow, ye cannot resist sa pissant ennimes for this time ; 
" les than the Goddis war contrarius to thaim. Best is, for thir 
" causis, to meis all seditionis amang youreself, superseding youre 
" weris for ane seasone ; and set your laubour, with maist crafty in- 
" gine, to transport this dangerus battall on France. To wirk this 
" prudently, ye man solist the Normandis, Picardis, Bartaneris, Al- 
" manis, with all uthir pepill hand on the bordour of France, to re- 
" bell aganis Romanis, in esperance to recover thair hberte; and 
" promit, gif thay will assist thairto, to support thaim with schippis, 
" weirmen, gold, and uthir necessaris pertenand to thair weris. Ye 
" man eik be confiderat with all pepill that hatis the Romanis; and, 
" gif ye do this weill, ye sail eschew this battall, that the Romanis 
" intendis to move on yow, and convert it on France. Thus sail 
" baith ye and Ave be dehverit of all fere of ennimes, and leif the 
" remanent of this yeir in quiete; and the mair abill the nixt yeir 
" for battall. And, gif thair be na way to eschew this maist dan- 
" gerus battall, than think I best to assemble all the pepill of Al- 
'' bion togidder, to fecht with honest battall to the deith, but ony 
•' respect to our lif, bot allanerly to our glore and honour ; for na 
" pepil may de mair honestly, than fechtand for thair liber te and 
" native Goddis aganis the lordis of the warld."" The ambassatouris 
of Britonis, rasit in esperance of gud fortoun be this answer, returnit 
to Guiderius in Britane. 

Quhen Guiderius had hard this wise counsall of Caratak, he send 
his ambassatouris to persuaid the Normandis, Picardis, Bartaneris, 
and all othir pepill of the see costis, to rebeU aganis the Romanis ; 
saying, na thing was more abhominabill to fre pepiU, than contrar 
thair native lawis, to be subdewit to Romanis ; quhilkis war ane 
proude and cruel pepill, daily exercing, be thair tyranny, sa many 
new and intollerabiU conditionis of servitude on the plegis of sub- 
dewit realmis, that na maner of deith suld be refusit to recover thair 
liberte ; but quhilk, the lif of man is nocht. For thir reasonis, na 


thing was sa gud, as the pepill, throw all boundis of France, to re- 
bell aganis Romanis, and sla thair sodjouris in all partis quhare thay 
micht be apprehendit. And, to gif the more hortatioun thairto, thay 
schaw, how all kingis of Albion sal assist to thaim, and support 
thaim with money, vittallis, schippis, weirmen, and all othir neces- 
saris refering thairto : and schew, how the Romanis, quhilkis war 
laitly cuming in Britane, hais tint all thair horsmen, and the reme- 
nant brokin with sic calamite, that thay ar outhir chasit to the see, 
or ellis to thair strenthis. The cieteyouris of Tervana, in Flanderis, 
to quhom thu* ambassatouris first come, richt desirus to recover thair 
liberte, refusit nocht thir ofFeris : bot the charge was so hie, that 
thay couth nocht answer quhill thay war advisit with thair nicht- 
bouris : and prayit thaim to keip thair peticionis secrete ; for, gif 
the samin war divulgat, al thair plegis, that war gevin afore to the 
Romanis, sail be cruelly tormentit : and, to remove all suspitioun, 
prayit thaim, to remane in Calice quhill thay war resolvit in this 
mater. Thus abaid thir ambassatouris of Britane certane day is in 
Calice, abiding thair answer. 

In the mene time Guiderius was advertist, that Aulus Plaucius 
had rasit his camp, and distroyit al the landis with fire and swerd 
that stud at his opinion. Guiderius, seand na way to eschew his 
ennimes, gaderit all his pepill togidder in arrayit battall, and closit 
thaim with wanis and cartis on every side, except the part fornens 
thair ennimes, to that fine, that nane of thaim sal have esperance to 
fle ; sine put the wiffis in the said wanis and cartis, to exhort thair 
husbandis to fecht vailyeantly for thair liffis and landis. On the to- 
ther side, Plaucius devidit his army in thre battallis ; and, be blast 
of trumpet, come" sa fersly on the Britonis, that thay had na space 
to schute thair arrowis. Than the Britonis flang thair bowis fra 
thaim, and faucht with thau- swerdis. The wiflfis exhortit thaim with 
loude cryis to deliver thaim of Romane servitude. This battall was 
cruelly fochtin ; bot, at last, the Britonis war discomfist, and Gui- 
derius, thair king, slane. Mony of all the wemen war smorit in the 
cartis, be preis of thaim that fled. The chais ceissit nocht quhill 
the Britonis war drevin to the rever of Garieme, vi milis fra the 
place quhare the feild was discomfist. This victory was nocht richt 


plesand to Romanis, for Gneus Sencius, with mony othir Romane 
nobillis, war slane. 

Als sone as this unhappy battall was schawin in France, it maid 
all the pepill thairof disparit to recover thair hberte ; and so the 
ambassatouris quhilkis war send, as said is, in France, returnit but 
ony expedition of thair message. 

This history, as we have writtin, is colleckit out of Godofryde, 
writar of Inghs historyis ; and out of Veramond, Johne Campbell, 
Cornelius Tacitus, and Eutropius. 

How Claudius Emprioure, come in Britane, and suhdewit OrTcnay 
to his Empii-e. Of Sand Peteris first cuming in Italy. And of' 
the assumptioun of the glorius Virgine Mary. 

Chort timeefter, Claudius, Empriour, and Vespasiane, 
ane man of singulare virtew, arrivit, with mony legionis 
of pepill, in Britane. The Britonis herand his cuming 
war gretumly affrayit : nochtheless, be publik advise- 
ment, thay send oratouris to excuse thaim, saying, the offence com- 
mittit aganis the Romanis was done only be evil counsall ; and thay 
wald, thaii-fore, not only repare all injuris to thaim done, hot be 
obeisant to the empire of Romanis and thair lawis in times cuming. 
Claudius than commandit thaim to geif plegis for observation thair- 
of; sine commandit all the princes and lordis of Britane to cum 
afore him aganis ane certane day, with intimatioun, gif thay did 
nocht, he suld persew thaim to the deith. The Britonis knawing 
na refuge, gaif plegis, and come to London as he desirit. At last, 
quhen Claudius had demandit thaim, quhy thay brak thair faith, 
thay fell on kneis, confessand thair offence, and prayit him, sen thay 
war sufficiently punist be the Goddis, to ressave thaim againe to his 
mercy, and saif thair liffis, under quhat condition or servitude he 
plesit ; and maid solempne aithis never to rebell in times cuming, 


and, gif thay failyeit, al vengeance in erd to fal on thaim, and thair 
posterite. Sum of the Romanis gave counsall to Claudius, to punis 
thair rebelhoun, and to sla the principal movaris thairof, othu-wayis 
the Britonis micht nocht be haldin at his opinion. Nochtheles, Ves- 
pasiane persuadit him, be mony reasonis, to mercy ; for ane prince 
but mercy may well be dred, bot nevir luffit. Als, na thing perte- 
nit sa raekill to majeste of Romane pepil as to have mercy on thair 
subdittis, and defend thaim fra al injure of ennimes; for, be that 
way, the empire of Romanis was ekit, and suld indure be the samin 
way to the end of the warld. Thir wordis of Vespasian mesit the 
empriour in sic maner, that he chesit erar to be namit ane merciful 
prince, than ane vengeabil tyrane. In the mene time, he began to 
treit of materis concerning the administratioun of Britonis: and, 
first, he maid Arviragus king of Britonis, that the crown sail re- 
mane in the native blude ; for he was Prince of Walls, and bruthir 
to Guiderius, afore slane. He ordanit Plautius to be governour as 
afore, and M. TrebelHus to be thesaurar ; and commandit thaim, to 
stuf all the strenthis and townis of Britane with Strang gareson of 
weirmen; to minister justice be the lawis; to hald the Britonis in 
peace, and defend thaim fra all injure of pepill liand thaim about, 
specially fra the Scottis and Pichtis, quhilkis wer ane pepill full of 
chevalry, and impacient of servitude: and to seik na occasion of 
weir aganis thaim ; and, gif it war necessar to half battal, to haif 
than stout wachis, baith at hame and afeild ; havand na les respect 
to keip the Britonis at the opinion of Romanis, than to eik thair 
empire : and, finaly, he exhortit the nobillis of Britane, to remember 
the affliction falhng to thaim be thair rebellion, and to keip thair 
faith in time cuming, for the weill of thaimself, thair barnis, and 
gudis. Sic thingis done, the Britonis returnit hame ; and gaif 
thankis to Vespasiane, for his humanite schawin to thaim. 

Efter this, Claudius Cesar, desiring sum triumphe of honouris 
afore his returning to Rome, thocht expedient to vesy Orknay, the 
last Ihs within the occiane sees. The motive of his weris aganis 
thaim was, becaus thay supportlt the Albianis in the battall afore re- 
hersit aganis the Romanis. Schort time efter, Claudius, providit 
with all necessaris, come out of Britane with prosper windis, and 
passit throw Pentland Firth to Orknay, quhare he was neir perist. 


Nane of the Orknay men was seiie at his first cuming ; for, quhen 
thay saw sa huge flote of schippis arrivit within thair sees, thay hid 
thaim in cavernis. Claudius, findand this He desert, went to Kirk- 
wall, and send his scurriouris to spy the nature of the cuntre, and 
pepil thairof ; and, fra he was advertist that the same was full of 
every bestiall and fouhs necessar to sustene the lif of man, he thocht 
the same sufficient eneuch to decore his triumphe. On the morrow, 
herand that Ganus, King of Orknay, was in ane castell nocht xii 
milis fra his army, he send ane cumpany of weirmen to sege the said 
castell. And quhen thir men war passand forthwart to the same 
effect, thay persavit sindry rude pepil of that cuntre cummand fra 
the covis, quhare thay war hid all the nicht, and passing to the 
montanis. Thir rude pepill war astonist be sicht of Romanis : noch- 
theles, seand na refuge, thay facht cruelly ane quhile ; bot, at last, 
thay war all slane or tane. The Romanis, rejosing of this victory, 
laid ane sege to the castel. At last, quhen King Ganus had de- 
baitit lang time, and saw na rescours, he randrit the castell, and was 
brocht presoner, with his wifFe and children, to Claudius. Than 
Claudius pullit up salis, and arrivit at Calice ; quhare he abaid cer- 
tane time, quhill his army wer refreschit ; sine returnit to Rome : 
and led Ganus, with his wif, barnis, and the plegis of Britonis, in 
his triumphe. 

This history of Claudius cumming in Britane is drawin out of 
Suetonius, Eutropius, Beda, Campbel, and Cornelius Ireland. 

The same time, Sanct Peter, the Appostill, come out of Antio- 
chia to Italy, efter that he had ereckit mony kirkis in Asia ; quhare 
he, prechand the evangell of Crist, began to found the Cristen faith. 
About this time, was the glorius and bhssit Vergine Mary, Moder 
of God, tane with body and saule to hevin : in the v yeir of the em- 
pire of Claudius ; efter the incarnatioun, xlvii yeris. 







//■oK) iiwcZn/ Prmcw o/Britane, conspirand aganis Jrviragus, zoer 
discomjist. How the confderat Kingis come to support thir Princis 
o/Britane aganis the Romanis. 

Ls sone as Arviragus was maid king on this maner, he 
repudiat his lauchfull quene Voada, sister to Caratak, 
and put hir in preison, efter that scho had borne to him 
two douchteris, and ane sonne ; and, in the mene time, 
he maryit ane Romane lady namit Genissa, be persuasioun of Plau- 
tius, trasting, gif it hapnit the said Arviragus to rebell aganis the 
Romanis, the affinite ceissing betwix him and Caratak, he sail get 
na support of Scottis. Sindry princis of Britane war richt commo- 
vit, that Arviragus had repudiat his quene in this maner ; and per- 
suadit him, be mony reasonis, to denude him of the Romane lady, 
and to adheir to his lauchfull wifFe, quhilk had bene with him mony 
yeris, and borne to him plesand childrin, to quhome na thing in erd 
micht be comparit. Attour thay schew, quhat profFet micht be had 
of Scottis, gif his ennimes hapnit sum time to invaid his realme ; 
and prait him to eschew, that he, be rage of lust, and dissaitful 
wordis of Romanis, drew nocht himself, and the Britonis, fra amite 
of thair auld confiderat freindis. Nochtheles, quhen thay had as- 
sailyeit him in vane with thir and sichk wordis, thay fand nocht bot 
his reason blindit with new lust, but ony sicht to wisdome or ho- 
nour. In the nicht following, thay brak the preison quhare Voada 
was incarcerat, and brocht hir and hir barnis with thaim in Walis. 
Than Arviragus wrait to the gret princis of his realme, schewing, 
that his freindis, the lordis of Walis, in quhom he maist confidit, 
tuke indignatioun that he had preferrit ane Romane lady to his first 
wiffe ; as it had bene unleifFul to him to have sindry wiffis at his ple- 
seir ; howbeit nouthir the lawis, nor the consuetude of Britane, maid 
dirogation thairto : afferming, eik, the said mariage was for na rage 
of lust, bot only that Britonis and Romanis micht incres togidder. 


under ane blude and aniite. Forthir, he desirit thaim, gif the lordis 
of Walls hapnit to conspire aganis him, that thay defend thair faith 
promittit to Romanis. It was answerit be thaim, that it was un- 
leifFuU to him ony maner of way to prefer ane new wif to his first 
wif ; and, for that cans, thay war nocht content of the injuris done 
to hir. 

Arviragus, knawing quhat mind thir nobilhs bure to him, thocht 
best to invaid thaim but more tary ; and, be advise of Plaucius, he 
assemblit ane army of Romanis and Britonis, and went in Wahs. 
The princis of Wahs, na thing afFrayit of his cuming, met him with 
ane gret power ; nochtheles thay war vincust, and put to flicht. On 
the morrow, Arviragus and Plaucius Avas advertist, that Darby, 
Longcastell, York, and sindry otliir schiris war rebellit. Dredand, 
thairfore, that thair ennimes suld invaid the eist partis of Britane, 
thay returnit to London. Fra thens, Plaucius had litil confidence 
in the Britonis, and send in France for two new legionis to support 
his army ; sine garnist all his strenthis with new wageouris and vit- 

Sic thingis done be Plaucius, the princis of Walis convenit at 
Schrewisbery, to take consultatioun in this maist dangerus mater. 
At last it was concludit, that all pepil under thair obeisance sal 
convene, ane and place, to expell the Romanis out of 
Britane, or ellis al at anis to de. Be the same counsal was decernit, 
that oratouris sail pas to the lordis of Carlyll, Kendell, and Duraine, 
to solist thaim to the samin effect. In the hervest following, thir 
princis foresaid convenit at Schrewisbery ; quhare thay, be lang re- 
grait of Romane injuris, lamentit hevely the fekilnes of Arviragus, 
quhilk had more desire to be servand to Romanis than king of Bri- 
tonis. Nochtwithstanding, with haill mind and pissance, thay con- 
cludit to recover thair anciant honouris and liberte. Bot than be- 
gan na litil contention quha suld be. capitane of the army ; for few 
of thaim wald geif place to othir. Than Comus, prince of Walis, 
said in this maner : " We may sone gadder, maist vailyeant men, 
" ane greter army of our pepil and freindis than may be esaly re- 
" sistit, sa that every thing war governit be craft of chevalry ; for 
" thairin standis al victory and glore of battall. Nochtheles, sedi- 
" tion, discord, and ambitioun of honouris, ar so contrarius thairto, 


" that quhare thay sprout, nouthir ordoure nor craft of chevalry 
" may have place, nor yit victory may be had of ennimes. Thair- 
" fore, all ambition is to be drawin away, and all dissentionis to be 
" expirit ; and, finaly, ane man to be chosin, to quhome the rema- 
" nent pepill sail be obeisant; be quhais auctorite this battall sail 
" be led, and, gif we intend to have victory, to be obeisant thairto. 
" And, because we ar nere equale to othir in power, thairfore it is 
" best to send oratouris to Caratak, King of Scottis, quhilk is maist 
" cruell ennime to Romanis, and desire him concur with us to re- 
" venge the oppressioun done to his sister Voada, and to defend 
" his nevo, quhome the Romanis intendis to defraude of the crown 
" of Britonis ; and to exhort him to take the governance thairof, 
" quhill his nevo war of perfite aige : and thay to obey him in all 
" chargis as occurrit ; for the more affection that he have to his sis- 
" ter and nevo, the more esaly may this mater be solistit." 

Sone efter, oratouris wer send to Caratak, and schew him all this 
mater at lenth, as it is afore rehersit. Caratak answerit, that he was 
more grevit that Arviragus had maryit ane Romane lady, in dis- 
truction of himself and his reahne, than of ony injuris done to his 
sister or nevo ; knawing well, how Romanis, be vane fallowschip and 
gile, subdewis unprudent kingis to thair dominion. Nochtheles, he 
promittit to cum, agane the spring of the yeir, to support thame 
with his army, as he thocht maist expedient. The oratouris, de- 
peschit in this maner, returnit to Schrewisbery. 

At the spring of the yeir, as said is, thir foresaid princes of Bri- 
tane, be generall edict, assembht all men that micht beir wappinnis, 
to ane certane day, at York, to defende thair common liberte, to the 
nowmer of lxxx.m men ; and, at the said day, come Caratak and 
Congestus, the confiderat kingis of Scottis and Pichtis ; quhais cum- 
ing maid the Britonis sa rejosit, that thay belevit na thing bot sicker 
victory. Incontinent, as was afore devisit, Caratak was maid gene- 
ral capitane of all this army ; and he maid under him sindry othir 
capitanis, quhare thay war found of maist wisdome and manheid ; 
and exhortit the pepil to be obeidient thairto, with sic respect to 
thair singulare and commoun weill, that thay suffer nocht thaimself 
to be randerit to ennimes : and sumtime he prayit thaim, to remem- 

VOL. I. N 


ber the manheid of thair elderis, quhilkis dang the vailyeant JuUus 
out of Albion. 

The Albianis, inflammit to battal be this hortation, come forth- 
wart Weill arrayit on thair ennimes. Als sone as Plautius and Ar- 
viragus war advertist thairof, thay arrayit thair folkis. Nochthe- 
les, thay thocht it unganand to geif hasty battall, knawing weil 
thair ennimes ful of ire and hatrent ; and, thairfore, concludit to 
irk thaim erar with lang tary, walking, labour, and penurite of vit- 
tallis, than to jeoperde aganis sa huge multitude of peple, all en- 
ragit aganis thaim at anis, quhilk culd nocht be vincust but untella- 
bil murdir. The Albianis, be delayng of battall, come to sic point, 
that thay micht nocht, for multitude of peple, be haldin togidder : 
for sic derth and hunger rais in thair army, that sindry of thame 
depertit fra thair camp to seik vittallis ; of quhom ane certane wer 
takin and brocht to Plaucius, and schew the Britonis, be hunger, 
Avalking, and truble, neir discomfist. Plaucius, on the morow, maid 
his armye reddy for battall. Caratak weil advertist thairof, arrayit 
his folkis, and, be sound of trumpat, junit. Followit ane scharp 
battal, and fochtin continewalie with uncertane victory, quhill the 
nicht severit thaim on ilk side. Plaucius, on the morow, seing that 
he micht nocht renew his army, returnit to London, eftir that the 
maist part of his horsmen were tint. Caratak, brokin in the samin 
maner, come with the remanent of his army to York : and com- 
mandit al his folkis to pas hame, quhil thay wer new warnit. 


CDap* (ZBletientlj* 

Of the message send to Caraidk be Plaucius, mid of his answer. Of' 
the deith of Genissa. And how Vespasian teas send in Britane to 
dant the Britonis. 

Laucius, eftir this unhappy battal, send his oratouris 
to Caratak, and schew that he had gret admiration that 
Caratak, but ony occasioun of injuris, invadit the landis 
of Romanis, and supportit thair ennimes ; havand na 
remembrance of the gret humanitels done to him be Claudius, Em- 
priour, quhen the said Claudius, with smal difficulte, micht have 
subdemt his realme and pepil : howbeit he abstenit, and exertit his 
wraith on Orknay. And, thairfore, desirit him to repair al injuris 
be him done, and obstene thairfra in times cuming ; or eUis he suld 
be reput ennime to Romanis. It wes answerd be Caratak, that it 
wes not to have admiratioun thocht he defendit his nepote Guide- 
rius undefraudit of his just heritage and kingdome. And to the re- 
manent pointis he answerit, It wes for na favour that Claudius in- 
vadit nocht the realme of Scottis, bot onlie becaus he knew the sa- 
)nin nocht possible to be conquest but extreme jeoperde and chance 
of battal : and, for that caus, he past on the rude and unarmit pe- 
pill of Orknay, quhilkis micht be sone vincust ; to that fine, that he, 
the glorius and vailyeant Empriour, amang febil creaturis, micht 
have ane fenyeit glore of triumphe. For thir causis, the Romanis 
suld redres baith the new and auld injuris done to Scottis and 
Pichtis, and depart hastely out of Albion, with thair folkis ; uther- 
wayis nocht wes to be traistit, bot Scottis, Pichtis, and Britonis, 
quhom thay held in maist contemption, suld be thair perpetuall en- 
nimes, for defence of thair liberte, and native Goddis. 

Plaucius, be this answer, tuk hie indignation ; and thocht it richt 
unworthy that ane pepill nothir pissant in riches nor chevalry, so 
pertlie sal contempne the power of Romanis : and maid, thairfore, 


his aith to revenge this proud contemption done be Caratak. ]\Iony 
othh" Romanis maid thair aithis in that samin maner. 

Quhen Arviragus had considerit the gret Constance of Caratak 
in this maner, he tuke ferme beleif, gif his pissance wer concurrant 
with the remanent Albianis, that Romanis micht be esahe doung 
out of Albion. Desiring; thairfore to recover his anciant honouris 
and Hberte, he left Plaucius, and past, with al that war of his opi- 
nion, to the remanent princis of Britonis, quhilkis war convenit for 
the time at Schrewisbery ; quhare he was plesandly ressavit. Genissa, 
the Romane lady, quhome Arviragus tuke in place of his lauchfull 
wif, herand the rebellion of Arviragus, tuke sic displeseir, that 
scho partit with child, and sone efter deceissit. Than Aulus Plau- 
cius, ilk day havand les confidence in Britonis, becaus thair faith was 
sa oft brokin ; began to garnis the munitionis, strenthis, and townis of 
Romanis with new wageouris and vittallis ; and send letteris with di- 
ligence to Claudius, complening the falset of Britonis, qvdiilkis 
micht na way be haldin under the Romane lawis, bot maid new 
rebellion, and lies brocht with thaim the Scottis and Pichtis, the 
maist cruell and bludy pepill in erd : and thairfore the battal sal 
not be led, in times cuming, only aganis the Britonis, bot erar aganis 
all the Albianis : For thir reasonis gud war to send hasty support 
to Romanis, that thay be nocht schamefully doung out of Britane. 
Als sone as Claudius rede thir letteris, he send Vespasian with mony 
Romane legionis in Britane. 

Vespasian, efter his cumming, seing the dangerus cais the Ro- 
manis war intU, maid him to bring all materis to beter estait. And 
first he callit afore him the said Plaucius, to se gif the dammage 
falling to Romanis in this battal, succedit be his imprudence or sleuth. 
Plaucius, for his purgation, maid few wordis ; bot sufFerit his dedis 
to schaw thaim self: for every thing, that pertenit to craft of che- 
valry, war sa wisly be him providit, that the same was in sic admi- 
ration to Vespasian, that he fermly belevit the said Plaucius was 
sufficient, howbeit na othir power had cumin to him, to have sub- 
dewit the Albianis to Romane empire. 


C^ap, Ctuelftfi» 

Hoia the thre Kingis of Albion^ movand weir aganis Vespasian, 
xver discomfist. How Vespasian ressavit Arviragus to his mercy, 
and maid his Lands trihutar to Romane Empire. 

EsPASiAN, sone efter, maid his ordinance to pas on Ar- 
viragus and the Britonis, for thair rebellion. Arvira- 
gus advertist thairof, convenit his noblis at York, quhare 
the Scottis and Pichtis war devisit to cum. In this 
counsall, was not devisit, as afore, that every man sufficient to beir 
armoure, suld convene to expel the Romanis out of Albion ; bot ane 
certane of every schire allanerly, that thair vittallis micht be the 
mair esaly providit. Thus war the Britonis, at the day affixit, ga- 
derit to the nowmer of lxv.m chosin men, and convenit at York, 
with two monethis vittallis, abiding the cuming of the confiderat 
kingis ; quhilkis come, sone efter, with lx.m men. The Albianis as- 
sembht togidder in this maner, devidit thaim in sindry battallis, with 
capitanis to hald thaim in gud array. On the tothir side, Vespasian 
rasit his tentis, and was convoyit be certane treasonabill Britonis, 
quhare the Albianis war. Followit sone, ane dangerus and terribil 
battal ; for the Albianis stude at ane strenth beside ane mos, nocht 
twelve mills fra York. Alway the Romanis that faucht in the richt 
wing war neir discomfist; nochtheless, Vespasian supportit thaim 
with ane new legion : be quhais cuming thair curage was sa rasit, 
that, notwithstanding thair hevy woundis, thay renewit battal ; and 
quhen thay war persit throw the bodyis, thay ceissit not quhill thay 
slew thair ennimes fornens thaim. Otheris faucht sa cruelly, that 
quhen thair hand and swerd was doung away, thay fell above thair 
ennimes, and rave thaim Avith thair teith. Nochtheless, the fatal 
necessite of victory, gevin be devine weirdis to Romanis, micht not 
be vincust that day be multitude, manheid, nor lang perseverance 
in battal ; be repugnance of the Goddis, quhilkis had determit to 


subdew all realmis to Romanis : for the Albianis, howbeit thay left 
na thing undone that micht pertene to vailyeant campionis, wai- 
finaly discomfist. Arviragus, opprest with hevy dolour, for slauch- 
ter of sa mony nobil campionis, wald have slane himself ; bot he was 
stoppit be his friendis, in esperance of better fortoune. Caratak, 
saiffit with ane few nowmer of pepil, went to Brigance. Illithara, 
King of Pichtis, desiring not to leif efter the slauchter of his dere 
freindis, raif of his coit armour, and was slane sone efter, unknawin 
quhat he was. 

The Britonis, efter this unliappy battall, send ane herald to Ves- 
pasian, desiring peace ; and schew sa huge calamite falling to 
thaim be ire of Goddis, that of lxv.m Britonis, war left only vi.c 
men on live, and war sa punist, that thay micht be sufficient ex- 
emple to schaw quhat vengeance and sorow cumis to all pepil, for 
violation of thair faith and promis. Vespasian ans^\-erit, he wald 
heir na condicion of peace, quhill Arviragus wer brocht to his pre- 
sence. Arviragus, seand na refuge, comperit in his humly maner ; 
quhilk thing movit Vespasian to gret reuth, seing, be chance of 
fortoune, that he, quhilk was sa provit that day at morow, was 
than sa destitute of freindis, that he desirit mercy at his ennimes. 
Incontinent Arviragus fel on kneis, saying, the Goddis had tane sa 
rigorus punition on him and his pepil, that he covet not to leif 
above so hie calamite. And thairfore he desirit nocht bot grace to 
his son and wif, quhilkis he afore had wrangusly exilit but ony fait. 
Vespasian seing his dolorus estait, had sic compassion, that he micht 
not retene fra teris ; nochtheless, he tuke counsall how he suld be- 
half him in this mater. Sum gaif counsal, that Arviragus suld be 
send, with his wif, children, and guddis, to Rome, as lauchful pray, 
to abide the jugement of Romane senatouris; to be exempil to all 
pepill, quhat frute procedis of rebellion aganis the Romanis. Otheris, 
havand sicht to chance of fortoune, counsulit him to have reuth, and 
not to travel the said Arviragus to Rome, sen he was not thair 
lauchful pray, bot cuming under assurance of Romanis ; quhais em- 
pire was eikit be inviolat faith, and be no shchtis on thair subdittis. 
Vespasian, be this counsal, tuke Arviragus to his mercy, and conti- 
newit him in his auctorite ; syne commandit all the strenthis of the 
townis of Britane, quhilkis afore war stuffit aganis the Romanis, to 


be randerit to his capitanis ; and plegis to be gevin for observation 
thairof. The principal man that was gevin at this time in plege, wes 
Guiderius, Prince of Britane, and sonne of Arviragus ; quhilk pass- 
and with Vespasian to Rome, fell in gret inflrmite, and deceissit. 
Quhen Vespasian had dantit the Britonis on this wise, he distroyit 
al thair awin lawis, and brocht on thaim the lawis of Romanis : and 
commandit that na man sal haif commission of blude within Britane, 
bot Plauciiis, or his deputis ; be quhom certane men war limit to 
minister justice on the Romane maner. The fame of thir lawis cau- 
sit al the remanent Britonis to be yoldin to Vespasian, and gave 
him mony riche jewellis, in satisfaction of thair offence. 

Cfjap. Cfiftteentfj. 

How Vespasiane wan the Towne of Camelon, and discomjist Cara- 
tak. Of his Message send to Carafak; and of Caratahis An- 

Ow was the winter cummin, and causit Vespasiane to re- 
turne to York ; quhare he abaid, all the said winter, with 
Arviragus. And at the nixt somer he rasit his army, 
and come within the boundis of Mers and Berwik, per- 
tening to the dominion of Pichtis : quhais inhabitantis war ay maist 
vailyeant, and strangest ennimes to Britonis ; nochtheles, thay war 
than sabrokin, at this time, with the battall afore rehersit, that thay 
micht make litil resistance, bot war haistely yoldin to Romanis. 
Utheris, quhilkis war mair nobil, fled to Camelon, belevand the Ro- 
manis suld nocht cum thair, for difficill and strait passage. Vespa- 
siane Weill advertist of thair departing, come with more diligence 
than ony men presumit, and wan the said town of Camelon. Amang 
mony riche and precius jewellis, in spulyeing of this town, war found 
the armis of the kingis of Pichtis ; and ane crown of gold, set about 
with precius stanis of variant colouris ; and ane swerd, with heft of 
gold maist curiously wrocht, within ane purpour scheith. This 


swerd was worne, mony yeris efter, be Vespasiane in all his wens. 
All the nobillis of Pichtis, that war takin in Camelon, war licent to 
returne hame, on thair pledgis. Vespasiane abaid, lang time efter, in 
Camelon ; and brocht divers auld capitanis to dwell in it, and to leif 
under Romane lawis, instrukand the rude pepill thairof in civill 
maneris. He biggit ane tempil, nocht far fra the said town, apon 
the watter of Carron, in honour of Claudius and Victory ; and com- 
mandit the samin to be adorit be the pepil. Quhill Vespasian was 
gevin on this maner to polesy and vane religion of gentilis, he was 
advertist be his exploratouris, that Caratak, King of Scottis, had 
renewit his army, and cumand furthwart to revenge the injuris done 
to him be Romanis. Vespasian litill affrayit of thir novellis, abaid 
in Camelon, and commandit Plaucius, with ane part of the Romanis 
army, to raeit him. Not lang efter, be sound of trumpat, baith the 
armyis junit, and faucht with incredable slauchter on athir side. At 
last, quhen thay had fochtin fra the dawing to the midday, the vic- 
tory succedit to Romanis. The residew of Scottis, that eschapit 
fra this sorowful battall, fled to the montanis. King Caratak, evil 
woundit, was brocht out of the felde, with gret difficulte, to Doun- 
stafage. Throw fame of this unhappy battall, mony pepil war yol- 
din to Romanis. All thay that dwelt in Brigance, havand litil con- 
fidence in thair strenthis, fled with thair wiffis, children, and guddis, 
to the nixt montanis. The fourt day efter, Plaucius tuk the town 
of Carrik, and pertit al the spulye and guddis found in it, amang 
his weirmen ; and send ane herald to Vespasian, to advertis him of 
this victory, and schew that Brigance, the principal province of Scot- 
land, was to be randerit but ony forthir rebellion. Vespasian re- 
josing of thir novellis, come to Carrik ; quhare he ressavit mony of 
the pepill of Brigance to his opinion. Efter this, havand compassion 
of the lamentabil chance falling to Caratak, fechtand to the uter ex- 
terminion of his pepill, for defence of his liberte ; he send messin- 
geris to him, saying : It was nocht ganand to him to be ony forthir 
repugnant to the Goddis, be quhome all victory, empire, and aucto- 
rite procedis in erd ; quhais deliverit sentence hes ordanit all regionis 
to be subdewit to Romanis. It wes necessar, thairfore, to him and 
his pepill, to obey the Goddis ; quhilkis hes tane ane manifest puni- 


tioun on him and his pepill, for thair rebellioun : attoure, promittit, 
gif he wald be obedient to Komane empire, that he suld remane in 
honouris as afore, and to be reput as freind to the senat and pepill 
of Rome ; uthirwayis, gif he wald be repugnant, and perseveir be 
unprudent hatrent aganis thaim, he suld be degradit of auctorite, 
and his peple uterlie distroyit. To thir wourdis answerit Caratak, 
It wes na les fury than inprudence, to mortall pepill to presume, 
(as thay war familiar with Goddis,) to have ony cognoscance of 
thingis to cum. Forthir, gif the Romanis, but ony occasion of just 
battall, wald invaid him, he culd do na thing les than resist sa farre 
as he micht : for he traistit the Goddis not to be sa injust, to gif 
victory to injurius and wrangus pepil. Forthir, he culd nocht un- 
derstand that Romanis suld defend him in his realme, sen thay have 
socht sa niony wayis to reif him, as thay have done to othir kingis. 
As to the amite and freindschip of Romanis, he thocht the same to 
be desirit, gif it micht do him ony commodite ; bot as than it was 
to be refusit, for gret dammage suld follow thairthrow to his realme 
and subditis. The realme of Scottis wes als fre to him, as the king- 
dome of Romanis wes to Cesar Empriour. And sen all pepill that 
will nocht defend thair awin, ar repute na les detestabil than thay 
that reiffis othir mennis realmes, he suld perseveir in battall aganis 
the Romanis to the finall end of his live, in defence of his realme 
and liberte. 

VOL. I. 


How CarataJc cumand "with nezc army aganis Romanis, tees vincu^t. 
Oftlic Deith of Plautius ; and how Ostorius was send in his place, 
and dantit the Britonis. 

E this answer, Vespasian tuk gret admii-ation; seing 
Caratak of sa invinsabil spent : quhen al the remanent 
princis of Albion wer subdewit, he only, pretending 
to fecht aganis Romanis : and, for his proud contemp- 
tion, he tuk purpos to put him and his pepill to uter rewine. Yit, 
becaus the passage wes difficil, and vittallis micht not be transportit 
in his boundis, but huge dammage of Romanis ; he changit his 
mind, and maid him reddy to pas in the He of Man, lyand betwix 
Ireland and Albion: and for the expedition thairof, he brocht 
mony schippis and galyonis to the nixt port, reddy to the samin ef- 
fect. In the mene time, he gat lettris, schewand, that baith Walls 
and the He of Wicht wes rebellit ; and uncertane gif the same pro- 
cedit be persuation of France or not. Vespasiane, traisting na thing 
sa gud as to meit this present truble afore it ony forther spred, su- 
persedit his passage in the He of Man, and past in Britane ; leiffand 
behind him the strenthis of Brigance garnist with Strang sodjouris, 
and the residew of his army with Plaucius. At his cuming in Bri- 
tane, the pepill, wath facill lauboure, wer sone dantit ; and the'prin- 
cipal conspiratouris punist for thair rebellion. Vespasiane, eftir thir 
feliciteis, returnit be command of Claudius, Empriour, to Rome ; 
quhare he wes ressavit with gret triumphe. 

Als sone as Caratak wes advertist that Vespasiane wes departit 
out of Albion, he thocht time ganand to recover the landis of Scot- 
tis and Pichtis, quhilk war reft afore be tyrany of Romanis ; and as- 
sembht thairfore ane army fra sindry boundis of Albion, with al 
pepil that hatit the Romanis, or desirit to revenge thair injuris. 
The Romanis, weil certifyit of his cuming, met him with arrayit 


ostis. Followit," ane terribill bergane, fochtin with birnand hatrent 
on all sidis : the Scottis desiring to recover thair hberte ; and the 
Romanis, to tine not the landis that thay wan afore with gret diffi- 
cuhe and pine. This| battall wes lang fochtin with nncertane vic- 
tory ; nochtheles, the wisdonie and chevalrie of Romanis wan the 
victory, and put the Scottis to the flicht. Caratak, seing his army 
brokin, colleckit the residew of his folkis, and come to Dounstafage ; 
quhare he, be lang consiiltationn afore his nobillis, tuke avisement 
how he micht defend his realme ao;anis the Romanis ; and dcsirit 
ane new army to be gaderit out .)f al boundis undir his dominioun, 
with al support that micht be goctin fra the princis of Ireland, thair 
anciant faderis, to expel the Romanis out of Scotland, or than all at 
anis to de. The counsal ripely avisit, with thir present calamiteis 
falling on thaini be frequent victorye of Romanis, thocht nocht pro- 
fitable to jeopcrd the realme to the last chance of battall : bot erar 
to suffer thair pepill to waik sumtime fra battal, to recover sum 
strenth, quhilkis lies bene sa oft diffait afore. Be the samin coun- 
sall, wes devisit, that certane chosin men suld lye on the bordour of 
Brigance, to stop the Romanis fra invasioun of the remanent boimdis 
of Scotland, be frequent incursionis erar than plane battall : thus 
wes the battall prolongit twa yeris eftir, but ony gret slauchter. The 
samin time, Plaucius, governour of Romane army, fel in irremedi- 
able infirmite of flux ; and quhen he understude cleirly he micht 
nouthir convales be support of nature nor medcine, he wes sa dis- 
parit of his life, that he desirit Claudius, Empriour, sen he micht 
nocht labour forthir for the common weill of Rome, to send ane 
prudent capitane in his place, to hald the Albianis undir Romane 
lawis, that the landis conquest afore with gret difBculte wer nocht 
tint. Claudius, at his desire, send in Britane ane vailyeant knicht, 
namit Ostorius Scapula ; and sone eftir his cuming, Plaucius deceis- 
sit in Camelon. His body wes brint, eftir the custome and rite of 
Romanis, and consecratit in the Tempill of Claudius and Victory. 
Thus rais ane consuetude, mony yeris eftir observat amang the 
Scottis and Pichtis, to birne the bodyis of thaim that deis ; as ap- 
peris yit, be mony signis, to our day is : for, in the yeir of God, 
M.DXXi yeris, in Fyndoure, ane town of the Mernis, v milis fra 
Aberdene, wes found ane anciant sepulture, in quhilk wer ii lame 


piggis, craftely maid, ■pdth letteris ingravit, full of brint powder ; 
quhilkis sone eftir that thay Aver handillit fel in dros. Siclike in 
Kenbothen, ane town of Mar, x mills fra Aberdene, wer found 
two sepulturis, on the samin maner, full of brint powder. Mony 
othir sepulturis lies bene oft times found on the same maner, ful of 
brint powder. Bot we vai return to our historye, quhare we left. 

The Britonis, eftir the cumming of Ostorius Scapula, beleving 
to recover thair liberte, becaus he knew not thair maneris nor coun- 
tre, rebellit. Ostorius, desiring to have occasion of rebeUioun, 
that he micht schaw his proues and manheid ; rasit his camp to in- 
vaid the Welchemen and otheris Britonis, in the west partis of Bri- 
tane ; and finalie put thaim to discomfiture. Eftir this victory, he 
went on the est Britonis, fornence the France seis, quhilkis war the 
principal movaris of this rebellion. Thir Britonis seing na refuge, 
fledde to ane strait ground, quhare thay micht nocht be esalie inva- 
dit : nochtheles, thay wer finalie vincust. Throw fame of this un- 
happy battall, all the remanent Britonis wer subdewit to Ostorius. 

How CarataJCf Jetchand with new army aganis the Homanis, was 
discomfist and maid Presoner to Ostorius, he treason of Cartu- 
onandia, his stepmoder. 

Storius, schort time eftir, tuk ane castell, in Cumber, 
namit Carlyll : and eftir that he had tane gret praye of 
guddis out of all partis lyand thair about, he come with 
I j al his anny, baith in Penthland, Carrik, Kyle, andCu- 
ningham ; and wrocht insufferabil injuris vnXh fire and swerd, on the 
pepill thairof. Caratak, impacient to sustene thir offencis, determit 
outher to de, or ellis to revenge the samin. Mony othir Albianis 
come to him on the samin mind. The army of Caratak at this time 
wes noumerit to xl.m men : and wes arrayit in sic maner that al 
thair bakkis wer set contrar ane deip rivere, but ony furde ; to that 
fine, that nane of thame may have esperance to flee, Than wes al 


the agit wemen, quhilk come in gret noumer to visie the chance of 
this feild, set on ilk side of the battall ; to rais the spreitis of men 
with thair clamour, and to cast stanis at thair ennimes, and sla 
thaira quhen thay fell. All othir wemen, that war young and wicht, 
war arrayit with armour and wappinnis amang the men. Sic thingis 
done, the capitanis went heir and thair about the army, exhorting 
thame all in general to battal ; and said. That daye, behuffit thay 
othir to recover thair liberte, or ellis be thirht to perpetual servitude. 
And sumtime thay maid invocatioun to the Devine Spreit of thair el- 
daris; quhilkis, be thair manheid and glorius chevalrie, dang Julius 
out of Albion, and maid thaim and thair posterite exonerat fra al 
tribut and servitude of Romanis. Than followit sa huge clamour 
and noyis in the army, that ilk man promittit, but ony feu*, to fecht 
for thair realme and liberte to the deith. Ostorius wes na litil asto- 
nist, seing the Scottis of sa huge multitude, and brim desire of bat- 
tall ; knawing weil how dangerus it wes to fecht aganis ony men in 
extreme disperation but refuge. Caratak, yit to gif the army more 
curage and spreit to fecht, schew that thair perpetual liberte wes 
than present to thaim in that feild, for the winning. On the othir 
side, Ostorius wes na les prudent in hortation of his folkis : desmng 
thame, be lang orison, to remember how thay wer Romanis, danta- 
ris of all pepiU ; and thair ennimes, bot rude and barbar, but huma- 
nite, and cassin be Nature, the crafty moder of al creature, in the 
remote and last nuik of the warld. Incontinent, baith the armyis, 
be thunderand preis of trumpat, junit, and faucht with mair cruelte 
than evir wes herd in ony warld afore : nochtheles, the Romanis wer 
finalie victouris. 

In this battall wes tane Caratakis \nf, his dochter, and breder. And, 
as oft is sene, few men can haif sicker freindis in adversite : This 
Caratak fled to his gud moder, Cartumandia, Queue of Scottis ; 
qubilk, eftu" deceis of his fader Cadallane, wes maryit apon one vai- 
lyeant knicht, namit Venisius. Cartumandia seing Caratak disti- 
tute of all consolatioun, deliverit him to Ostorius, the ix. yeir eftir 
that the battall wes begun be Romanis in Albion. Ostorius seing 
Caratak brocht afore him, and reft fra kinglie dignite, had sic com- 
passioun, that he tuke him be the hand, and said, " O Caratak, this 
" mischance suld be sufferit Avith pacience ; for thocht thow be dis- 


" titute of gud fortoun, yit thou art nocht cumin in our handis, 
" nakit of virtew. Eschame nocht to be the pray of Romanis, 
" quhilkis hes subdew-it sa niony riche and vailyeant kingis, and led 
" thaim in triumphe." To this answerit Caratak, with hevy cheir : 
" I mon," said he, " suffer this adversite, howbeit it be contrar 
" my Avill. And yit na thing is sa grevous to me as Fortoun ; quhilk 
" is sa contrarius to my governance, that scho hes dejeckit me at thy 
" feit, to be example of hir mutabilite ; and maid me presoner, more 
" be treason than force : quhil my pissance indurit, I maid impedi- 
" ment ; bot now, be treason of my stepmoder, Cartumandia, in 
" quhom had I maist confidence eftir my discomfitour, I am cumin 
" in thy handis. My part is now to obey to the as victour, and un- 
" derlie the M'il and pleseir of my ennime : thy part sal be to use 
" the chance of ane victorius Capitane, and so mercifuU, that vincust 
" and miserable peple may have sum esperance of grace." Als sone 
as Caratak had said thir wourdis, he wes brocht to the tentis of Ro- 
manis, and tretit with all reverence, as efferit to ane king. 

How Ca7-atak was brocht to Rome, and how he returnit in Scotland. 
Of uncouth mervellis sene in Albion ; and of sindry nobill Clerkis, 
and of the Deith of Caratak. 

Aratak, within few dayis eftir, wes brocht throw 
Italy, with his wiffe, douchter, and bredir, to Rome. 
The pepil, heirand his cumming, assemblit out of all 
|! partis; richt desirus to se that vailyeant king quhilk 
had fouchtin sa mony yeris aganis the Romanis. At his cuming, 
stude arrayit in the stretis of Rome, the band of weirmen, in gret 
ordour. First wer schawin his hors, harnes, barding, and riche 
spulyeis ; quhilkis war gottin in the feild aganis him : followit, his 
wif and douchter ; and, last of all, himself. Caratak, brocht afore the 
Empreour in this maner, and seing his freindis that come with him 
sum part astonist ; to schaw his curage na thing dejeckit in this cala- 


mite, said in this maner : " Had I bene als fortunat in prosperite 
" and riches, as I am in hie nobilite and blud, I micht haif erar 
" cummin freind than presonere in this town ; for I wes nocht un- 
" worthy, tlirow my progenitouris and gret dominioun, to have bene 
" confiderat with Romanis. This present calamite is na les honor- 
" able to the, Cesar, Empriour, than unplesand to me. I had sum- 
" time hors, harnes, men, and riches : quhat wonder is thocht I have 
" lost thaim aganis my will ? for gif the Romanis ynW have em- 
" pire above the warld, on force al peple man be thrillit to your 
" servitude. Had I bene randerit to Romanis, sone eftir thair cuming 
" in Albioun, nothir had thy glore, nor yit my calamite bene sa 
" notable and knawin. And thocht thow punis me, that am thy pre- 
" sonere, to the deith; the memory of me sail sone evanis : yit, will 
" thow suffer me returne to my realme, it sal be ane perpetuall ex- 
" ample of thy mercy." The Emprioure incontinent gave pardoun 
and grace baith to him, his wiffe, and brether ; and deliverit thaim of 
bondaige. Sone efter, the faderis convenit, and fell in sindry com- 
municationis concerning the capitane of Caratak. Mony of thaim 
Uiocht the taking of him na les honorabil to Romanis, than was 
tlie taking of King Syphax be Scipio, or Persis be L. Paulus, or 
the taking of ony othir vincust kingis be the Romanis ; and decern- 
it, thairfore, ane triumphe to be gevin to Ostorius. Caratak was 
commandit to returne in Scotland, leiffand his eldest brothir and 
douchter in pledge. 

Mony prodigeis and uncouth mervellis, war sene in Albion, that 
yeir that Caratak faucht with Romanis. Ane gret battall of hors- 
men war sene arrayit in the feild ; and sone eftir, with huge nois and 
murdir on athir side, junit togidder : bot thay evanist so suddanly, 
that na maner of signe apperit in the feild quhare thay war first 
sene. In the nicht afore the battal, apperit to the wache, ane mul- 
titude of wolffis, and tuke ane of thaim that war at the wache away, 
and brocht him with thaim to the nixt wod ; bot on the morrow, als 
sone as licht apperit, thay brocht him agane, but ony bar me of his 
body. In Carrik was ane child borne with ane ravin heid. Thir 
uncouth signis apperit, to na les terrour than admiration of the 
pepil. The devinouris intrepret thaim to signify gret trubill and 
dangeir appering to Caratak, the heid of the realme : nochthe- 


les, seing him returne fra Rome, but ony displeseir, thay began to 
interpret thaim to ane othir face. The pepill rejosing of Caratakis 
returning, ressa\it him with excellent honouris, and convoyit him 
to the town of Carrik. This town, be command of the Empriour, 
was restorit to him, with Brigance, Kyle, and Cuningham. 

Caratak past the remanent of his lifFe in tender araite with the 
Romanis, but any uncouth or domistik weiris ; for baith his brethir 
and douchteris war send hame to him, be favoure of the Empriour. 
Caratak leiffit two yeris efter this, in gud peace, and deceissit the 
XXI. yere of his regne ; ane prince mair vailyeant than fortunat, all 
his dayis ; gevand his ingine and curage to defend his realme and 
subdittis fra servitude of Romanis, and to institute thaim in gud 
maneris. About this time was mony nobill clerkis, as Persius, 
Juvenale, Senica. The pepill began, als, in all partis of the warld, 
to ryis in sicker faith of Crist ; and all vane idolatreis and supersti- 
tionis put downe. 

And sa endis heir, the Thrid Buke. 

%f}t jfeirtj iSufee. 




How Corbrede was maid King ofScottis. How the Pichtis rebellit 
aganis the Romanis, and slew Ostorius thair Capitane. 

Atarak beand on this maner deceissit, and 
beryit with funerall triumphe in Camk, ane 
riche and precius sepulture wes maid for him, 
with hiear pillaris rising about the samin than 
evir wes sene afore, to his eternal glory. This 
prince had na airis, bot ane douchter, to suc- 
____^ ceid to his realme ; and wes trublit with sic 
infirmite, that scho deceissit ane virgine. Eftir hir deith, Corbreid 
youngest brothir to Caratak, wes maid king ; for his eldest brothir 
deceissit, as we schew afore, passand with Vespasiane to Rome. 
This Corbreid wes of fers ingine, nocht far different fra his brothir 
Caratak in maneris. In the beginning of his empire, he went in the 
His, Ros, and Cathnes ; quhare he punist mony wekit schrewis for 
thair attemptatis, and rewardit all thaim that he fand defendouris of 
the common weill, with large commoditeis. 

VOL. I. P 


Quhill Corbreid wes gevin on this maner to justice, the Romanis 
began to decay in Britane : for the Pichtis, eftir creation of thair 
new King, Conkist, in hope to recover thair hberte, slew mony of 
the Romanis, heir and thair skatterit throw the cuntre ; for thay 
traistit, eftir deith of Caratak, na recountering to be foundin. Thus 
had nane of the Romanis eschapit, war nocht thay hapnit more 
haistehe to be reskewit be support of thair strenthis ; nochtheles, 
mony of the principal! capitanis wer slane. Ostorius, inpacient 
to suiFer thir injuris, come with ane haisty and weil arrayit army 
aganis the Pichtis ; followit seme, ane sore battal, fochtin with sic 
cruelte and slauchter, that the Romanis wer neir discomfist. Than 
Ostorius ruschit sa fersly forwart to have maid thaim support, 
that he wes evill woundit, and narrowly eschapit untakin : noch- 
theles, the nicht severit thaim, with lamentable slauchter on ilk side. 
Followit, continewal incursionis, with reif and slauchter, as the 
chance succedit. Throw fame of this victory, come sindry cumpanis 
of pepill to the Pichtis, and gave occasioun to fecht aganis the Ro- 
manis. Bot skarsly wes the battall junit, quhen the Pichtis left the 
feild, and fled, as thay had bene discomfist ; to that fine that thay 
micht draw the Romanis to the said place quhair thair ambusche- 
ment wes laid. And as thay devisit, sa succedit eftir; for the Ro- 
manis, following in this maner, wer slane. Als sone as Ostorius Aves 
advertist heirof, he fled with gret dredour to his tentis ; and wrait to 
Claudius, Emprioure, that the Pichtis were rebellit, and micht na 
ways be haldin under Romane lawis. Than Claudius maid his vow 
to punis the Pichtis in sic maner, that thair name and memorie sail 
peris in Albioun ; and, to bring his purpos to effect, he send in Bri- 
tane two Romane legionis : and, nochtwithstanding the cuming of thir 
legionis, the Pichtis grew ilk day more insolent aganis the Roma- 
nis ; and finalie, be suddan irruptionis, slew two capitanis of Romane 
sodjouris, quhilkis Aver assemblit afore to mak incursionis in the 
cvuitre ; and partit thair spulyeis amang thair fallowis, that concurrit 
with thaim in the said bergane. 

Ostorius, trublit with hevy curis, and doloure, rising of the 
woundis that he gat in this last battall, deceissit, to the gret conso- 
latioun of his ennimes. 


How Manlius Valens, Capitane of Bntane, was discomfist be the 
Pichtis. How Didius was send in his place. Of the Messaige 
send he Pichtis to Corhreid ; and of his Answer. 




Storius beand decessit in this wise, Manlius Valens 
wes maid capitane to Romanis in Britane ; and com 
with mony auful legionis aganis the Pichtis, Followdt, 
ane scharppe bergane, fochtin lang time with doutsum 
victory. And quhen the Pichtis stude in maist danger, come haisteUe 
cccc. men of Kendill, quhen na man belevit, to thair support ; be 
quhais cumming, the Romanis war put to flicht. In this battal wes 
slane mmm. Romanis, and twa thousand Pichtis. Claudius, advertist 
of this unhappy chance falling to Romanis in Britane, send Aulus Di- 
dius, with two Romane legionis, to succeid in his place. This Aulus, 
at his cumming in Albioun, fand the Romanis in small felicite ; and 
maid him thairfore to revenge the injuris done to thaim ; and persewit 
the Pichtis, quhare evir thay micht be apprehendit, to the deith. 
And first he callit all the Romanis afore him, and reprochit thaim 
that thay failyeit to thaim self, and war nocht sa walkrif and provi- 
dent in al materis as thay suld haif ben, eftir the taking of Caratak. 
He mervellit eik that thay wer sa far degenerit fra Romane glore, 
to be schamfulHe ouu'thra^vin with thair febill ennimes ; and finalie, 
he prayit tham to beleif nocht thair discomfitoure cummin be ony 
manheid or virtew of thair ennimes, bot onlie be thair awin necli- 
gence and sleuth ; and prayt thaim to be so obedient to thair capi- 
tane, that he have no occasioun be thaim to leis his curage. The 
Romanis maid incontinent thair solempne vowis, to revenge al inju- 
ris done be thair ennimes. The Pichtis, at the first brut of thir no- 
vellis, wer effrayit : nochtheles, be memorie of this recent victorie, 
thay began to tak gud curage ; and send incontinent thair ambassa- 
touris to Corbreid, King of Scottis, schawing to him, thocht thay 


have laitlie conquest two victoreis on the Romanis, yit the said 
Romanis, be more hatrent than afore, intendis to cum with awfull 
incursionis in Pentland, and purposit, eftir the distructioun of 
Pichtis, to invaid the Scottis on the same maner : and, thairfore, de- 
sirit the said Corbreid to send support, in time to occurre, the pre- 
sent dangeir, erar afore his pissance wer brokin, than quhen his 
landis wer so waistit, that he micht mak na support. 

It wes answerit be Corbreid, that he knew weill how Didius wes 
cumming in Albion, with na gud mind to him nor his realme ; in- 
tending nocht onlie to keip the landis conquest afore be Romanis, 
bot als to augment the samin with new regionis and landis. Yit, be- 
caus he wes confiderat with Romanis, he wald na wayis invaid thaim 
with battal, bot gif thay first invadit him ; for he wes oblist thairto 
be contract maid afore be Caratak. Nochtheles, for defence of his 
realme and pepil, he suld cum, within ane certane day, with al his 
power ; erar to mak impediment to Romanis, than to invaid thaim 
with ony battall. 

How Cartumandia, Qiiene of Scotis, was beryit quik. Hozo the 
Scottis and Pichtis faucht aganis the Romanis with uncertane 
victory^ and war constranit to take peace ; and of the deith of 

Ls sone as thir oratouris war depeschit, Corbreid went 
with ane army inBrigance. Didius, heiring his cumming, 
chargit him, be ane herald, to depart haistelie thairfra ; 
and allegit, it wes the province and land of Romanis, 
and grantit bot onlie to Caratak, during his life: certifying him, 
gif he wer rebelland to this charge, he suld be repute ennime to Ro- 
manis, and douno; be force out of all boundis of his realme. Scars- 
lie wer thir wordis said, quhen tithingis come, that Cesius Nasica, 
lieutenant to Didius, wes entrit with ane army in Brigance. Cor- 


breid incontinent gaderit all his pepill to ane gret strenth ; traisting 
na les honour to keip his subdittis but perell, than to wirk dammage 
on his ennimes : sine went to Epiak, to be consulit in this maist dan- 
gerus mater with Venisius, the husband of Cartumandia, his gud- 

This Venisius wes ane man of hie ingine, and wes lang time de- 
fendit fra injuris of nichtbouris be auctorite of Romanis ; yit, becaus 
he saw thair tyrany and proud dominioun sa importabill, he rebellit, 
and come to the opinioun of his native prince. Cartumandia, Quene 
of Scottis, and spous to the said Venisius, richt sorowfuU for thir 
feliciteis daily succeding to Corbreid, and dredand hir to be punist, 
(for scho treasonabilly randrit Caratak afore to Romanis,) tuke hir 
husband and freindis be crafty slichtis, and held thaim in preson. 
Corbreid, movit for this offence, come to Epiak ; and, eftir that he 
had put the said Venisius and his freindis to liberte, he commandit 
this wekit woman, Cartumandia, to be buryit quik. 

Ane cumpany of Scottis, at this time, followit so unwarly on the 
chase of Romanis, that thay wer belttit about on every side with 
ennimes afore thay wist, and all slane. This discomfitoure maid the 
remanent Scottis, within thair municionis and strenthis, so effrayit, 
that thay micht scarsly be haldin fra fleing. On the fift day eftir, 
the Romanis went forwart to assailye this munitioun of Scottis with 
thair horsmen : bot it wes sa circulit on ilk side within ane mos, that 
na horsmen micht invaid thaim ; and it had na out passage bot at 
ane part, quhilk was maid be thaim with flaikis, scherettis, and 
treis. Nochtheles, quhen thir Romanis knew that the Scottis and 
Pichtis wer within thre mihs to thair army, thay left thair purpos. 
Incontinent, Cesius Nasica, capitane of Romanis, brocht all his army, 
weil arrayit, to the feild ; and abaid still, quhill the cumming of thair 
ennimes. On the tothir side, the confideratte pepill, I mene the 
Scottis and Pichtis, went so fast forthwart, quhen thay saw thair en- 
nimes in sicht, that thay wer out of aind, or evir thay come to ony 
straikis. And yit thay junit at the occasion of the sonne, and faucht 
continewally quhiU thay wer severit be cumming of the nicht ; and 
than the Romanis fled to thair tentis, and the confiderat kingis to 
the montanis. 


In the mene time, Didius, the Romane legate, send ane herald to 
Cesius, his leutenand, and schew gret trubiU amang the Britonis in 
Walls ; and, thairfore, commandit him, to make sum honest way of 
peace with the Scottis and Pichtis, that the landis, conquest afore 
with sa huge difficulte, war nocht schamefully tint. Thir novellis 
maid Cesius to defalk sum part of his curage. The confiderat kingis, 
brokin with this recent bergane, send thair ambassatouris, on the 
nixt morow, to Cesius to have peace ; lamenting the huge murdir 
and calamite falling to baith thair armyis be this last battall : and 
schew, thau'fore, it Avas sufficient ineuch to Romanis to have the 
confiderat kingis as thair freindis in times cuming ; for thay war sa 
obstinat, that na thing micht vincus thaim during thair liffe. Ce- 
sius, havand this honest occasioun to treit peace with the confiderat 
pepill, set ane day to common on all materis. And, at the said day, 
peace was finaly tretit betwix the Romanis, Scottis, and Pichtis, un- 
dir thir conditionis : The Romanis sail keip the landis be thaira con- 
quest afore this peace, but ony ferder conques ; and sail nouthir in- 
vade the Scottis nor Pichtis with battall, les than the Scottis and 
Pichtis invade thaim first. The Pichtis sail leif on thair awin lawis ; 
and Conkist, thair king, to regne above thaim, as afore, payand the 
auld tribute to the wageouris of Camelon. The jurisdictioun of blude 
sail be onely with Romanis. Na Franchemen nor Britonis, that ar 
fugitive fra the Romane lawis, sail be resset amang the Scottis and 
Pichtis. The Scottis sail rejose frelie all thair landis, and use thair 
awin lawis ; providing allwayis, that thay support nocht the inha- 
bitantis of the He of Man with vittallis or wappinnis, for the injuris 
laitly be thaim done to Romanis. And, finally, the said Scottis sail 
nouthir support the Pichtis in Britane, gif ony of thaim happinnis 
to rebell aganis the Romanis ; nor yit invade thaim with battall, sa 
lang as thay abaid at the faith of Romanis. The peace beand con- 
firmit in this sort, all partyis returnit hame. 

This peace indurit, but ony violatioun, sa lang as Didius was capi- 
tane in Britane. And, the saxt yeir efter, he deceissit in London. 



How Veranius was maid capitane ofBritane ; and of Us deith. How 
Swetonius, his successoure, put the lie of Man to sal: How Bri- 
tonis maid new rebelUoun on the Romanis ; and ofsindry Prodi- 
gies and MervelUs sene in Albioun. 

Idius beand deceissit, as said is ; be command of Nero, 
Emprioure, was send in Britane, ane new capitane, 
namit Veranneus. Quhen this Veranneus had visit sin- 
_ t^iy pi-ovincis ofBritane, he come to Camelon, and maid 

sacrifice in the honoure of the Goddes Victory, and Claudius, Em- 
prioure, quhiik was laitly deceissit, and deificat be the Romanis. 

Veranneus, richt desirus to be equale to his antecessouns in glore 
of chevalry, socht mony occasionis to move battall on his nichtbouris. 
So hapnit, that certane Hieland thevis of Scotland, tuke ane pray of 
guddis out of the Pichtis landis. Veranneus, traisting this sufficient 


occasioun to move battall, socht na redres be reasoun of the peace 
afore contrakkit ; Lot send ane multitude of pepill, but ony mair 
tary, in the landis of Scottis ; and, be frequent incursionis, brocht 
away ane gret pray of men and guddis with thaim in Pentland. 
The Scottis, movit be this outrage, ruschit haistely to harnes. Fol- 
lowit ithand heirschippis and slauchter on athir side ; and, in the 
middis of this trubill, Veranneus deceissit. His last wourdis war 
sa full of vane arrogance and glore, as writis Tacitus, that he bele- 
vit himself sufficient, gif he had leiffit two yeris mair than he did, 
to have subdewit all the boundis of Albion to Romane Empire. 

Efter his deceis, Swetonius, ane humill man, was send in his place ; 
quhilk, efter his cuming, renewit peace with Albianis : and, quhen 
he hadreparit all injuris quhare thay complanit, he maid him reddy 
to pas on the He of Man ; for it was full of vailyeant pepill, and ge- 
nerall resset to all thaim that haitit or rebellit aganis the Romanis. 
At his cuming in the said He, he fand ane strange gise of battall 
arrayit aganis him. First, stude ane cumpany of wod wemen, ar- 
rayit in furius habite, on the sandis, with hair hingand ouir thair 
ene, and armit with firebrandis in thair handis. Efter thaim, stude 
the preistis namit Druides, hevand thair handis to the hevin, and 
makand maist terribil cursing on the Romanis ; and, in the middis 
of thaim, stude ane band of armit men, reddy to fecht. The Ro- 
manis war mair astonist for this uncouth sicht of furius wemen and 
preistis, than ony terrour of armit men : nochtheles, be hortatioun 
of thair capitane, thay went forthwart with displayit baner ; and, 
finaly, baith thir wemen and preistis war discomfist and yoldin. 
Swetonius, efter this victory, garnist all the strenthis of this He 
with garnison of Romanis; and maid plane eversioun of all the 
woddis, quhare the preistis usit thair sacrifice in the honour of thair 

Quhen Swetonius had dantit the He of Man in this maner, he 
was advertist that France was rebellit ; and, thairfore, to peacify 
this trubill, he pullit up salis, and arrivit in Bartanye. The Bri- 
tonis herand his departing, thocht the time ganand to recover thair 
liberte, and rebellit. The motive of thair rebellioun was, that Ar- 
viragus, thair last king, left his two dochteris, and the Emprioure, 
heritouris to his kingdome and riches ; traisting, to saif thaim fra 


trubill be that way: howbeit, all thingis succedit contrar his beleif; 
for his realme was governit be Romane capitanis, and his hous put 
to servitude, as it had bene tane be pres of battal ; his wif, Voada, 
bet with straikis ; and baith his two dochteris deflorit. The Bri- 
tonis, opprest with thir injuris, and dreidand ilk day mair disple- 
seris to follow, maid plane rebellion, and socht support in all partis 
quhare thay micht. 

Mony uncouth niervellis war sene, about this time, in Albion. The 
occiane see apperit bludy, and mony deid bodyis cassin to the brayis 
thairof. Wemen yeid wod, and declarit terribill thingis to cum. 
The imagis of Claudius, beside Camelon, fel down in dros ; and the 
image of Victory fell down fra the alter on hir bak, as scho had 
bene vincust. The spaymen said, thir prodigies signifyit gret dam- 
mage appering to Romanis. The Pichtis quhilkis war in Camelon 
and othir munitionis thair beside, herand this ansAver, wer ereckit 
in esperance of better fortoun ; and nocht only maid privat conspi- 
ration aganis the Romanis, bot slew mony of thair wageouris, afore 
thair rebellion was patent. The agit Romanis, in quhome the 
Pichtis had maist hatrent, war slane in gret nowmer, and the residew 
chasit out of al boundis gevin to thaim for lang service ; and, finaly, 
thir agit Romanis fled to ane auJd tempill, within the boundis 'of 
Berwik, quhare thay war al slane be the inhabitantis of that region. 
Petus Cerealis, Heutenant to Swetonius, desiring to support thir 
agit capitanis, come with ane legioun of Romanis, and ane cumpa- 
ny of horsmen ; nochtheles, his legion was discomfist, and himself 
chasit to the Romane tentis. The nixt nicht, he fled to Cattus, pro- 
curatour of Britane, quhilk was for that time in Kent. Als sone as 
Cattus was advertist of the trubill ilk day rising in Britane, he fled, 
for feir of his lif, in France. 

VOL. I. 


Of the Complaint maid he Voada, Quene of Britonis, to Corbreid. 
Of Ids Message send to Catttis. Of Cattus answer. Ofsindry 
Incursionis maid be Scottis on the Romanis. And of the first 
cuming of Murrayis in Scotland. 

Oada, Quene of Britonis, opprest with daily injure of 
Romanis, send hir secretar to hir brothir Corbreid, 
King of Scottis, complening hir mesirie and trouble ; 
hir dochteris deflorit ; and hirself sa schamefully doung 
be the Romanis, that pacience micht nocht availl, hot onely to be 
ane place to new injuris. Sum time wes bot ane king in Britane, 
bot than rang two kingis, the legat, and the Romane procuratour ; 
that ane havand power to distroy thair blude, and this othir, to de- 
vore thair substance. That man was reput maist nobill amang Ro- 
manis, that micht defoule moniast wemen, or make maist herschippis 
on the pepill. And, becaus na thing micht suffice to satefy the in- 
saciabil lust and avarice of Romanis, scho requirit hir brothir, to 
suffer nocht hir, his onely sister, to be schamefully doung, and hir 
dochteris defould, but punition. And finaly schew, how the Bri- 
tonis, for the infinite harmes done to thaim be Romanis, war rebel- 
lit ; throw quhilk, he micht haif better occasion to invaid the Ro- 
manis with battall at this time, than ony othir time afore. 

Corbreid, movit be this pieteous complaint, send ane herald to 
Cattus, Romane procuratour, quhilk was laitly returnit in Britane, 
commanding him to redres al ofFencis done to his sister ; and, failye- 
ing thairof, declarit him to be ennime to Romanis in times cuming. 
It was answerit be Cattus, that na thing pertenit to Corbreid, quhid- 
der richt or wrang war done to Voada ; als, it was ane vane foly to 
Corbreid, sen he was bot ane rud and barbar man, to seme curius 
in Romane materis, pertening na thing to his chargis. Forthir, gif 
ony displeseir war done to Voada, Quene of Britonis, the samin sail 
be eikit with doubill injuris ; for the Romanis wald nocht dedenye 


thair majeste, to satefy the desire of barbar pepill in ony othir sort ; 
and tuke na regard quhidder he war freind or fo, or quhat he 
micht do. 

Corbreid, movit be this outrageous answer, maid new band of 
confideration w^ith Pichtis. And, within schort time efter, the con- 
fiderat kingis rasit ane army of all fensabil men that micht be foundin 
within thair realmis, with sindry Ireland men, that come to thair 
support, and slew the Romanis, in al partis quhare thay micht be 
apprehendit, but ony ransom or piete : and in this jurnay thay tuke 
Berwik, quhilk was than maist populus town of that region ; and, 
quhen thay had slane all Romane sodjouris foundin thairintill, thay 
kest downe the wallis thairof onto the ground. 

The inhabitantis of the He of Man heirand thir novellis, thocht 
the time ganand to recover all thair strenthis. Sone efter, all pepil 
of Brigance, Carrik, Kyle, and Cuningham, come to thaim ; and 
past, in array it battall, throw sindry proVincis of Romanis, ceissing 
fra na maner of cruelteis that micht be devisit on thaim. The town 
of CarleU was nocht saffit fra this cruelte ; for, efter that it was tane, 
all the cieteyanis thairof war slane, and the Strang w^allis thairof, equat 
to the ground. The wemen, during this fury, war sa desirus to re- 
venge the cruelteis done be Romanis, that thay bure armour and 

About this time, ane pepil, namit Murrayis, discending of Almane 
blude, and doung out of thair native region be Romane weris, come, 
skatterit in sindry cumpanyis, to the mouth of Ryne ; quhare thav 
puUit up salis, with thair capitane Rodorik, to seik ane new habita- 
tion. At last, efter that thay had bene lang travehit on the wilsum 
sees, and inhibit to land in France and Britane, thay arrivit in 
Forthe ; quhilk is ane arme of the see deviding Pentland fra FifFe. 
The Pichtis ressavit thaim the mair plesandly, that thay apperit 
with Strang bodyis to support thaim aganis thair pissant ennimes ; 
and war nocht only discendit of thair hnage and blude, bot als war 
sworne, sa far as thair power micht, to revenge the injuris done to 
thaim be Romanis. 

Rodorik, brocht in Pentland with the Murrayis on this maner, 
went to the confiderat kingis ; and, before thaim, lamentit sore the 
tyranny of Romanis, quhilkis, be onely desire of dominioun, hes 


subdewit ane large part of Almany ; and nocht only thirllit the pepill 
thairof to importabil servitude, bot subjeckit thaim to Romane lawis, 
Siclike, the Murrayis, to quhom he Aves capitane, Avar doung out of 
thair native landis ; and constranit, becaus thay micht suffer na ser- 
vitud, to seik new habitation. Alwayis, it wes ane gret consola- 
tioun to him and the Murrayis, that thay, be favour of Goddis, 
wer brocht in thay landis, quhare thay micht revenge the injuris 
done to thaim be thair ennimes. And, for thir motivis, he desirit 
the confiderat kingis, to suffer him and the Murrayis to pas formast 
in support of thair peple ; and desirit, gif it hapnit thaim, be thair 
manheid and chevalry, to ding the Romanis out of Scotland, to 
grant thame wiffis, that thay micht incres under ane blude with 
Scottis and Pichtis : be contrar, gif it hapnit thaim to be slane, thay 
tuke na cure of thair deith, swa that thay had sufficientlie revengit 
the injuris done be thair proude ennimes. Thir desiris of the Mur- 
rayis wer the more acceptabill to the confiderat kingis, that thay un- 
derstude thaim enragit with maist cruell hatrent aganis the Romanis ; 
jfnd, thairfore, condiscendit to all thair peticionis, traisting, be thair 
incredible manheid and strenth, to wirk sum hie displeseir to thair 

Of the Orison maid be Voada, Queue of Britonis, to the confiderat 
Kingis ; and how scho [wes'] vincust [be] the Romanis, andfnaly 
slew Mr self And of the deith of King Corbreid. 

He confiderat kingis, rejosing of the cumming of Mur- 
rayis on this maner, went forthwart with deligence to 
meit Voadaj the vailyeant Queue of Britonis, quhilk wes 
than gaderit with ane huge noumer of Britonis, abiding 
thair cuming. Als sone as Voada understude hir bruthir Corbreid 
and the King of Pichtis Aver cumin with thair armyis, scho Avent 
forthwart to meit thaim. 


Eftir maist tender and hertlie embrasing on ilk side, Voada said 
to thame on this maner : " Had I bene borne, maist vaDyeant cam- 
" pionis, ane man, I micht nocht have sufferit sa mony cruell and 
" intollerable injuris as now ar done be Romanis : nochtheles, in 
" quhatsumevir image nature hes formit me, gif ye will concurre 
" with me to revenge the common offence done to us all, thir Ro- 
" manis, that ar sa vailyeant aganis wemen, and sa cruel to thair 
" subditis, sail sone se quhat vassalage may be done be ladyis, quhen 
" extreme danger occurris. And, thocht I may no wayis devoid me 
" of wiflie image, yit I sail not want mannis hardiment ; bot I sail 
" fecht formest in the bront, with v.m armit ladyis, quhilkis ar all 
" sworne to revenge the cruelteis done be Romanis. We sail pas 
" formast in battall, but feir of deith, or bludy woundis. We sal 
" nocht, as othir wemen usis, be affray it for ony woundis tane or 
" gevin be our ennimes. I can have na mercy on thaim that hes 
" invadit my freindis with sic odius slauchter and cruelteis. Thir 
" odius tyrannis, nakit and vode of piete, hes slane sa infinit nou- 
" mer of pepill, and deflorit sa mony honest virginis and matronis, 
" that thay knaw nocht thaimself, as I behef, men, nor borne of 
" wemen. Arme yow, for this motivis, maist vailyeant kingis, aganis 
" your common ennimes, with sic curage as ye sail se ladyis have 
" afore yow : and beleif nocht bot sicker victory ; for the Romanis 
" ar sa effrayit, that thay confide in na thing sa mekle as in thair 
" fiemg. And haist your army with al deligence, in aventure sum 
" new power come nocht with Cattus, the Romane procuratoure, 
" throw quhilk it sal be the more difficill to resist; and, finaly, I 
" beseik yow to rander nocht youreself, your wiffis, and barnis, but 
" scharp bargane, to Romanis." Quhen Voada had endit this ori- 
son, the confiderat kingis apprisit hir wisdom and curage. 

Cattus, advertist of thir noveUis, wes effrayit : nochtheles, he come 
forthwart with arrayit oistis to meit the Albianis ; and thay na thing 
eschewit his cumming. Incontinent, baith the armyis junit. At the 
first cumming, all the horsmen of Romanis wer discomfist ; and, 
sone eftir, the futemen, on the samin maner. Followit, ane miserable 
slauchter on the flearis. Cattus, evill woundit in this battal, escha- 
pit, and fled in France. The Albianis, proud of this victory, partit 
the spulye and riches of this feild amang thaim ; and slew the Ro- 


manis in al partis quhare thay micht be apprehendit. In this bat tall 
wer slane, as \vrittis Cornelius Tacitus, lxx.m Romanis, and xxx.m 
Albianis. Be this cruel slauchter, the Romanis Aver brocht to sic 
calamite, that wer nocht Suetonius, the Romane legatte, come the 
more haistelie fra France to thair support, the Albianis had bene 
perpetuallie deliverit of Romane injuris. This Suetonius come in 
Britane with twa legionis, and x.M. wagiouris of sindry nationis, and 
tuke purpos to persew the Albianis mth new battall. Voada, heir- 
ing the returning of Suetonius in Britane, send to the Britonis to 
cum to hir but ony tary. At the day prefixit, come to hu' ane huge 
army of Britonis, Scottis, Pichtis, and Murrayis, devidit in sindry 
buschementis; all atanis rejosing, be thair recent victorie, that thay 
had occasioun and ganand season to distroy the Romanis. The 
wiffis, quhilkis come with thair husbandis, as the custome wes in 
thay dayis, wer set in cartis on the out bordouris of the campe, to 
beir witnes quhay didde maist vassalage. Quhen the Britonis, Scottis, 
Pichtis, and Murrayis, Aver ordorit in gud array, Queue Voada, 
nocht unworthy to be noumerit amang maist douchty campionis, 
ruschit about the army, with hir two armit dochteris, and schew 
hir not cvimmin amang sa mony vailyeant capitanis onlie to defend 
hir realme and riches, bot to revenge the mony schamfull and un- 
worthy offencis done to hir be Romanis ; and had na litill indigna- 
tioun in hir mind, that the Romanis enragit in so unbridlit lust, that 
no estait of virginis nor matronis wer left be thame undeflorit : and, 
forthir, scho schew, how the Goddis, quhilkis ar just punisaris of 
all wrangis, wer presentlie cumin to beir witnes of the iniquiteis done 
be Romanis ; and lies recentlie punist thaim in this last battall A\dth 
schame and slauchter, becaus thay movit injust battal aganis fre 
peple. " Now restis nocht," said scho, " bot onelie to fecht aganis 
" thay miserabil cativis, that wer saiffit be thair schamefull flicht 
" fra this last battal ; and thocht Suetonius, thair new capitane, 
" may exhort thaim to battall, yit he may not restore, sen thay ar 
" vincust, thair curage and spreit. Will ye considir," said scho, 
" your vincust and discomfist adversaris, aganis quhom ye suld noAv 
" fecht; — wil ye considir your awin pissance, and the occasioun of 
" battal ; — ye sail think it honorable, othir to be victorius in this 


" battal, or ellis al at anis to de : for nobil men suld cheis erar to . 
" de honestly, than schamefully to leif." 

On this othh- side, Suetonius ceissit not to exhort his army to 
battal; for, thocht he had gret confidence in thair manheid, he re- 
quirit thaim to regard iiocht the vane minassing of harbour pepill, 
amang quhom wes more noumer of wemen than of men. Thay wer 
als hot young, febill, and unarmit pepil, but ony cognossance of 
chevalry ; and micht, thairfore, the more esalie be discomfist, fra 
thay have provin the manheid and scharp swerdis of Romanis. And 
thocht his said army wes hot of few noumer, the more glore suld 
follow, gif thay, with sa few and sufficient pepill, vincust sa huge 
multitude of harbour ennimes. And, finalie, prayit thaim, to weild 
thair swerdis and dartis maist ferslie, to the murdir of thair fayis ; 
and to have na sicht to spulyeis, quhil the victory wer cleirlie con- 
quest ; eftir quhilk, all thingis micht succeid to thair plesour. 

Thir wourdis of the capitanis movit the armyes to brim and ar- 
dent desire of battall. The agit knichtis, be lang experience and 
use, had na les confidence in thair manheid and virtew, than victory 
had bene present in thair handis. On the tothir side, the Albianis, 
confiding in the huge multitude of armit men, be sound of trumpet 
gaif signe to June. Folio wit, ane bludy and terrible battall. Bot 
at last the Albianis wer vincust, chasit, and put to flicht with gret 
slauchter : and the more slauchter followit, that thair army wes cir- 
culit on every side with sic multitude of cartis, that the discomfist 
pepill had na place to fle. The Romanis slew all the wemen in this 
battal but ony piete or ransoun. This battall wes honest, bot richt 
unplesand to Romanis ; for the maist part of thair army wer tint. 

In this battaU wes slane, as Tacitus writtis, lxxx.m Albianis. 
The Murrayis, for the maist part, wer aU slane, with thair capitane 
Rodorik. Quene Voada, that scho suld nocht cum quik in hir en- 
nimes handis, slew hirself. Baith hir dochteris wer tane ; and brocht 
armit, as thay facht, to Suetonius. The eldest of hir dochteris wes 
maryit apon ane nobill knicht of Romane blude, namit Marius ; for 
he bereft hir virginite afore ; and wes maid king of Britonis be auc- 
torite of Cesar. This Marius, eftir his coronatioun, went in Ken- 
dale, ane part of Britane hand fornens Annandale and Brigance ; 
and namit that land, eftir his name, West Maria, that is to say, 


Westmurland. King Corbreid, brokin with this sorowfull battall, 
returnit with the residew of his army in Scotland ; and gaif to the 
Murrayis, quhilkis eschapit out of this feild, all the landis hand be- 
twix Spay and Innernes ; quhilkis landis wer callit, eftir thame, Mur- 
ray-land. The auld inhabitantis of thir landis, namit Vararis, wer 
expellit; becaus thay wer ane seditious pepill, and more gevin to 
civill weris, for dissentioun of thaimself and thair nichtbouris, than 
ony defence of the realme. The Murrayis wer than maryit on 
Scottis virginis, and grew under ane blude and amite with the 

Corbreid past the remanent of his dayis but ony weris : for the 
Romanis wer so irkit with civill battallis, that it wes gret difficulte 
to hald the south partis of Britane at thair opinioun ; and, for that 
cause, thay persewit not the Scottis nor Pichtis, mony yeris eftir. 
This nobil prince, brokin with dammage of yeris, deceissit at Don- 
stafage, the xviii yeir of his regne ; and wes beryit amang the re- 
manent sepulturis of his progenitouris ; in the first yere of the em- 
pire of Vespasiane, Emprioure ; fra the incarnation, lxxi yeris. 

Ofsindry nobill ClerJcis. How Petir and Paule toar martirit. How 
Dardannus was maid King" of Scottis ; and slane for his ty- 

Ony nobill Clerkis flurist about this time in Itale ; as, 
Statius, Persius, and Plutercus. And the faith of Christ 
began to spreid fast in al partis, throw preching of the 
^^ haly apostolis, Peter and Paule ; quhilkis gave thair 
hale attendans, as gud hirdis, to instruct thair flok in the sicker faith, 
but ony respect to riches, or feir of thair liffis ; quhill, at last, thay 
wer baith slane in Rome, be the wickit Nero. Peter wes hingit be 
the feit, in a place of Rome callit Mont Auri ; and Paule, hedit be 
the swerd, in ane place of Rome callit Porta Hostiensis. 


King Corbreid left behind him thre sonnis, so yong that nane of 
thaim micht succeid to the crown. Thair namis wer Corbreid, Tul- 
cane, and Brekus. The first of thaim Aves nurist in Britane, with 
his ant Voada, the vailyeant Quene of Britonis, with sic courthe 
maneris and havingis, that he wes caUit Corbredus Galdvis ; for yit 
amang us, al pepill that is componit and honest is caUit Galdis. 
The nobiUis, eftir the deith of Corbreid, that the croun micht re- 
mane hail to Galdus at his perfite age, maid Dardannus king : for 
he wes nepot to King Metellane. This Dardannus wes of sa large 
stature, that he wes calht the gros king. He wes richt plesand to 
the nobillis, afore he wes king, and richt tender to King Corbreid, 
baith in weir and peace. The pepil belevit, that he suld have fol- 
lowit the maneris of otheris wise kingis, his progenitouris ; and, be- 
caus he wes ane lusty person, of fair vissage and body, he wes gre- 
tumlie luffit amang the pepill. Nochtheles, his mind wes gevin to 
maist elFeminat vices ; as apperit in the end of his life. In the be- 
ginning of his empire, he usit the counsal of his nobillis, and wes 
nocht far discordant fra the maneris of ane gud prince : bot, within 
thre yeris eftir, he left all thingis pertenand to justice, and slaid in 
every kind of vice ; and, be counsall of certane Avikkit schrewis, his 
famiharis, he tuke all officis, concerning publik ministratioun of jus- 
tice, fra wise and nobil men, and gave thame to vicious rebaldis, 
that assistit to his insolence and lust ; and had all wise and virtews 
personis in na les hatrent than suspitioun. At last, quhen he had 
waistit his substance and tresour be assistance of thir unhappy lim- 
maris, quhilkis had na sicht to his honour, bot allanerlie to thair 
singular avantage ; he become sa avaritious, desiring uthir mennis 
guddis but ony conscience or reason, that he slew, be vane causis, 
ane nobill man namit Cardorus, quhilk wes Gret Justice to the last 
king, Corbreid ; and had na occasion to sla this innocent man, bot 
allanerlie becaus he repruvit his vices. Mony otheris, nobillis and 
innocent men, wer slane be him in that samin maner. Thir doingis 
maid him odius to his nobillis and commonis. At last, he kest his 
extreme besines to distroy Galdus, and his two brethir ; traisting, 
becaus the crown pertenit to thaim eftir his deceis, to stabill the 
same with sicker firmance to him and his airis. And, to the same 

VOL. I. K 


effect, he send ane servand, namit Carmonak, quhilk wes corruppit 
with his money, to slay Galdus, and his two brethir, in the He of 
Man. Carmonak, instruckit in this maner, come in the said He ; 
and, finaly, quhen he had socht lang time ane ganand oportunite to 
sla Galdus, he was tane, waytand in ane secret place, with drawin 
swerd, quhare he beleiffit Galdus to cum; and was brocht before 
the Gret Justice of this He, and accusit sa scharplie, that he revelit 
in quhat sort he was instruckit to sla Galdus and his brethir. Als 
sone as he had schawin this treasoun he was put to deith. 

The nobillis, herand this treasoun, conspirit aganis Dardannus ; 
for thay haittit him, afore, for his inhumane cruel teis; and, than, maist 
of all, seand him gevin to the slauchter of the kingis sonnis. And, 
first, thay slew al thaim that favourit him. In the mene time rais 
ane man, of vile and obscure linage, namit, Conanus, quhilk Avas 
promovit to gret riches and honouris for his assistance to Dardannus ; 
and maid him to gaddir the pepil, in gret nowmer, to support this 
tyrane aganis the nobillis: bot at last he was tane be thaim, and 
hingit on ane jebait. Incontinent, thir nobillis come with ane army 
aganis this odius tyrane, and maid Galdus thair capitane. Dardan- 
nus advertist heu'of, and seand na refuge, wald have slane himself; 
bot he was stoppit be his familiaris, in esperance of better fortoun. 
At last, he was brocht afore Galdus, and slane. His held was efter 
schorne fra his body, and borne on ane staik throw all the army, to 
his gret schame ; and his body cassin in ane maist vile closet. 

This ende maid the odius tyrane Dardannus, the fourt yeir of his 
regne ; in the sext yeir of Vespasiane, Empriour ; fra the incarna- 
tioun, Lxxv yeris. 



Hoxv mony Romane CapitaniSf for thair feh'd administration, xvar 
interchangeit in Britane. How Galdus xvas maid King of Scottis. 
And liow lie xvas discomfist be PetuUus. 

He Romanis, about this time, began to decay in Albion, 
be necligence of febil capitanis, and dammage of civill 
weris. For Swetonius, legat of Britane, for his arrogance 
and cruelte usit on the Britonis, was deponit ; and Pe- 
tranius Turpilianus, as mair merciful capitane, was send in his place. 
This Turpilianus, at his cuming in Britane, mesit all seditioun and 
trubill amang the Romanis ; and randerit all thair provinces to ane 
new capitane, namit Trebellius Maximus, ane man of slaw curage, 
havand litill experience of chevalry. This Trebellius, seand gret 
sedition and trubill apperand to rise, throw lang peace, in his army ; 
he randerit the samin to ane othir capitane, namit Vectius Velanus : 
quhilkis, on the samin maner, dantit the Britonis mair with amite 
and kindnes, than ony auctorite : and he was in the time of Galdus, 
of quhilk sail be oure history nixt following. 

Efter the deith of Dardannus, the nobillis set ane counsal, and 
fand the said Galdus baith richtuous aire to the crown, and ane 
maist excellent person, dotat ^vith sindry wtewis, and hie preroga- 
tivis ; and, thairfore, crownit him in the fatall chiar of marbill. 

Galdus, eftir his coronatioun, maid sacrifice to the Goddis for the 
felicite fallin to him ; sine gaif thankis to his nobillis and remanent 
pepill, and promittit, to govern his realme be consultatioun of the 
maist prudent and nobil men thairof : throw quhilk he wan gret fa- 
vour and luf of his pepil. He wes of young and flurisant age, and 
nocht unlik to Corbreid, his vailyeant fader. Forthir, he wes of no- 
bill and anciant blude of baith his parentis : his modir wes the 
King of Pichtis douchter, discending be lang linage of kingis: 
quhairthrow, na thing failyeit to him that micht conques the favour 
of his pepil. In the beginning of his empire he set him to punis the 


wickit consalouris of Dardannus, be quhome the realme wes mis- 
governit, and brocht to gret truble. Sic thingis done, he past throw 
sindry boundis of his reahne, and maid sic punitioun on trespas- 
souris, that he stabillit his reahne in gret tranquilUte. 

In the niene time come to him the Murrayis, and schew thaim re- 
josit that Dardannus, the invasour of the common weill, wes dis- 
troyit. The cumming of Mun-ayis was the more acceptabill to the 
king, that thay brocht sindry oppressouris and thevis to his justice ; 
quhilkis war sone efter punist to the deith. Nocht lang efter, ane 
counsall ^vas set in Dounstafage, quhare mony nobill actis war de- 
visit for the commoun weil ; and the wickit law of Ewin, quhare 
the wiffis of the commonis was fre to the nobillis, abrogat and an- 
nulHt. And yit he could nocht purches the remanent cursit lawis 
of King Ewin to be revocat; for all the young nobillis war repug- 
nant thairto. 

Quhill Galdus was gevin to sic besines, come novellis to him, that 
ane new capitane, namit Petulius Cereahs, was send be Vespasiane, 
with ane army in Britane, to recover the landis tint afore be necli- 
gence of febill capitanis ; and purposit to cum haistely in Annan- 
dale and Brigance. Galdus richt astonist be thir novellis, howbeit 
he walde proclame na weiris quhill he war mair surely advertist, send 
his spyis to explore the counsall of Romanis. Thir spyis returnit 
with diligence ; and schew, how the Romanis war cumming, baith in 
Mers and Berwik, with mair awfull ordinance than ever was sene 
afore in Albioun ; the bestiail drevin away ; the cornis and insicht 
brint; and ane gret nowmer of Pichtis, quhilkis invadit the Ro- 
manis in defence of thair a\vin guddis, slane. 

The Scottis, richt affrayit be thir novelUs, said, the Britonis war 
unkind, quhilkis wald not advertis thaim of the cumming of Ro- 
manis ; considering thay laitly faucht neir to the uter exterminioun 
of thaimself, for defence onelie of the said Britonis. Nochtheles, 
Galdus set him to meit the Romanis afore thair cumming in his 
realme ; a\id assemblit ane Strang cumpany, to the nowmer of fifty 
thousand men. Few Scottis that micht beir armour, Avar absent 
that day. 

Quhen Galdus was passand forthwart on this maner, apperit sin- 
dry uncouth mervellis to his sicht. Ane egill flew all day, with gret 


laubour, above his army ; to na les terrour than admiratioun of his 
pepill : for it was interprete, that the Scottis suld be distroyit be the 
egill, qiihilk is the ansenye of Romanis. Nochtheles, Galdus re- 
quirit thaim to have gud esperance ; for he interpret, that the said 
day suld put the Romanis to gret lauboure. Ane armit knicht Avas 
sene fleing in the air ; and, quhen he had floin round about aU his 
army, he suddanly evanist out of sicht. The hft apperit dirk, and 
full of clouddis. Divers fowlis fell out of the air, full of blude, in 
the place quhare the battallis efter junit. Galdus, nochtwithstand- 
ing thir sorowfuU and uncouth prodigies appering sa suddanly in 
the face of his army, allegit, that thay signifyit gret fehcite to his 
pepil; and perswadit thaim to pas forthwart with gud esperance 
of victory. 

In the mene time come novellis, that the Romanis war enterit in 
Brigance with mair pissance than evir thay come afore in thay 
boundis, wHth purpos nocht onely to fecht, bot, be plane conques, 
to sit downe in thay landis ; for thay had sic confidence in thair 
chevalry and manheid, that na power of erdly creatouris micht im- 
pesche thaim fra thair purpos. Galdus, na thing aifrayit thairof, 
thocht to meit the Romanis with sic hard chevalry as he was lernit 
be his eldaris ; trasting, efter sa mony happy chancis falling to 
Romanis, that Fortoun, the instabill gidar of mortall creatouris, sail 
sum time bring the Romanis, be hid waching, to ruine : for the 
Goddis, oft times, ar sene favorabill to all pepill that justly defendis 
thaimself fra injure of ennimes. Sum men perswadit the king to 
invade nocht haistely his ennimes, bot to tary with ane few pepill, 
and suffer the residew of his folkis to returne hame ; to that fine, 
that the Romanis micht be constranit, throw laik of vittallis, outhir 
to depart out of Brigance, or elhs to be trubilHt with hunger, and 
othir incommoditeis. This counsall was weil apprisit be the nobillis. 
Yit mony of thaim dred thair vailyeant pepil to defalk curage be 
lang tary ; for the Scottis at thair first assemblance hes maist curage 
and spreit, and ar brokin with na thing mair than lang tary : and, 
for thir reasonis, na thing was sa gud as to invaide thair ennimes 
quhill thair fury indurit. 

Galdus and his nobillis following this last opinioun, rasit his army, 
and brocht the samin, on the thrid day efter, in sicht of Romanis, 


The grete multitude, and singulare manheid, of Romanis, sa oft as- 
sailyeit with frequent victoryis, maid the Scottis sa astonist, that aU 
thair esperance of victory was turnit in maist drery soUicitude. Yit, 
he hortation of thair prudent capitanis, thay enforsit thaimself to 
new curage ; and maid invocatioun to thair Goddis to send thaim 
victory. Incontinent, baith the armyis junit, with uncredibil fury. 
The Silurianis, — I mene the men of Carrik, Kyle, and Cuning- 
hame, — in the same battall quhare Galdus was, faucht sa vailyeant- 
ly, that the richt wing of Romanis was nere discomfist. Quhen Pe- 
tulius was advertist thairof, he send ane new legioun of Romanis in 
thair support. Thus war the Silurianis ouirset. Thair followit yit 
ane cruell and terribill bargane, with untellabill murdir ; for the ca- 
pitanis faucht in sic ire, that thay pretermittit na thing that micht 
pertene to forcy campionis. Petuhus yit, ithandly went about the 
Romanis quhare thay faucht, and supportit thaim with new power 
quhare thay failyeit. 

Quhill Petulius was fast vesiand his army on this wise, he beheld 
Galdus fechtand, with gret manheid and spreit, amid his fois ; and 
incontinent, enkendelit with michty curage, and desirus to conques 
sum hie honoure be notabill and soveraine vassalage, he tuke pur- 
pos outhir to slay Galdus, or than, magre his pissance, to put him 
to flicht. Bot than rais ane battall mair vehement than afore ; for 
mony of the maist vailyeant and forcy campionis amang the Scottis, 
fechtand with perseverand manheid to the deith, war slane in de- 
fence of thair prince. Galdus, evill woundit in the face, montit on 
hors, and departit fra the feild. The residew of Scottis, disparit be 
fleing of the king, fled heir and thair to thair best refuge. The 
chais followit be the Romanis in sic ire, that the Scottis war slane 
in all partis quhare thay war tane. In this battall war slane xii 
thousand Scottis, and vi thousand Romanis. Galdus, evill woundit 
on this wise, coUeckit the residew of his army, and returnit to ane 
castell of the Levynok. The Romanis abaid, the remanent of this 
yeir, in Epiak ; and subdewit all the bundis of Brigance, but ony 
trubil of battall, to thair empire. 


Cfjai?. atntf). 

How the nohiULady Vodicia invadit the Romanis zcith hattall. How 
scJio wasjinaly slane, and Mr army discomjist. 
ETtiLiris, legate of Britane, richt insolent efter this vic- 
tory, and desirand na les to eik the empire of Romanis, 
than to succeid in equale glore to his antecessouris ; ra- 

, sit liis campe, to subdew the remanent boundis of Bri- 

gance. The Brigandis, be ithand incursionis and Hcht battallis, re- 
fusit, lang time, his weris; for it was defendit, be decreit of Parlia- 
ment, efter slauchter of sa mony vailyeant Scottis, to feild the Ro- 
manis with plane battall, or to jeoperde the realme undir the chance 
of ane battall, 

Quhill the Romanis invadit Brigance in tliis maner, Vodicia, 
youngest douchter to Voada, quhilk was deflorit, as we schew, be 
Romanis, and exiht be wraith of Marius, hir gud-brothir ; to revenge 
the pollution of hir body, and othir intoUerabil offends done to hir 
modir, Voada ; assembht ane army of Brigandis and Britonis, with 
the inhabitantis of the He of Man; and come with awfull battall on 
the Romanis, quhen thay belevit na thing les than hir invasion. At 
the first cumming of this army, was hard ane huge din and noyis, be 
sound of pepill, Uk ane exhorting othir to battall ; and incontinent 
come sa thik schoure of arro^vis and dartis on the Romanis, that the 
lift micht not be sene above thahr heidis. Thus war the Romanis 
sa astonist, that thay knew not quhat was, in this suddand danger, 
to be done; for nouthir knew thay quhat ennimes thay war thatllid 
thaim so awfully assaUye, nor yit had thay sufficient manheid to 
fecht aganis sa gret multitude of uncouth and strange pepill, cum- 
mand on thaim untimuslie within the nicht. 

Quhil the Romanis war in this affray, thair ennimes ruschit on 
ilk side, with sic hardiment and curage, that thay brak the trinschis 
of Romams ; and enterit perforce apon thair tentis, quhare the maist 
vailyeant and forcy campionis amang the Romanis war slane. Thus 


had the Romanis bene uterly distroyit, and the Brigandis perpe- 
tually dehverit of servitude be Vodicia, war nocht, Petuhus come 
the mair haistely to thair support. For Petuhus met this extreme 
dangeir sa prudently, that he, with birnand flammis of pik, roset, 
and brintstane, quhilkis he had preparit aganis sic occurring jeo- 
perdyis, withstude his fay is, quhare gretest noyis was herd; and dang 
thaim, be force of rage and flambis, fra his tentis. Bot Vodicia sa 
craftely exhortit hir army aganis Petulius, that scho oft times re- 
newit battall. Than was the bergane sa cruell, that al the nicht 
following was nocht sufficient to schaw the ende of thair laubouris. 
At the spring of the day, Vodicia was discomfist, and hu- cumpany 
put to flicht. Petulius, efter this victory, dredand sum hid dangere 
occurring, inhibit his folkis to follow ony forthir on the chace. 

Vodicia, provoket ilk day with mair injuris, past to Epiak, and 
brint the said town, with mony agit knichtis and wageouris of Ro- 
manis ; to that fine, scho micht revenge the injuris on the Romane 
garnisoun, quhilk scho micht nocht revenge on Petulius. Petulius, 
to punis thir offencis, send ane legioun of Romanis, and put Vodi- 
cia and hir army to flicht. Nochtheles, scho was finaly tane ; and 
accusit, quhy scho durst pretend sic thingis above the spreit of we- 
men. Scho answerit, scho was thair ennime, and wald have slane 
liir ennime ; and laikit na gud will, howbeit hu- power failyeit : and 
had na thing in mair hatrent than prosperite of Romanis, for the 
oret cruelteis done be thaim to hir and hir freindis. The Romanis, 
but more tary, slew hir. 

In the mene time, Petuhus was advertist, that the He of Wicht 
and Kent-schire was rebellit, and Marius chasit. Apperit thus, 
plane rebellioun of Britonis, les than the trubill war the mair hais- 
telie dantit. Thir novellis movit Petulius to returne in Britane; 
quhare he, vrith small deficulte, dantit the Britonis. The Romanis, 
that abaid in Brigance behind Petulius, war gevin mair to keip the 
landis afore conquest, than to persew the pepill with new conques. 
And, in the yeir following, Petulius deceissit. 


Cfiap^ Centfj. 

How Julius Frontinus was maid Capitane ofBritane. Of Ms mes- 
sage to PichUs ; and of thair ansxver. And how the said Julius 
invadit the Scottis with gret injuris. 

Fter the deith of Petulius, ane vailyeant knicht, namit 
Julius Frontinus, was send in Albion with two legionis, 
and was plesandly ressavit be Marius. Julius, efter his 

cumming in Britane, went throw all the Romane pro- 

vincis, and persuadit the Britonis, be mony reasonis, to persevere at 
the opinion of Romanis. 

Als sone as he had pecifyit thaim of al trubill, he began to be de- 
sirus of fame and glore, as his antecessouris war afore; and tuke 
purpois to subdew the last His of Albion to Romane empire : how- 
beit, thay wai- oft afore assailyeit, bot nevir vincust : and, to bring 
his purpos to effect, he left Marius behind him in Kent, to hald the 
Britonis under Romane lawis ; sine came in Brigance with ane oret 
army. Yit, in his passage, he did na injure nor trubill to^'the 
Pichtis ; for he belevit thaim, fra the Scottis war vincust, sone ouir- 
thrawin. Be cumming of Julius in this maner, was na litill effray 
amang the Scottis ; for that name was of gret renown and estima- 
tioun amang the Scottis. This Julius, at his cuming in Brigance, 
vesyit the munitionis quhare the Romane sodjouris lay, and ex- 
hortit thaim to perseveir in gud curage ; for, be thair manheid and 
vu:tew, it micht happin, the haill He of Albion to cum undu- the em- 
pire of Romanis. 

Sic thingis done, he send letteris to the Pichtis, desiring that thay 
and Romanis micht incres togidder undir ane freinschip and amite ; 
and sumtimes remembrit thaim, of the misery and trubill falling to 
thaim be the weris led afore aganis the Romanis : and to have na 
cumpany with Scottis, for he was commandit be the Empriour, outhir 
to distroy thaim al uterly, or eUis to thirll thaim to perpetuall servi- 

VOL. I. o 


tude. The Pichtis had thair desiris in gret suspitioun; and an- 
swerit, Thay had gret adnuration, be quhat motive the Romanis 
micht have ony just occasioun of battall aganis the Scottis : or quhat 
suld move thaim, nocht content of the empire of the warld, to seik 
the last IHs of the occiane sees, and to reif fra the Albianis thair 
native hberte ; les than thay, be insaciabill avarice, war set to reif 
fre reahnes but ony reason ; havand na feir, nor dredoure of the 
Goddis, to be punist for thair insufferabill iniquiteis. And, for thir 
causis, thay wald cum in battal aganis the Romanis, with al thair 
power, in support of thair confiderat freindis, for defence of thair 
realme and hberte ; for the same was nocht only proffitabill for thair 
commoun weil, bot thay war als bound thairto, be sic contract that 
micht na wayis be dissolvit. 

Julius, in contemption of this answer, was the mair fers and pro- 
perant aganis the Scottis ; and come in Kyle, Carrik, and Cuning- 
hame, quhais pepill war mair Strang than ony pepill that faucht 
afore aganis the Romanis. Galdus, astunist be this new ordinance 
of Romanis ; nocht with standing his hevy woundis gottin in this last 
battall, gaderit his folkis out of all boundis undir his dominioun, 
to defend his realme. Than followit continewall scarmussing with 
licht hors, but ony greit slauchter ; for Galdus, be noy of his woundis, 
set him erar to irk the Romanis be lang tary, than to invaide thaim 
be battall. Followit, be thir incursionis, mony sindry chancis of 
fortoun. Sumtime, the Romanis vincust; sumtime, victorius : quhiU, 
at last, the Scottis, be frequent slauchter of thair vailyeant capitanis, 
war attenuat, and brokin ; and Galdus, be noy of the woundis got- 
tin in this last battall, was sa wery, that he micht nocht do the office 
of ane forcy campion, bot was brocht on an hors-litter to Argyle. 

Within few dayis efter, the Romanis come in Carrik, Kyle, and 
Cuninghame, and slew in thousand Scottis ; and, the remanent, vin- 
cust and chasit. And, efter this victory, the Romanis returnit to 
thair tentis. 


How Julius Agricola was send in Britane. Of Ms frequent Victorijis 
maid on Scottis and Pichfis ; and how hesubdewit sindry of tliair 
Landis to Romane Empire. 

N the nixt winter, Julius Frontinus fell in gret infir- 
mite, be immoderat flux of catter, generit of Avak hu- 
mouris; becaus the air was nubilus and donk, throw 
continual schouris of rane and sleit, proceding be the 
hicht of montanis, and gret multitude of fludis and lochis abound- 
ing in this regioun. This iniirmite incressit ilk day more, be uncouth 
and intemperat cauld ; and micht be curit be na ingine, nor art of 
medcine. Domiciane, Empriour, advertist of his vehement dolovir, 
causit him to returne in Italy, to recovir his heil be new air and 
fude ; and send Julius Agricola, ane of the maist vailyeant capitanis 
that come afore his dayis in Britane, to succeid in his place. • 

The same time, the men of Annandale slew ane gret nowmer of 
Romanis on the bordouris of Brigance ; and, throw the samin vic- 
tory, persuadit the Pichtis and Brigandis, with the Silurianis, to 
rebell aganis the Romanis. Agricola, advertist of thir attemptatis, 
rasit his army, and come in Pentland, with mair diligence than ony 
man presumit ; and, efter that he had tane and garnist all the 
strenthis of thair cuntre with his wageouris, he come to Camelon, 
Caranach, King of Pichtis, advertist of his cuming, gaif him bat- 
tall ; nochtheles, he was finaly discomfist, with all his army. Efter 
this discomfitoure, Caranach fled to Fiffe ; quhilk is ane plenteous 
regioun, hand betwix two firthis, Tay and Forth, full of woddis, 
lesuris, and valis, to the gret profFet baith of corne and bestial. In 
it ar mony louchis, full of sindry fische. This regioun is now bair 
of woddis ; for the thevis war sumtime sa frequent in the samin, 
that thay micht na way be dantit, quhill the woddis war bet down. 
Agricola, efter this, past with his victorius army in Annandale. 
The inhabitantis thairof, knaAving his cuming, met him in thair 


scharpest maner ; nochtheles, thay war finaly chasit, and slane. The 
remanent of thaini, that eschapit, war all slane be thair wiffis, the 
first nicht thay come hame. Agricola, proude of this victory, past 
to the He of Man, quhilk rebellit, mony yeris afore, aganis Romanis ; 
and tuke it with litill laubour. Quhen he had stuffit the munitionis 
thairof with Roman sodjouris, he returnit in Brigance, levand his 
army in the winter schelis. The nixt simer, he come throw Bri- 
gance, Carrik, Kyle, and Cuningham; quhais passage maid the 
pepill sa astonist, that thay left thair townis desert, and fled to the 

In the simer followinge, he brocht sindry nobill men of Albioun 
afore him, and exhortit thaim to polecy and civill maneris ; that 
thay micht have templis and biggingis on the Romane fassion ; and 
to put thair sonnis to Avise preceptouris, that, efter the end of Ro- 
mane weris, thay micht rise in virtew, eloquence, and gud havingis. 
Thus past Agricola the winter seasoun, instruckand the princes of 
Albion with sic thingis as apperit for thair commoun Aveill. 

The thrid yeir efter, he come to Striveling ; quhilk was callit, in 
thay dayis, the Dolorus Montane : for the inhabitantis thairof hard, 
sindry times, ane dolorus and lamentabil crying, quhilk come be il- 
lusioun of wickit spreitis, dessaving the pepill with vane supersti- 
tioun. Quhen Agricola saw the castell of Striveling set on sa Strang 
place, he reparit and biggit it with sa crafty and sumptuus lauboure, 
that it apperit unwinnabill : and, nocht lang efter, he biggit ane 
brig ouir Forth, and transportit aD his army be the same. On the 
morrow, he laid a sege to the castell of Montbennart, traisting to 
liave found the King of Pichtis in it : bot the Pichtis war so asto- 
nist be the cuming of the Romanis, that thay left the castell, and 
come with gret dihgence, under nicht, to cast down the brig of Stri- 
veling, laitly biggit be Romanis ; that the said Romanis micht be in- 
clusit betwix Tay and Forth, but ony refuge. Agricola, weill ad- 
vertist thairof, returnit fra the sege of Montbennart ; and followit 
with sic diligence on the Pichtis, that thay war constranit to geif 
battall. Nochtheles, thay war finaly vincust; and thair king, Ca- 
ranach, chasit to the watter of Tay, quhare he gat ane bait, and es- 
chapit. The remanent Pichtis, for feir of this victory, war randerit, 
with all thair munitionis and strenthis. Than Agricola past throw 


all boundis of Fiffe, Fothrik, and Erne ; sumtimes biggand, and 
sumtimes castand down, the strenthis of the cuntre, quhare he plesit. 

How the King of Pkhtis send his Ambassatouris to Scottis, desiring 
support aganis the Romanis. Hoxa Agricola invadit the Scottis, 
baith be see and land. How the King of Pichtis was slane^ be se- 
dition of his Army. 

Aranach, King of Pichtis, brokin be this last discom- 
fiture, fled to Dunde : quhare sumtime was ane strano- 
castell ; hot it wes cassin down in the time of King Ro- 
ife'I'M'S'^ I ])ert Brus, becaus it micht not be keipit fra Inglismen, 
as we sal efter schaw. The Pichtis convenit to the said castell, and 
exhortit Caranach, thair king, to have na disperation, hoAvbeit his 
pepill war brocht to gret afflictioun and trubill ; for gret nowmer of 
thaim was yit on hve, baith unbrokin with weris, and sufficient, gif 
the Goddis war propiciant, to ding the Romanis out of Albion. For 
it micht happin, that the Romanis, prowd and insolent efter sa mony 
hie victoryis, may fal, quhen thay beleif leist, in sic invy to Fortoun, 
to be vincust be the pepil quhom thay held of vilest reputatioun : 
for this instabill Goddes turnis, with suddand quhirle, the gover- 
nance of mortall creaturis, Scho hes rasit mony othir realmes with 
gret feliciteis, afore the Romanis had dominioun ; and brocht thaim, 
quhen thay war in thair hie and soverane honouris, to finall re wine. 
It is nocht, thairfore, to be supponit, that the empire of Romanis, 
sen it began with mortal pissance, sail perpetually indure ; hot ne- 
cessar sum time to have rewine. Thocht thir and sic persuasionis of 
Pichtis war apprisit be thair king, yit nane of thaim micht rais his 
spreit and curage to ony gude esperance aganis Romanis ; bot traist- 
ing thair majeste and pissance sa montit above the hicht of naturale 
chance, that na pepill may resist thairto. 


Eftir lang consultatioun, it wes concludit, to send ambassatouris 
to Galdus, to have support aganis the extreme dangeir apperand to 
baith thair realmes, according to the band sa mony yeris continewit 
betwix Scottis and Pichtis. Galdus giaidhe condiscendit to thair 
peticionis : for he had na les indignatioun aganis the Romanis, for 
thair wrangus conques maid be thaim on the Pichtis, than on Scottis ; 
and thairfore determit, erar to haisart his realme to extreme jeo- 
perde of armis, than to leif ilk day in ithand displesour, and, fina- 
lie, be subdewit to servitude. 

Quhil the confiderat kingis wer gevin in this sort to resist thair 
ennimes, the Silurianis, be plane rebellioun, slew all Romanis, 
quhare thay micht be apprehendit: and not onlie recoverit thair 
munitionis, bot brint all thair cornis and vittallis, except sa mekill 
as micht be caryit with thaim; to that fine, that na thing thairof 
suld remane to the profFet of thair ennimes. 

Agricola, weill advertist of thir motionis, come so haistelie on the 
Silurianis, that he dantit and punist thanie in maist rigorus wise. 
Nocht lang eftir, he wes advertist, that his ennimes wer gaderit in 
gret buschementis, uncertane to quhat effect, aganis the Romanis. 
Incontinent, he followit thaim with gret violence, and chasit thaim 
ouir Clyde. This riveir is dividit, ane litill space, fra the riveir of 
Levin, quhair thay fal baith, nocht far fra othir, in the Ireland seis. 
And, nocht far fra the said riveir of Levin, is ane castell, more Strang 
be strenth of ane crag than ony artificiall laubour, namit, be the 
pepil, Auld Cleuch ; bot now callit Dunbriton, that is to say, the 
Castel of Britonis. Alvvayes, it wes so stuffet with men and vittallis, 
that it micht na waye be tane. 

Agricola, occupyit with thir and siclik besines, ouir-past the fourt 
winter : and, in the spring of the nixt yeir, he causit the Romane 
navy, quhilk abaid, with his ordinance, in the He of Wicht, to cum 
to Lochfine, beside Argyle ; that his ennimes micht understand, na 
landis nor seis fre fra Romane dominioun. And, quhen he had 
brocht his army ouir Clyde, he fand thair the men of Lenax, ane 
pepill unknawin afore to Romanis ; and tuke purpos to subdew thaim 
to Romane empire. In the mene time, 'he gat writingis, that the 
Pichtis wer rebellit ; and, becaus he dred gret truble to rise, bot gif 


the samin wer the more haistehe dantit, he left his first purpos, and 
come in Pentland with ane legion of Ronianis, and dantit the Pichtis. 
The nixt simer, he began to serche all the havinis and portis of 
Argyle and othir His thairabout, with his schippis ; and come land- 
gait ouir the riveir of Levin, to tak the munitionis and strenthis of 
the cuntre. The Romanis wer first irkit with scharpe and difficill 
passage, full of breris and thornis, to thair gret impediment ; bot, 
quhen thay considerit the virtew and manheid of thair anciant fa- 
deris, na thing apperit difficill to thaim : and sa, with curage ay 
more incressing, thay dantit na le& the difficill passage of the cuntre, 
tlian the pepill thairof ; and, finahe, returnit, with huge pray of men 
and guddis, to thair tentis. 

Sic thingis done, Galdus maid ane conventioun, in Athole, of all 
pepil under his empire : abiding the cumming of the King of Pichtis ; 
to that fine, that baith thair armyis beand junit togidder, thay micht 
the more esalie resist the Romanis. Now war the Pichtis cumand 
ouir the montanis of Granyebane, quhilkis rinnis fra the fut of De 
to the castell of Dunbritone, and wer nocht five mills fra the army 
of Scottis, quhen thay, be unhappy chance, wer devidit in two fac- 
tionis, and faucht amang thaimself, to the gret murdir of baith the 
partis, for ane vane cause. The King of Pichtis, seing this lamen- 
tabil cais, ran feirslie, but his coit armour, amang the preis, quhair 
thay wer maist keinly fechtand, to have put thaim sindry ; and wes 
slane thair, unknawing quhat he wes. The residew of Pichtis, 
quhilkis war left on live fra this unhappy bargane, knawing the 
slauchter of thair king, skaht, and returnit hame. 




How Galdus pecifyit all seditioun amang the Pichtis. And how he 
Jaucht aganls the Romanis, and was discomfist. 

Aldus heirand the deith of his tender freind, the King 
of Pichtis, become richt sorowfuU; for it constranit 
him to superseid his army aganis the Romanis. Noch- 
theles, he calht his nobiUis to ane counseal : quhare he 
schorthe, detestand the inopertune seditioun rising amang the Pichtis, 
prayit thaim to ripely avise, how his realme micht be defendit in sa 
hie dangeir thairto approching. Eftir divers opinionis, it wes decretit 
to resist the Romanis, erar be frequent incursionis than set battall, 
fra ony forthir conques. Attour, prudent men sal pas to the Pichtis, 
to peacifie thaim of al seditionis ; and ambassatouris sail pas in Ire- 
land, Norway, and Denmark, to seik support aganis the Romanis. 

Be this counsall, ambassatoris wer send to the Pichtis ; and schew, 
that sic dammage and cruelteis procedis of civil weris, that na 
realmes may stand in sicker firmance quhare the same induris. Fi- 
nalie, the Pichtis wer aggreit amang thameself of al debatis ; and 
Garnardus maid king in place of Caranach afore deceissit. The 
Pichtis, as wes devisit, send thair ambassatouris in Norway and 
Denmark, to the effect aforesaid. 

Quhil sic thingis wer done be Pichtis, Galdus assemblit ane army 
fra all boundis of his realme, and dividit the same in divers busche- 
mentis ; be quhais wisdome and ithand jeoperdis, the Romanis wer 
stoppit, all the simer following, fra ony forthir conques on the 
Scottis. The winter following wes sa tempestuous, that na weris 
micht be sustenit. And, in the nixt simmer, quhilk wes the vii yere 
of the weris maid be Agricola, come ane gret cumpany of Ireland 
men to Galdus and Garnardus, at Athole, quhair thay wer present 
for the time, with al the nobillis of baith thair realmes. On the 
tothir side, Agricola, knawing weill the ordinance of Scottis and 
Pichtis, dividit his army in thre battallis, abiding thair cumming. 


Galdus, Weill advertist in quhat sort Agricola purposit to invade 
him, changit haistely his purpos ; and come, within the nicht, on 
ane Strang legion of Romanis, quhilkis wes not far fra his army. 
Now had the Scottis slane the wache of this legioun, and fechtand 
fershe within thair tentis, quhen suddanUe Agricola, weill convoyit 
be his exploratouris, come with Strang buschementis, baith of futmen 
and horsmen on thair bakkis. Nochtheles, the battal wes fochtin 
with gret crueltie and slauchter on aU sidis ; quhiU the Romane 
baneris, schining in the cleir morrow, schew Agricola, with al his 
army, arrayit fornens thaira in battall. Incontinent, the confiderat 
pepill gaif bakkis ; and fled, throw desertis and mossis, to thair best 

Horc sindry Almanis and Danis come in support of Scottis and 
Pichtis. Hew the Romane Navy perist in Pentland Firth. 

E this unhappy battall, the confiderat kingis wer so 
brokin, that thay defendit thaimself, thair bestiall, and 
guddis, al the simer following, mair be frequent in- 
, cursions, than ony set battall ; abiding the cuming of 

Danis and Norowanis to thair support. Bot the Romanis, ilk day 
more feirs and insolent, be frequent victoryis, and traisting na thing 
possibil to resist thair soverane virtew ; come throw the wod of Cali- 
don, with purpos to serche aU the last boundis of Albioun : and be- 
caus thay wer stoppit be strait ground thairof, thay come ouir the 
watter of Awmond, and set down thair tentis nocht far fra Dun- 
keld, quhair Tay rinnis deip, with few furdis, in the Almane seis. 
This reveir, beside Dunde, is two milis braid, deviding FifFe fra 
Angus. The Pichtis, effrayit be cumming of Romanis sa far within 
thair landis, brint ane riche town, namit Inchecuthill, quilk stude 
apon the riveir of Tay, that the samin suld be na refuge to thair 
ennimes ; and fled with thair wiffis, children, and guddis, to the 

VOL, I. T 


montanis of Grandyeben. The samin time, arrivit in Forth, ane cum- 
pany of Almanis, namit Usipianis, banist out of thair native landis, 
for slauchter of ane Romane capitane and othir pepill undir his 
band ; and becaus thay bure extreme hatrent aganis Romanis, thay 
vver plesandlie ressavit, and ordanit to have certan landis to thair 
habitatioun, beside the Murrayis, for thay wer baith of a blude. 
And nocht lang eftir, arrivit in the firth of Tay, ane vailyeant ca- 
pitane, namit Gildo, with x.ji Danis, to support the Scottis and 
Pichtis. Thir Danis wer the more plesandhe ressavit be Garnar- 
dus. King of Pichtis, that his common weil wes approcheand to hie 
dangeir. Galdus, richt glaid, and rejosing of the cumming of Gil- 
do, come to Dunde, to gif thankis to him and the remanent folkis 
that come to support thair fi-eindis ; and eftir maist hertlie embra- 
sing, Galdus said in this wise : "I have na litil caus of joy, maist 
" vailyeant Gildo, seing the, with sa mony fair and lusty personis, 
'' cumin but truble in Albioun, for defence of Pichtis, thy anciant 
" linage, and us, thair confiderat brethir, standing now in sic ex- 
" treme dangeir andperell. We abaid mony dayis your cuming ; and 
" now we ar mair rejosit thairof than may be schawin at this time, 
" and randeris to the and thy pepil infinite thankis thairfore ; for, 
" be thy cuming, sic esperance is rasit in our curage, that we beleif, 
" be your support, to \ancus our ennimes, and banis thame furth 
" of our rowmes. For quhen I behald the and thir thy vailyeant 
" pepil, apperis sikker victory present in my handis." To this an- 
swerit Gildo, he was cumin to fecht for defence of his tender freindis, 
aganis the Romanis, and perseveir in thair opinioun to his end ; of 
quhilk thay suld have sone experience. 

Within ane schort time efter, the confiderate kingis, with Capi- 
tane Gildo, went to Forfair ; in quhilk sumtime was ane Strang cas- 
tel, within ane loch, quhare sindry kingis of Scottis maid residence, 
efter the prescription of the Pichtis, thocht it is now bot ane popil 
town. Efter thair cuming to Forfair, thay tuk lang consultation, 
be quhat ingine the Romanis micht be resistit. At last it was con- 
cludit to ceis quhil the winter season ouirpast, to eschew the vehe- 
ment stormes quhilkis haboundis in this region ; and to maik thair 
ordinance aganis the nixt simer : als ordanit ane band of chosin men 
to be vigilant in sindry partis, to stop vittallis cuming to Romanis, 


and that none of thame sal ische to invade the cuntre ; and to stop 
that na brig war maid ouir Tay, that the Romanis cum not, be the 
samin, within thair landis. 

In the simer following, Agricola returnit to his navy, lyand that 
tune on the Ireland sees, and commandit thame to pas about all the 
boundis of Albion, to that fine, that na part thairof suld be un- 
knawin to Romanis in his time. The marinaris, as he commandit, 
pullit up salis, and brocht the Romane navy about the outmaist 
boundis of Albion ; be quhilk viage thay saw al the His thairof, with 
Orknay, Sky, and Lewis. Bot quhen thay war cuming nere Pent- 
land Firth, quhilk devidis Caithanes fra Orknay, thay war advertist 
of the dangerus flude rinnand, thair, with sa quhii'Uand and contra- 
rius tide, that na schippis may pas the samin but extreme dangeir ; 
nochtheles, thay conducit certane fischaris, quhilkis had perfite cog- 
noscence of the said parellis, and promittit large proffet, togide thame 
throw the said dangeir. The fischaris and othir landwart pepil 
quhom thay conducit to the effect aforesaid, traisting na way to re- 
venge thair deith bettir than to cans sa mony vailyeant weirmen and 
crafty marinaris de with thaim at anis, led the Romanis quhare maist 
dangeir occurrit. Thus wes ane pert of the Romane navy drevin, 
be violent streme, on craggis, and brokin : and otheris kest thair an- 
keris, to eschew the craggis ; nochtheles, be stormy wallis, thay firit 
thau- takillis, and sank down in the middis of the see. Ane certane 
of thame come to land on burdis and tabillis ; nochtheles, thay war 
all tane, or ellis slane be the inliabitantis of the cuntre. The rema- 
nent navy of Romanis seing this calamite fall to thair fallo^vds, abaid 
abak; and returnit, but ony perell, the same way thay come. 





Cfjap* JFtfteentS. 

How Agricola hrocht his Army ouir Tay. How Galdus come in de- 
fence of the Pichtis 'with xl.m Scottis ; and of his Orison maid to 
exliort his Army to Battal. 

Gricola, na thing knowing the calamite falUng to his 
navy, beildit ane brig of tre ouir Tay, and transportit 
his army be the samin, nocht far fra the fute of Granye- 
ben ; sine left behind him mony gret buschementis of 
weirmeii, to keip the said brig unbet down be gile or violence of en- 
nimes. The Pichtis, richt affrayit of his curaing, send thair ambas- 
satouris to Galdus, to schaw him the dangeir appering to baith thair 
realmis, and desirit him to cum with al his power. 

Galdus gaderit, afore thair cuming, xl.m chosin men, out of all 
boundis within his realme, al of ane mind to de at anis, or ellis to 
recovir thair liberie be extreme jeoperde of armis ; and, finaly, he 
brocht the said army, with na litil labour, ouir the montanis of 
Granyeben, quhare he met the remanent army of Pichtis and Danis 
abiding his cuming. Efter lang consultationis, Galdus, becaus the 
charge of battal was gevin to him, said in this maner : " Als oft as I 
" beliald the caus of battal, and our necessite, vailyeant campionis, 
" my spreit risis ; traisting this day, be your consentis, sal be the 
*' beginning of liberte to al Britane. We ar yit fre of servitude ; 
*' and thair is na land nor see beyond us sickir in timis cuming, for 
" feir and minassing of Romane navy. The preis of armis and che- 
" vaJry ar na les refuge to febill creaturis, than honour to vailyeant 
" campionis. The battallis afore past, quhare sindry chancis of 
" fortoun hes occurrit, Avar ay led be our manheid and prudence ; 
" and we, as maist vailyeant pepil of Albion, dwelling within the 
" bosum ihairof, hes kepit us evir unthirllit to Romane dominion, 
" be strait ground, and remote situation of us in the outmaist partis 
" of the warld. Now ar the Romanis cumin to the last boundis of 
*' Albion, traisting to schaw thair magnificence in na thing mair than 


" in subdewing of unknawin and outmaist regionis to thaii* empire. 
" Beyond us ar na pepil nor refuge, bot only desert roukis, and 
" streme of sees ; and within us ar our ennimes, garnist in our mu- 
" nitionis, quhais proud tyrannyis can not be eschewit be meiknes 
" or service. The Romanis, revaris of the Avarld, now quhen na 
" tiling restis unspulyeit be thame, serchis baith erd and sees. Gif 
" the ennime of Romanis be riche, thay ar avaricius ; gif thair en- 
" nime be pure, yeit thay ar ambitius, and desiris glore in thair sub- 
*' dewing. Nothir may the est nor the west pertis of the warld sa- 
" ciat thame. Thay ar the only pepil of the warld that regardis po- 
" verte and riches be equal affection. Thay stele, thay sla, and 
" reiffis kingdomis be injust conques; thay ar nevir in peas, bot 
" quhen thay ar solitar. The children, quhilkis nature lies ordanit 
" maist deir to thair parentis, ar drawin be Roiiiane army to servi- 
" tude : our wiffis, virginis, and matronis, quhilkis detestit thair un- 
" bridillit lust, ar deflorit, outliir be fenyeit amite or feid. The frutis, 
" quhilkis nature lies producit of our ground, ar expendit be thaim 
" in maner of tribute. Our handis worne with thair surfet laubour. 
" We ar injurit nocht onely with unplesand wordis, bot maist vio- 
" lently strikin in our bodyis. Quhairthrow we ar mair thu'llit than 
" ony brutall beistis to lauboure : for sic beistis quhilkis bene borne 
" to servitude, ar coft and nurist be the biar ; bot we ilk day byis 
" and fedis our awin servitude : and, as new servandis ar in deri- 
" sioun amang the quent servitouris, sa we, as vile and last pepill of 
" the warld in thair siclit, ar daily invadit to the deith. Now restis 
" na kind of lauboure, service, nor punition, to saif us fra thair ty- 
" ranny ; for all pepil ar the mair suspect to Romanis, the mair fe- 
" rocite and manlieid be knawin with thame. Thairfore, maist vail- 
" yeant campionis, sen hope is nane to have the Romane benivolence, 
" spreit yow with curage, and have mair respecte to your eternal 
" glore, than to youre fragill livis : for gif Voditia, the vailyeant 
" lady, micht birn ane towne, quhen it was strangest with Romane 
" sodjouris, and dehver the Brigandis perpetually of servitude, gif 
" fortoun had bene propiciant ; it is nocht to be traistit bot we, 
" quhilkis ar mair vailyeant, sal recover our liberte at our first 
" meting. And traist nocht bot Romanis may be vincust. Quhat 
" nowmer of thame bene laitly slane in the wod of Calidon ! Be- 


leve ye, that the virtew of Romanis be als gret in time of battal 
as thair lust is in time of peace. Thay conques honour be our 
civil weiris and dissension : thay turne the vices of thair ennimes 
to the glore of thair army ; quhilkis is gaderit of divers pepill un- 
der divers mindis, and sail, thairfore, skaill als fast sindry, quhen 
adversite occurris, as thay assemblit togidder now in thair maist 
prosperite. Traist ye, that Franchemen, Almanis, and Britonis, 
quhilkis ar ane gret part of thair army, sal have ony othir aiFec- 
tion or faith to thair ennimes, bot invade thaim quhen thay se oc- 
casioun. Traist na thing other, bot dreid and terrour ar sa un- 
sicker bandis of luf, that quhen the same ar removit and put 
aside, extreme hatrent sproutis in thair place. Mony persuasionis 
apperis in us, to have victory : for the Romanis hes nocht thair 
wiffis present, to exhort thaim to curage ; nor yit thair agit faderis, 
to reproche thame of fleing. Few of thame hes ony certane cuntre 
or habitation, les than it be reft ; thairfore, the Goddes, in puni- 
tioun of thair iniquiteis, hes laitly randerit ane certane of thame 
vagabound and vincust in oure handis. Be not astonist, I pray 
yow, for this vane visage and schining of gold and silver ; quhilk 
may nocht defend nor wound yow. Lat us find our handis in the 
bront of ennimes. The Britonis sal knaw thair cans of battall ; 
the Gallis sail remember thair anciant liberie ; al pepil of uncouth 
nation sal leif thame at thair first juning. Na occasioun remanis 
of dredour. Our castellis ar left be thaime wast ; the townis quhare 
thair agit capitanis d^velt, betwix evill obeisance and injust em- 
pire, ar brocht to servitud. Heir ar your capitane and army, to 
win glore and riches : yondir ar your ennimes, to put yow to sur- 
fet tribute, or ellis to condampne yow to winning of mettellis, or 
sum othir kind of punition ; the quhilkis sal be perpetuall to yow 
and your posterite, les than the samin be recoverit in this battal. 
Quhen ye, thairfore, ar to pas fortwart, remember baith your el- 
daris past afore, and your posterite and successouris to cum,"'"' 




Of the Orison maid be Agricola to his Army ; and of the huge vic- 
tory falling to Romanis be discomjitour of Scottis. 

Fter this orison of Galdus, followit, in the army, gret 
noyis and clamoure, be desire of battal. On the tothir 
side, thocht Agricola beheld his army richt impatient 
of lang tary, yit he said to thame as followis : " Now is 
" the VIII yeir, gud companyeonis, sen ye, be fehcite of Romane 
" majeste, with trew and faithfidl laubouris, hes conquest Annan- 
" dale, the He of Man, Carrik, Kyle, and Cuninghame, Avith mony 
" othir regionis, quhilkis was nevir subdewit nor knawdn afore to 
" Romane empire. Ye have sustenit na les fortitude aganis your 
" fais, than pacience and laubour almaist aganis nature. Ye have 
" na caus to be penitent of me your capitane, nor I to be penitent 
" of yow, my gud men of armis. Ye have subdewit may boundis 
" of Albion than ony army is did afore; and I have won mair ho- 
" nour than ony othir capitane did afore me. We have not socht 
" the last boundis of Albion be rehers and fame of otheris, bot per- 
" sit the samin be Strang army and camp. Quhen ye, my gud com- 
" panyeonis, war oftimes wery, ouirpassing the difficill montanis, 
" mossis, and fluddis of this regioun, I had gret compassion, and 
" knew every ane of you be your voce, criand, ' Quhen sal our en- 
" nimes haif curage ? quhen sail thay meit us T Now thay ar cum- 
" and furth of thair dennis, quhare thay war hid. Now may your 
" manheid and virtew be sene. Every thing sal be plesand to thaim 
" that ar victorius, and unplesand to thaim that ar vincust. And, 
" as na litil honour apperis to us quhilkis hes ouirset sa mony strait 
" montanis, woddis, fludis, and dangerus firthis of this region ; sa 
" sail it be ane vassalage of soveraine honour, howbeit it be dange- 
" rus, to withstand fersly oure ennimes, and put thaim to flicht. 
" And, thocht mony placis of this cuntre be unknawin to us, and 
" hes na gret plenty of vittallis, yit we laik na manheid nor curage. 


" in quhilk lyis the haill frute and glore of armes. Forthir, sa far 
" as pertenis to me, I think, nothir is the capitane nor the army 
" siker that gevis thair backis to ennimes ; thairfore, honest deith 
" is better than schamefull lif ; and hele and honour ar situat baith 
" in ane place. Forthir, it war na gret schame to our honoure, how- 
" beit we war defait lieir in the last and outmaist partis of tlie warld. 
" Gif ye war now to be assailyet be uncouth and strange ennimes, 
" I suld exhort yow to fecht, be vassalage of othir vailyeant pepill. 
*' Now have e to your honovire, and knaw, that tliir pepil that 
" standis with face arrayit aganis yoAV, ar nocht bot the refuse of 
" thay febil cativis quhilkis war discomfist laitly within the nicht 
" be your onely noyis and clamoure. Thay ar the maist febill bo- 
" dyis amang all the Britonis ; and remanis, for that caus, sa lang 
" on lif. And as maist forsy and Strang bestis, be thair awin jeo- 
" perdyis, ar oft slane ; and as maist cowart and febill bestis saiffis 
*' thaimself for dangeir, and fleis quhen thay heir the sound of ony 
" cumpanies : sa, all the vailyeant Britonis ar slane, and nane of thaim 
" ar now on lif, saif thay onely that be cowart flicht lies debaitit 
" thair miserabil livis, and wald pretend na resistance, war not 
" thay ar now taue but refuge : quharthrow ye may haif honest 
" victory. Pas, gud companyeonis, throw your ennimes, and finis 
" the LI yeris weir Avith this solempne day ; that it may be put in 
" kalender, as end of all your weris. Do sa, that nothir your lang 
" tary, nor rebellioun of ennimes, may be impute to youre necli- 
" gence." 

Skarsly was this orison endit, quhen baith the armyis, be birnand 
desire of battall, junit. Agricola arrayit his folkis in sic crafty or- 
dour, howbeit thay wer of les nowmer than thair ennimes, that thay 
sail nocht be assailyeit nothir on ane side nor othir. Galdus, with 
na les providence, arrayit the formest part of his army on ane hie 
mote, to discomfis the wingis of the Romane army ; and exhortit 
thaim, with scbill voce, to perseveir in ithand bergane, and outhir 
to conques immortall glore, or perpetual servitude ; for that was thair 
last day, in quhilk thay micht win outhir honour or schame. The 
first battall was fochtin on dreich : for the Albanis, Danis, and No- 
rowanis, schot ane huge nowmer of arrowis and ganyeis at thair first 
centering ; nochtheles, the Romanis eschewit the samin with thair 


targis. The bowmen, efter flicht of arrowis, faucht with swerdis 
and litil buklaris, as we do yit in our days, mair semand for nicht- 
boure weir, than ony defence of realmis ; throw quhilk oure pepill 
hes gret dammage, quhen thay meit with ennimes of uncouth reahnes. 
The battal of speris, quhilkis stude nixt the bowmen, in the brount 
with Galdus, ruschit furthwart at anis, and bure mony of thair en- 
nimes, with mony bludy woundis, on thair backis. FoUowit the bilhs, 
axis, lang swerdis, and ledin mellis, with sic slauchter, that the Ro- 
manis had bene all utterly discomfist, wer nocht ane band of Al- 
manis, quhilkis war send laitly in Britane, come the more haistely 
to thair support. Attour, this Agricola was sa circumspect, that he 
stuffit his army with thir Almanis in al partis quhare he saw ony 
danger occurring. The Albianis seing thaimself, heir and thair, sa 
cruelly ouirset, war astonist ; nochtheles, seing na refuge hot in thair 
handis, thay ruschit al togidder in ane knot, but ony feir of deith or 
woundis, with deliverit mind, to fecht for thair realme and liberte to 
the deith. Followit, ane sorowfuU battall ; for the confiderat pe- 
pill facht mair be force than craft of chevalry. Mony of thaim, 
sloppit throw the body, fel downe above thair slaaris ; otheris offer- 
it thaimself wilfully to be slane ; otheris, efter thay had eschapit 
thair ennimes, slew thaimself. The place quhare thay faucht was 
bludy ; all ouercoverit with leggis, armis, and wappinnis, skatterit 
throw al boundis thairof. Baith the armyis faucht with perseve- 
rand hatrent, quhill the nicht constranit thaim to sever. 

The confiderat pepil and thair freindis quhilkis war left on Hve 
efter this unhappy battall, fled to the nixt montanis, quhare thay 
biggit firis to ouirpas the nicht. Than come to thaim gret con- 
fluence of men and wemen, seikand thair freindis with mony sorow- 
fuU sichis, murning, and teris. Incontinent Galdus, that thir do- 
lorus spraichis and cryis sail nocht be patent to his ennimes, com- 
mandit all his army to schout Avith schil nois and sang, quhill the 
wemen war expeUit fra his camp. The confiderat kingis seing, on 
the morow, thair power sa brokin that thay micht nocht renew bat- 
tall, commandit thair folkis to returne hame ; and left behind thaim 
ane huge fire, bu-nand with bald and vehement flammes, on the said 
montanis, to the hevin, that thair ennimes micht have na presump- 
tioun of thair departing. 

VOL. I. u 


In this unhappy battall war slane xii thousand Romanis, and xx 
thousand Scottis and Pichtis, with mony othir pepill that come to 
thair support. Gildo, the vailyeant capitane of Danis, ruschand 
ouir feirsly on his ennimes, was slane on the samin maner with the 
maist part of his cumpany. 

How Agricola reparit Ms navy, to pas about the His ofAlbioun, 
and brinf sindry scMppis of Danis. Of uncouth Mervellis sene 
in Albioun. And of the deith of Agricola. 

He day following this unhappy nicht, maid the discom- 
fiture of Scottis patent to thair ennimes : for thair camp 
was void, and plenist with nocht hot deid bodyis ; but 
. ony quhispering on the montanis, qvihare maist gild was 
hard afore. The Romanis, traisting thir tithingis proceding be slicht, 
inhibit ony forthb chace to be. Otheris, proud, efter thir feliciteis, 
commandit vailyeant and chosin men to serche all the woddis and 
strenthis, to espy gif ony hid waching of enimes war within the 
samin. Ane certane of Romanis following this last counsal, followit 
sa unwarly, that thay war all slane. 

On the morrow, Agricola, seand his army sa brokin that he micht 
nothir renew the samin, nor yit pas ouir the montanis of Granyebene 
but extreme dangeir, past, with his victorius army, in Angus ; quhare 
he abaid al the nixt Avinter. And, in the mene time, he was adver- 
tist, how the maist part of his navy was lost ; and the residew thair- 
of, brokin with gret calamite, arrivit in Argyle. Agricola movit 
nocht his contenance for thir novellis; for he fermely belevit his 
army, for this smale calamite, deliverit of all othir trubill that was 
appering thairto, be invy of Fortoun, efter sa lang prosperite and vic- 
toryis. Incontinent, he reparit his schippis, with new marineris, and 
otheris quhilk had sicker experience of al dangeris and firthis in 
the occiane sees ; and commandit thaim, as he war to fecht aganis 
all chance of fortoun, to pas the samin way, thay yeid afore, about 


the His of Albion. This navy, be prosper windis, arrivit finaly in 
the mouth of Tay, and brint the flot of Danis, quhilk lay in the 
said firth all the winter afore. 

Sindry mervellis war sene in Albion, afore this last battal that 
Galdus faucht with Romanis. Mony birnand speris war sene fleand 
in the air. Ane gret part of the wod of Calidon apperit birnand all 
nicht; howbeit na thing apperit thairof in the day. Ane flot of 
schippis was sene in the aire. Ane schoure of stanis was in Athole ; 
sicHke, in Angus, ranit paddokis. Ane monstoure was borne in 
Inchecuthill, with doubill membris of men and wemen, with sa ab- 
hominabill figure, that it was discroyit be the pepill. Thir uncouth 
and wonderfull mervelhs maid the pepill astonist : for thay war in- 
terpret to sindry facis ; sumtimes to the gud, sumtimes to the evill. 

The Empriour Domiciane, heirand thir hie and vailyeant dedis 
of Agricola, was richt sorowfull in his mind, havand na litil indig- 
natioun, that the fame of ane private man suld obscure his imperiall 
estait ; and, thairfore, send haisty Avrittingis to him to returne, al 
excusatioun ceissing, to Rome, to ressave the governance of ane new 
province, namit Syria, vacand be deceis of Actilius Ruffus, last le- 
gal thairof. 

Agricola, sone efter his cuming to Rome, was poisonit be invy of 
the said Domiciane, Empriour. 

Hoiv Tribellius icas send in Britane. How the Romanis Jell in gret 
divisioun amang thaimself. And of the huge victory gottin on 
thaim he Galdus. 

Fter the deith of Agricola, Gneus TribeUius, was 
maid capitane of Britane, and fand the Romanis in 
gret felicite. How^beit the samin schort time indurit ; 
for ane gret contention rais betwix this new capitane, 
Tribellius, and ane othir capitane, namit TribeUianus, quhilk of 
thame suld have maist auctorite above the army. The first was au- 

fflf K¥S1 





torist be the army, for he was cosing to Agricola ; the secund was 
autorist be the Empriour. Efter lang contentioun, Tribelhanus de- 
partit with ane nowmer of chosin men in France. 

Galdus, knawing weil this seditioun amang the Romanis, come, 
with ane army of Scottis and Pichtis, in Angus, quhair this new 
capitane, Tribelhus, wes, with the residew of Romanis, for the 
time. Trebellius, astonist be his suddane cumming, tocht al thing 
wes to be done than erar be manheid and gud werkis, than be ony 
consultation; and, nochtwithstanding that his army bure hatrent 
aganis him, he went forth ward with displayit baner. At last, the 
army seand him nocht do the chargis of ane vailyeant capitane, dis- 
chargit him of auctorite ; and chesit Sisinnius, quhilk wes brodir to 
Trebellianus afore rehersit, to governe thaim in that maist dangerus 
aventure. Sisinnius refuslt this charge, and said, gif he ressavit 
auctorite in sic extreme dangeir, it suld be occasioun of gret divi- 
sioun and truble A\'ithin the army. 

Quhill the Romanis wer at sic debait^ Galdus come, with arrayit 
hoist, in sicht. The Romanis, be suddane cuming of Galdus, micht 
nocht array thaim in thair best avise ; nottheles, baith the armyis 
junit, with birnand desire on ilk side. The confiderat pepill faucht 
vnth perseverand manheid : quhill, at the last, Sisinnius, woundit to 
the deith, fled out of the feild, and mony othir Romanis with him. 
Incontinent, all the army of Romanis gaif bakkis, and fled to the 
nixt wod: on quhom followit the Scottis and thair confiderat 
freindis, with ithand slauchter; quhill, at last, Galdus, dredand 
sum dano-eir to fall be thair continewal feirsnes, callit thame, be 
sound of trumpat, to his standart. Nocht theles, thay wer sa far en- 
rao-it with hatrent aganis the Romanis, thay couth nocht be brocht 
thairfra, quhil the nicht bereft thaim the licht. 

The confiderat pepill passit the nicht following with gret joy, and 
blithnes of dansing, singing, and playing ; siclike as wes usit in thay 
dayis. On the morrow, the preistis come with processioun, in thair 
maist reverend habitis, and gaif thankis to the Goddis ; quhilkis, 
eftir mony calamiteis sustenit be thaim, mair than l yeris, in conti- 
newaU battall, had grantit anis ane honest victorie of thair ennimes. 


Cfjaj?* Binttcmtlj, 

How the Romdnis rear doung out of all partis of Scotland, and sin- 
dry times vincust, be the vailyeant Galdus. 

He Ronianis, brokin in this rnaiier, and seing na sickir- 
nes, to abide in Angus, aganis sa feirs and cruel en- 
nimes ; rasit thair tentis, and come, within the nicht, to 
Inchecuthill : and, quhen thay had transportit the re- 
sidew of thair army ouir Tay, thay brak the brig thairof, that thair 
ennimes suld nocht follow. 

Galdus, advertist of thair fleing, partit the riche spulye that wes 
gottin in this last feild, amang his army, efFering to thair manheid 
and vassalage ; and, on the morrow, he tuke consultatioun quhat 
wes best to be done. Be this consultatioun it wes concludit, that 
the Scottis sail persew the Romanis, and ding thaim furth of all 
partis of Albioun. The Scottis incontinent ruschit to harnes, with 
all the army of Pichtis concurring to thair opinioun, and followit on 
the Romanis ; that the injuris so of times done be thaim suld be anis 
sufficientlie punist. At last, quhen thay wer cumin to Inchecuthill, 
thay fand the brig bet down ; and returnit, thairfore, to Dunkeld, 
quhair thay transportit all thair army be ane brig of tre. 

The Romanis, heirand thair cuming, ordourit thaimself in gud 
array, and chesit ane new capitane, namit Chelius, to governe thaim 
in this maist dangerus battall. Sone eftir, baith the army is junit, 
and faucht lang time with uncertane victorie : quhill at last the Ro- 
manis wer vincust, and chasit with ithand slauchter, quhill thay wer 
drevin to the wod of Calidone. In this battall were slane v.m Ro- 
manis, and ii.M of Scottis and thair confideratis. 

Sindry cumpanyis of Britonis, eftir this victorie, come to Galdus. 
For als sone as it wes schawin in Walls, that the Romanis wer 
twyis vincust be the Scottis and Pichtis, incontinent all the princis 
of Britane maid rebellioun : and eftir that thay had slane the Ro- 
manis in al partis, quhair thay micht be apprehendit, thay send am- 


bassatouris to Galdus, with mony riclie jowellis ; schawing thaim 
rejosit, that eftir sa lang rage of Fortoun aganis him, he began to 
be victorius and fortunat. 

In the mene time, the Romanis send thair ambassatouris to Ma^ 
rius. King of Britonis ; lamentand the hevy injuris done to thaim be 
Scottis and Pichtis ; and schew, gif thay gat nocht support in time, 
thay suld be schamefully doung out of all boundis, conquest with 
sa gret difficulte afore be Romanis. Marius answerit, Throw rebel- 
lioun of Britonis in sindry partis aganis him, he stude in dailie feir 
of his life. Attour, the young wenchis, gestouris, and commoun 
pepil, sang dailie ballattis, in derisioun and skorne of Romanis: 
and be that way, he knew not quhay wer freindis or fayis to him 
in Britane. Attoure, Domiciane, Empriour, wes so haitit for the 
cruell slauchter of the senat and cieteyanis of Rome, that nocht ap- 
perit bot civill battallis : thus micht na support come in Britane, 
For thir causis, his mind wes set, erar to keip ane part to him of 
Albion with sicker firmance, than schamefully to tine the hail em- 
pire thairof. This answere maid na litill affray amang the Ro- 

In the mene time Aves schawin, that Galdus wes within ten milis 
fra the tentis of Romanis, with ane army, baith of men and wemen 
that micht beir wapinnis, to ding the Romanis out of all boundis of 
his empire. The Romanis, for feu.' of his cuming, left the wod of 
CaHdon, and fled in Brigance. Galdus, weil advertist be] quhat 
passage his ennimes wer departit, set him, with maist diligence, to 
follow on thair bakkis ; that he micht distroy thaim, but ony recover, 
afore thay gat ony support fra Rome. In this voyage, Galdus left 
tlie seging of the castellis and strenthis stuffit be Romanis, and come 
with gret deligence in Brigance. And, thair, met him ane huge now- 
mer of pepill, sic as haitit the Romanis, all rejosing atanis, that the 
said Galdus, brokin with sa mony calamiteis and truble, wes nevir 
disparit, bot evir reserving him and his pepill to better fortoun. 
Galdus ressavit all thir pepill with plesand visage, and persuadit 
thaim to have gud esperance : for, as than, he wes nocht passand 
to battall, bot erar to sicker victorie ; and the hard fortoun sa lang 
rageand aganis him and his pepill, wes brokin : and, thairfore, trais- 


tit, behind sa mony cruell extorsionis done be ennimes, to have, 
sumtime, ane glorius victory of thaim. 

The Romanis, seing the confiderat pepil cum in Brigance with 
sa hie curage and spreit, wer afFrayit. Nochtheles, confiding in na 
thing mair surele than in thair handis, thay went forwart in thair 
best array, sayng, That day wes othir the gait to thair triumphant 
glore, or than perpetuall schame. Than ilk ane exhortit othir to 
have hope of victory, sen thay wer to fecht aganis ane vane and 
barbar peple ; and to haif in memory tlie gret manheid and virtew 
of thair eldaris, with more respect to thair common tlian singular 
Weill ; and erar to de in the battal, than to incurre the schame and 
dishonour that thay micht nevir eftir do away. Quhil the Romanis 
wer exhorting thaimself with thir and siclike wourdis, come haiste- 
ly ane hevy schoure of arowis and ganyeis, schot on thaim be thair 

In the mene time, ane cumpany of Britonis, quhilkis wer laitHe 
send be Marius in support of Romanis, come to the Scottis and 
Pichtis. Mony of the Romanis, be fleing of thir Britonis, defakit 
curage : otheris, seing na remeid, tuke the more spreit, and, with 
gret force, ouirset the wingis quhair the wemen faucht. Than Gal- 
dus, richt circumspect in all his werkis, send ane cumpany of fresche 
men to thair support, be quhom the Romanis wer drevin sum part 
abak. The wemen wer more cruel than ony men, quhen thay saw 
thair ennimes vincust. 

Thus had the Romanis bene invadit on ilk side, wer nocht thay 
had thair tentis at thair bakkis. Mony of thaim perseverit in bat- 
tall, and wer slane; otheris fled to thair tentis: on quhom the 
Scottis followit sa fast, that thay slew thaim, heir and thair, and 
kest thaim in the fowseis ; intending, be filling of the fowseis with 
deid bodyis, to make ane reddy gait to thair tentis. Nochtheles, 
the Romanis defendit thair tentis with incredibill laubour and man- 
heid, and wald not suffer thair ennimes to entre on thaim : quhill 
the nicht severit thaim on ilk side. 


Of the Message send he Romanis to the confiderat Kingis ; and of 
thair ansioer. Hoio the coiifiderat Kingis gaif peace to the Ro- 

He Scottis, nochtwithstanding the cumingof the nicht, 
went to the nixt wod, to bring treis to fil the fowseis, 
quhare the tentis of Romanis lay ; otheris maid sindry 
instrvimentis to breke down thair trinschis; otheris 
wacheit all nicht to stop thame fra fleing, and abaid the cuming of 
the day with birnand desire. 

The Romanis, seing, on the morrow, sa gret ordinance reddy at 
anis to invade thaim, desirit assuverance of the wache, to send ora- 
touris to the confiderat kingis, to treit peace. Part of Scottis said, 
Na conduct suld be gevin to Romanis, and na alhance to be maid 
with thaim ; bot victory to be usit with maist rigoure, and all the 
Romanis, that fled to thair tentis, slane ; that, be thair slauchter, al 
othir pepil may take exampil, how odious it is baith to Goddis and 
men, to invade realmes and pepill but occasiovni of injure. Otheris 
said. Best was to use thair victory with mesure, and not to be ouir 
insolent and provid for this felicite ; sen every pepill ar thirlit to sic 
uncertane lawis of fortoun, that eftir adversite cumis prosperite, and 
eftir prosperite cumis adversite : and, for this reason, the Romanis 
suld be herd, and thair ambassatouris saiffit be the law of pepill. 
This last counsal wes apprisit. 

Incontinent, come four honorabil men, with fair vissage, cloithit, 
in thair maner, with na les precious than semand abulyementis, and 
fell on kneis afore the confiderat kingis. A Is sone as thay wer rasit, 
ane of thaim, to quhilk the charge wes committit, said in this wise : 
" The Romane army and capitanis, dantouris of the warld, desiring 
" your amite and freindschip, invincibill Kingis, requiris you humilie 
" of grace, quhom thay have, thir mony yeris, persewit with auful 
" and kene battall; and traist fermelie, na thing micht have cumin, 


" be glore of marciall dedls, sa hie to your honour, or mair Avorthy 
" to have memory, than to have the ambassatouris of Romanis, be 
" quhom all kingis and realmes bene subdewit, dejeckit at your feit, 
" and humilie desiring grace. Ye have vincust us, we grant ; our 
" hfe and deith now depending in your handis, be hatrent of Goddis, 
" quhilkis ar commovit aganis us for the injvist battall that we have 
*' led aganis yow. Use now sic victorie as ye think respondent to 
" your honoure ; and vincus your ire, sen ye have vincust us, the 
" dantouris of the warld : and, gif ye can nocht refrane your ire, 
" than sla us all, as we have weill deservit. Nochtheles, sen ye, 
" quhilkis ar heir in the farrest nuik of the Avarld, precellis all pe- 
" pill in manheid and virtew ; understand, that na thing may schaw 
'' your humanite mair than to be mercifuU eftir sa huge victory. 
" We knaw now the hatrent of Goddis ; we knaw your chevalry ; 
" and desiris peace, under quhat conditionis ye pleis." 

Than Galdus maid answere to thame, and said. The Scottis and 
Pichtis, the last pepill of the warld, sen thair first beginning, desirit 
na landis bot thaim onlie that wer gevin to thaim be benivolence of 
Goddis, and faucht nevir bot in thair pure defence. The Romanis 
wer knawin to thaim first as cursit revaris of realmes, be insaciabill 
avarice. Eftir that thay had maid weir on Britonis ane hundredth 
and fifty yeris, with sindry chancis of fortoun ; and quhen thay had 
subdewit the warld, and the maist part of Albion, to the gret dam- 
mage of pepil thairof ; thay ar vincust be the pepill quhome thay 
held maist rude and febill ; and, finalie, drevin, but esperance of 
better fortoun, to thair last refuge within thair tentis; to be ane 
notabill exempUl, in times cumming, how unsicker bene the stait of 
man be chance of fortoun. And thocht sindry nobill men in his 
army counsallit, this victory to be usit on thaim with maist rigour, 
traisting thair injuris na othirwayis to be eschewit; yit he wald be 
more propiciant, thinkand sufficient, baith for the time present and 
to cum, that the ambassatouris of Romanis, dantouris of the warld, 
wer dejeckit at his feit, humilie desiring mercy. Nochtheles, it 
plesit him weill, be consent of his confiderat bruthir the King of 
Pichtis, to gif peace under thir conditionis : The Romanis sal pas 
out of all boundis pertenand to Scottis and Pichtis ; and rander all 

VOL. I. X 


munitionis and pledgis, with the guddis reft fra thaim during the 
weris ; and sail gif thair gret aith, nevir to invaid Scottis nor Pichtis, 
bot evir to stand thair gud freindis in times cumming. 

The Romanis ressavit peace in this nianer, and departit but ony 
forthir injure 

Hoit) all the strentMs of Scotland ivar recoverit fra the Romanis, be 
conditioun of peace ; and of the deith of Galdus. 

E Gneus Tribellius, the Romane army was nowmerit, 
quhen Agricola left it, to lx thousand men ; bot at this 
time, throw frequent victoryis maid on thaim, thay war 
skarsly xx thousand left on live. Efter tliair depart- 
ing, all the boundis of Scotland quhilkis war garnist afore be Ro- 
manis, war randerit to Scottis and Pichtis. Efter this, Galdus skaillit 
liis army, and went to Epiak, quhilk was the principal ciete of Scot- 
land, and began to institute his pepill in civill maneris. And, to the 
fine, that na man of his realme, be occasion of sleuth, sail use reiffis 
on the cvxntre, he send all superflew pepil to be wageouris to the 
Britonis ; sine rewardit his nobiUis, ilk ane efter thair vassalage pro- 
vin in his weiris. Than Galdus went throw all boiuidis of his realme ; 
and, at his entres in ilk town, the pepill met him with sound of 
trumpat and clarioun, to his honour and loving. 

Quhill the pepill war gevin to laude and magnifie thair prince on 
this maner, rais gret contentioun betwix the Scottis and Pichtis, for 
certane debaitabill landis, that lay betwix thair realmes. This con- 
tentioun rais be eviU-dedy men, that micht suffer na peace, bot 
socht occasioun to breke the cuntre. Nochtheles, the two confiderat 
kingis met finaly togidder in the wod of Calidon, and pecifyit all 
debaitis amang thaimself. 

Galdus ragne mony yeris efter in gret felicite, and occupyit his 
pepill in virtewis laubouris and exercition ; and deceissit at Epiak, 
the XXXV yeir of his regne, maist vailyeant prince that evir rang 


above the Scottis : fra the incarnation of God, cm yeris; fra the 
beginning of the warld, v.m.ccc.ii yeris. His body was buryit be- 
side Epiak, with funerall pompe, and gret lament of pepill. To 
quhome ane maist precius sepulture was rasit : in quhilk was in- 
gravin, how he recoverit his realme, be soverane manheid, fra the 
Romanis. Mony huge pillaris war rasit about his sepulture, to tes- 
tify his precellent virtew, and glore of chevalry ; and, that his me- 
mory sail nevir peris, be decreit of Parliament was commandit, that 
tlie landis namit afore Brigance, sal be callit, in time cumming, Gal- 
dia ; beeaus this nobil prince maid ane end of all his weris in thay 
partis. In our dayes, that region is callit Galvidia, be corruption 
of langage ; that is to say, Galloway. 

This history, in sa far as we have schawin of Caratak, Corbreid 
and Galdus, Kingis of Scottis, is drawin, sum part fra vulgar Cro- 
niklis, sum part fra Cornehus Tacitus. For we have nocht onely 
writtin his sentence, bot als his wordis ; that the redaris, baith of 
Romane story and Scottis, may understand ilk history concordant 
with othir, and knaw, be testimoniall of oure ennime, how vailyeant- 
ly our nobil elderis hes fochtin, for this realme, aganis Romanis. 
And, to the mair prufFe heirof, we have inserit the eloquent orisonis 
of Galdus and Agricola, word in word as Cornelius Tacitus rehersis 
thaim, in this our quhatsumevir werkis. 

And sa endis heir the Fourt Buke of thir Croniklis. 

CJje Jftft Bufee. 




Of the viciics King Lugtak ; and Jioiv he was slanejbr his unhappy 
life and tyranny. 

He vailyeant prince Galdus endit, in maner 
afore rehersit ; succedit his Sonne, Lugtak, ane 
odius and mischevus tyrane. He was als far 
haitit with the pepill for his vice, as his fader 
was luffit for his virtew. He was far different 
fra his fader, baith in maneris and ingine; 
gevin to his eis and lust. He slew mony of all 
the riche men in his cuntre, for na othir caus 
hot allanerly to confiske thair guddis. He gaif the ministration of jus- 
tice to maist wrangus and avaricius men ; speciaUy sic men, that 
war gevin to conques guddis to him but ony reason, or sicht to 
justice. Followit, continewall reiffis, in al partis of his realme, 
but punitioun : gretest schrewis maist autorist, and virtuous per- 
sonis maist ouirthrawin. This odius tyrane persewit his nobillis be 


vane causis ; sum of thaim banist, and othiris slew, that he micht 
conques thair landis and guddis. He had sic affectioun to reiffairis 
and oppressouris, that he namit thaim brethir and counsalouris in 
his writinffis ; and luffit nane sa weill as him that culd find ino-ine to 
reif his subdittis. The remanent dedis of his unhappy life ar sa 
detestabill, that thay ar mair worthy to be hid, than drevin in ony 
mannis eiris. For he, with unbridillit lust, fulyeit his anttis, his 
douchteris, his sisteris, and his sister douchteris ; and was penitent 
of na thing, bot only that he micht nocht suffice to compleit his lust 
with thaim all. 

His horribill dedis war sufferit cwa yeris be his nobillis. Bot na 
thing raovit thaim sa mekil, as his scornefull detractioun ; be quhilk 
he callit thaim auld dotand fulis. He had nane sa familiar to him 
as fidlaris, bordellaris, makerellis, and gestouris, and siclike men of 
vile estimatioun ; and cled thaim with publik auctorite, beleving all 
thingis to succede weil be thair governance. Bot his cruelteis and 
foly micht nocht be lang unpunist. For, sone eftir, ane counsal was 
set be him at Dounstafage, to punis sindry men that reprevit his 
vice : in the mene time, rais sic debait betwix him and his nobillis, 
that he was slane, with all his cursit cumpany, in quhome he gaif 
baith the governance of his body and realme, in the thrid yeir of 
his regne. He was buryit with riche pompe in Dounstafage ; bot 
the bodyis of his unhappy counsalouris war left on the feildis, to be 
devorit be the houndis. 



Of King Mogallus ; and koto he come xoith ane Army agOMis the 
Romanis. Of his Orisone viaid to the Sepulture ofGaldxis. 

UoTAK, the tyrane, endit in this maner, Mogallus was 
maid king; for he was nepote to Galdus, gottin of his 
douchter. This Mogallus, efter his coronation, set him 
to follow the wisdome and maneris of Galdus, his gud- 
schir ; and to kepe the faith and promis to Romanis and Britonis, 
be the peace afore contrackit. And, that his pepil micht leif in quiete 
but ony seditioun, he reparit every thing that was afore misgidit be 
the tyrane Lugtak ; and restorit the religioun of Goddis, with the 
samin cerimonis as thay war first institute: traisting, fra he had 
gottin the benivolence of his Goddis, quhilkis war ennimes to his 
pepil for the abhominabil life of Lugtak, that al thingis suld suc- 
cede the better. The Scottis began to rise ilk day in esperance of 
better fortoun, seing thair king follow the behavingis of his gud- 
schir, Galdus, and reddy to reforme al enormiteis of his realm. 

Nocht lang efter, come ambassatouris fra Pichtis to Mogallus, de- 
siring support aganis the Romanis and Britonis ; quhilkis war lait- 
ly cumin, with fire and swerd, in Pentland, and slane ane gret now- 
mer of pepill, in defence of thair awin guddis. Siclike, the men of 
Galloway and Annandale complanit, that ane huge pray of guddis 
war tane be Romanis out of thair landis. 

Mogallus, havand ingine na les gevin to chevalry than werkis of 
peace, rejosit to have occasioun of battall ; that he micht, be sum 
notabill vassalage, be comparit to his vailyeant antecessouris : nocht- 
theles, he send his ambassatouris, desiring rcdres of the dammage 
be thaim done. Thir ambassatouris gat nocht bot ane answer full 
of hie contemptioun and skorne. Than Mogallus tuke the Goddis 
in witnes, that baith the faith promittit to him be Romanis was bro- 
kin, and his message contempnit. And, sone efter, he rasit his army, 
and come in Galloway : quhare he visyit the sepulture of Galdus, 


his gudschlr ; and, quhen he had maid certane cerimonis, efter the 
custome of thay dayis, he fel on kneis, and said : " O vailyeant and 
" invincibill prince, quhilk, efter sa gret adverslte of fortoun, did 
" recovir the reahnes of Scottis and Pichtis with huge difficvihe ; 
" and dang thy pissant and riche ennimes, be favoure of Goddis, 
" out of thir boundis, with na les honoure than manheid ; we, thy 
" native pepill, quhilkis wirschippit the, on live, with mair reverence 
" and lufe than may be tauld, falhs now on kneis, with lamentabill 
" voce, before this thy eternall sepulture, the last refuge to us in 
" extreme neid, beseking humly thy funerall goist to be our helper 
" aganis our ennimes, quhom thou sumtime maist vailyeantly vin- 
" oust in thir boundis ; and prayis the, gif thow hes ony auctorite 
" afore the Goddis, for thy singulare virtew schawin to us in the 
" erd, to suffer nocht us, thy posterite, to be ouirthrawin with dis- 
" pitefull ennimes, quhilkis invadis us but titill of battall. Suffer 
" nocht thy fame, O vailyeant campioun, to decay now amang us, 
'* be victory of thy injust ennimes ; sen thay ben sa oft vincust be 
" the in thir boundis, and drevin, be thy singulare manheid, to im- 
" plore thy mercy in thair last refuge : quhairthrow, thy name em- 
" paring sail na Avayis bot evir indure in terroure of thy fais/' 

Als sone as Mogallus had maid his prayer to Galdus in this maner, 
all the army began to enbras his image ; and maid thair prayer thair- 
to, for happy passage, and returning in thair jurnay. The wod 
wemen, sic as war inflammit with divine spreit, skurgit thameself, to 
make thaim seme the mair religious ; and, be advise of Druides, the 
solempne preistis afore rehersit, thay maid solempne cursinis on the 
Romanis, for violation of thair faith and band, afore contrackit. 


Cljap* C()tVD» 

How the confiderat Kingis come with thair Armyis aganis the Ro- 
manis. Of the Orison maid be Mogallus and Lucius Anthonius 
to thair Armyis ; and hoio the Romanis war discomfist. 

Ogallus come, not lang eftir, in Annandale, to meit 
Unipane, King of Pichtis ; for he abaicl his cumming, 
with ane weil arrayit ost of Pichtis. Als sone as baith 
thair armyis was assembht togidder, thay went baith in 
"Westmurland and Cumbir, quhilkis war, as than, provinces of Ro- 
manis. And, first, thay brocht ane huge pray of men and guddis 
fra the samin ; and the residew, that micht nocht be tursit, put in 
fire. The inhabitantis, for feir of thir injuris, fled to York ; and 
complanit to Lucius Anthonius, Romane capitane, of the cruelteis 
done be Scottis and Pichtis. Lucius than assembht ane Strang army, 
and went forthwart, with greit ordinance, to dant his ennimes. 

Mogalhis, seing his ennimes in sicht, calht his men to the stan- 
dart, and said in this maner : " I find na thing, vailyeant campionis, 
' that bringis nobill men soner to loving and glore, than to resist 
' the injure of ennimes, fechtand for thair realme and hberte to the 
' deith, that thay be nocht subdewit to schamfull servitude ; as 
' may be weill provin, baith be example of uncouth pepill, and be 
' singulare virtew of our vailyeant antecessouris. Remember be 
' quhat manheid and wisdome King Edere supportit Cassibilane, 
' King of Britonis, quhen Julius, the Romane consull, was doungin 
' out of Albion ; be quhilk he conquest na les honour to himself, 
' than to his posterite. Siclike, the nobill Caratak was na les de- 
' corit be his virtew in merit of loving, quhen he, fechtand sa ofU 
' times be sindry chancis of fortoun, micht nevir be vincust. And 
' thocht he had ane hard fortoune, and brocht as presoneir to Rome, 
' be treasoun of Cartumandia, yit he had invincibill spreit, defend- 
' ing ay his realme to his last dayis : and was haldin, thairfore, in 
' sic reverence and dredour amang his ennimes, that he was finaly 


" restorit baith to his realme and honouris ; to be examplll to all 
" othir efter him, to have excellent fortitude aganis all trubil. Sik- 
" hke, Corbreid, his bruthir, in defence of his liberte, faucht sa 
" cruelly aganis the proude Romanis, and brocht thaini to sic irre- 
" coverabill afflictioun and slauchter, that thay micht nevir invade 
" this realme during his liffe. Remember, alsua, my gudschir, 
" Galdus, maist vailyeant prince that evir Avas afore his dayis : how- 
" beit, he was invadit with perpetuall trubill, fechtand nocht only 
" aganis Romanis, bot aganis Fortoun: sa oft vincust and chasit; 
" his army brokin; ilk calamite incressing above othir: yit, with 
" michty curage, he perseverit ay in hope of better fortoun : quhill, 
" at last, be lang battall of virtew aganis his unhappy infortuniteis, 
" he ouirthrew Fortoun, and conquest, be merciall prowes and man- 
" heid, sa interminabil victory and glore, that he vincust his en- 
" nimes Avith in sindry battallis; and brocht thaim, be fleing to 
" thair tentis, to sic subjectioun and mesiry, that quhare thay culd 
" nocht be content afore of the haill boundis of the warld, thay micht 
" nocht Weill defende thaimself within thair sorowfull tenlis : throw 
" quhilk he gat the excellent glore, that nevir afore succedit to levand 
" creature; havand the ambassatouris of Romanis, be quhome al 
" kingis and realmis be subdewit, dejeckit at his feit, desiring grace. 
" In mair Avitnes heirof, the place quhare thir Romanis Avar defait, 
" is callit GalloAA-ay; that the fame of his illuster Averkis sail nevir 
" evanis, bot ay remane in recent memorie. Forthir, the mair 
" Strang, the mair pissant that his fais Avar, the mair glore succedit 
" to him, and his pepill. Heirfore ye, my gud cumpanyeonis, 
" quhilkis ar the posterite of thay forcy campionis that sumtime 
" faucht aganis the Romanis Avith the said Galdus, remember that 
" your battall is, this day, only aganis thame quhilkis hes afore sa 
" oftimes bene vincust be your chevelry, and remanis only on live 
" be your mercy. Consider weill quhat ye ar : for ye ar victouris, 
" unbrokin of curage, and defendouris of your realme, liberteis, 
" wiffis, barnis, and native Goddis ; and ar to fecht for na ambu- 
" tioun nor avarice, bot allanerly be constant virtew. Consider als, 
" quhat schame it is to thinke that Romanis may nocht be vincust ; 
" sen thay have bene sa oft before defait. Traist fermely, the same 
VOL. I. Y 


" virtew and fortoun is into youre handis, as was in youre eldaris. 
" Pas forthwart, vailyeant campionis, for victory is present in your 
" handis ; and put your vincust fais to flicht : for all thingis sal fol. 
" low as ye pleis, gif ye have curage." Mogallus, be thir wordis, 
inflammit the mindis of his army to battall. 

On the tothir side, Lucius Anthonius was na les diligent perswad- 
ing the Romanis, be vehement orison, to do vailyeantly, be exemple 
and imitation of thair forebearis ; and to remember thaim, be quhat 
difficill laubouris thay led battanis,and vincust thair forcy and Strang 
ennimes. Remembring tliahn als, how thay war than to fecht aganis 
ane barbar pepill, but virtew, and movit to battall be wodnes and 
fury ; be quhilk baith thair manheid and reason was confundit, and 
movand thaim to battall be fuliche hardiment : and, thairfore, quhen 
maist dangeir occurrit, thay war sone discomfist and brokin. He 
desirit thame als, to have confidence in the Romane virtew, and take 
na feir of thair bludy, cruell, and unarmit ennimes, devidit amang 
thaimself be perpetual sedition; and nocht assemblit for luf and 
Weill of thairself, bot onely for hatrent of thair fais. " Take youre 
" wappinnis," said he, " with sicker esperance of victory, and ye 
" sail conques infinite glore but straik, and recovir the landis tint 
" afore be sleuth of Gneus Tribellius.''' 

Skarsly Avar thir wordis said, quhen baith the armyis junit, with 
niair ardent ire than may be tauld. The Romanis schot thair dartis, 
and the confiderat pepil thair arowis, ganyeis, and stanis. Quhen 
the wemen, of quhilkis grct nowmer was in this army, had cassin 
incredibill multitude of stanis, thay tuke thair awful wappinnis, and 
faucht above the cruelte of men; ruscheand on thair fais but ony 
feir of woundis or deith. The strenth of the ground was na les 
support to oure folkis than impediment to oure fais ; for thay knew 
nocht the ground, and fell sometimes in swardis of mossis, and sum 
time in well-eys, throw quhilk thay war oft times devidit in thair 
fechting. Yit the battall Avas cruelly fochtin in all partis ; specially 
in the middis, quhare the capitanis inflammit the curage of thair 
army : the Romanis contending to saif thaim fra thirlage of barbar 
pepill; and the Scottis, to keip the victory gottin be manheid of 
thair eldaris. Efter lang and lauborius battall, thay left thair swerdis, 
and faucht with schort dageris. And,becaus sa innowmerabill slauch- 


ter was on all sidis, and nane of the armyis apperlng to geif place to 
othir, the capitanis on athir side war penitent that thair army junit 
that day. At last the Scottis and Pichtis, be innative ferocite, be- 
gan to put thair ennimes abak ; nocht as thay Avar discomfist, bot 
eschewing sum thing the fury of battall, becaus thay micht na for- 
thir resist the multitude of thair ennimes. Quhill Lucius beheld sa 
hie dangeir appering to his folkis, and was exhorting thaim to renew 
battall, he gat sic ane straik with ane arow, that he micht na mair 
tary, bot fled out of the feild. Incontinent, all his army fled to the 
nixt woddis. Ane cumpany of thaim war stoppit to cum to thair 
fallowis ; and, nocht knawing quhare to fle, war slane be Scottis, 
becaus thay wald nocht be takin presoneris. 

How Jdriane, Emprioure, come in Britane; and higglt ane Strang 
wall, to saif the Britonis and Roman'is fra Scottis and Pichtis. 
How he returnit in France, and left Victorine to be Capitane of 

Ow was the sonne fast tending to his occasion, quhen 
the confiderat pepill, be sound of trumpat, colleckit the 
residew of thair folkis fra the chace, and passit the re- 

manent of that nicht with incredibill blithnes, singing, 

dansing, and karoling. At the spring of the day, thay gaderit the 
riche spulyels of slane men. 

And in the mene time, quhen the two kingis war takand consul- 
tatioun for the weill of thair army, was schawin that ane cumpany 
of Romanis quhilkis war eschapit fra this last battal, war within 
twa milis to thair army, gangand Avill, and nocht knawand be quhat 
cuntre or partis thay micht maist esaly fle. Incontinent, ane band 
of Scottis went to thaim, and left none of thaim on liffe ; for thay 
refusit to be takin. On the morow, the confiderat kingis maid sa- 
crifice, as the gise was in thay dayis, to thair Goddis, for the victory 
falling to thame : sine tuke diligent examinatioun quhat personis 


did maist vassalage in this last battall, and rewardit thaim thair- 

Lucius Anthonius, vincust in this maner, send to the Emprioure 
Adriane, schawing quhat trubill was laitly fallin in Britane be weris 
of Scottis and Pichtis, and desiring him to send, haistely, support 
in Britane ; otherwayes the Romanis sal be schamefully doung out 
of all boundis thairof, or ellis subdewit to servitude of barbar peple. 
Adriane, Empriour, to dant this rebellioun, come with ane huge 
army in Albioun. Eftir his cuming, he wes advertist how the 
Scottis, with more cruelte than afore, wer cuming in the Romane 
landis, ceissing fra na maner of cruelte that micht be devisit on the 
inhabitantis thairof. Adriane, astonist, and richt desirus to revenge 
thir ofFencis, come to York ; quhare he remanit, Avith the remanent 
army of Britonis, quhill he wes providit with twa monethis vittallis, 
to pas on the Scottis and Pichtis. Sone eftir, he rasit his campe, 
and, with gret difficulte, brocht the samin ouir Tyne ; and on the 
fourt day eftir, he come in the landis quhilkis wer waistit be the 
Scottis. And becaus he fand every thing that micht nuris his army, 
distroyit, he began to inquire, of quhat life and condition thir pepill 
bene, that maid sic extorsionis in the Romane landis. It wes schawin, 
thay wer ane rude and undantit pepill, and lay thairfurth all win- 
ter, nochtwithstanding the cauld frostis and stormis ; and lay at sic 
strenthis and mossis, that thay micht not be persewit but extreme 
dangeir to thair invasouris. For thu" causis, he left purpos to pas 
ony forthir : and to keip thaim fra all incursionis of ennimes in times 
cuming, he beildit ane huge wall of fail and devait, richt braid and 
hie in maner of ane hill, fra the mouth of Tyne, fornens the Al- 
niane seis, to the flude of Esk, fornens the Ireland seis. This wal 
was Lxxx mills of lenth. It is said in our croniklis, that this dike 
wes begun be Adriane, and endit be Severus, the Romane Em- 
prioure; and callit The Wal of Seveir. Bot we, following Veremond, 
callis it The Wal of Adriane, fia the first foundoure. 

Sone eftir, Adriane past in Westmureland and Walls, quhare he 
wes advertist of new rebellioun maid ajranis him be the inhabitantis 
of the said land : nochtheles, he behavit him sa prudently in this 
mater, that the principall movaris thaii'of wer punist, and the cuntre 
restorit to his opinioun. Eftir this, he come to London and Kent, 


and rewardlt the noblllis of Britane, for thair faith and obedience 
kepit to Romanis. Sic thingis done, he returnit in France, -with 
Lucius Anthonius, quhilk wes than trubUt with gret infirmite ; and 
left Victorine in his place. This Victorine, eftir the departing of 
Adriane, stuffit all the casteUis and strenthis of Britane with new 
munition and wageouris, to resist the violence of Scottis and Pichtis. 
Followit, mony yeris eftir, gret tranquillite amang the Britonis. 

How Scottis and Pichtis partit the landis beyond the Wall of Adriane. 
Hoxi) King Mogallus was degenerit in coriuppit lif; and slane^for 
his tyranny. 

He Scottis and Pichtis partit amang thaim al the landis 
of Britane lyand beyound the wal of Adriane, in this 
maner: All the landis fornens the Ireland seis wer 
gevin to Scottis ; and the landis fornens the Almane 
seis, to Pichtis. The strenthis lyand nixt the wal of Adrian war 
garnist with gret munitionis, to keip the countre fra injure of Ro- 
manis. Bot we returne to our historic. 

The residew of IVIogallus liffe was in quiete, but ony uncouth or 
domestik weiris : nochtheles, this huge victory of Romanis maid him 
degenerit fra virtew in maist detestabill vicis; for he was sa gevin 
to avarice and lust in his eild, that he eschamit of na maner of vice 
nor oppressioun done aganis his liegis ; defloring the Aviffis of his 
nobillis and commonis, but ony schame, or respect to thair estait ; 
and nocht onely deforsit virginis and matronis, bot annuUit all con- 
stitutionis and lawis maid for punltioun of sic horribill dedis. At- 
tour, to aggrege his tyranny, he gave licence to theiffis and revaris 
to take the gudis of thair nichtbouris, gif thay wantit, but puni- 
tioun; and slew all the riche men of his cuntre be vane causis, and 
confiscat thair gudis. He was the first king that statute, the gudis 
of banist or condampnit personis to be confiscat to the kingis use, 
but ony respect to thair wiffis, children, or dettouris. Afore that 


time, the gudis, landis, and possessionis of all condampnit personis 
come, but ony pley, to fre dispositioun of thair wiffis and children. 
This law, quhilkis schawis Aveill the cursit avarice of Mogallus, is 
yit observat, but ony revocatioun, in this regioun. And yit the 
horribil dedis of tliis tyrane micht nocht be lang unpunist : for the 
nobillis and commonis, inipacient to suffer sic tyrannyis, conspirit 
aganis him, and instruckit certane men to wait ganand place and 
time for his slauchter. 

Mogallus, knawing the nobilhs conspirit aganis him on this ma- 
ner, tuke consultatioun of certane juglouris, quhilkis war richt fre- 
quent in thay dayis, to fie in the His ; and to dissimill his passage, 
he went to his bed sonar than he was wont, as he had bene strikin 
with suddane infirmite. Sone efter, he armit him with his halkrig, 
bow, and arowis ; and fled, Avith two servandis, to the nixt wod : 
and left behind him the reside w of his cursit cumpany, as ane ty- 
rane dois, that confidis in no creature. The nobillis that war con- 
spirit aganis him, beand advertist of his fleing, foUowit on him sa 
scharply, that he was finaly comprehendit and slane ; the xxvi yeir 
of his regne ; fra the incarnation, cxLviii yeris : Anthonius Pius 
beand Emprioure, and Phiacus Albus regnand above the Pichtis. 

The heid of Mog-allus was borne on ane staik to the nixt towne, 
quhare ane multitude of pepill war gaderit, to his perpetuall schame. 
It was devisit be the pepil, that his body suld be cassin to the 
houndis and revanus beistis ; nochtheles, the nobillis, movit be the 
worthy dedis of Galdus, his gudschir, commandit his heid and body 
to be buryit amang the kingly sepulturis of his progenitouris. This 
schameful and unhappy end maid Mogallus, degenerat fra the vir- 
tew of his antecessouris. 


Ofsindry noh'iTl Clerlxis. Of the vichis King Conarus; and h(M> he 
was degradit of all auctoritef and his servandis h'lngit for thair 
wicJcit counsal. 

Ra the deltli of Dardannus to tliir days, war raony ex- 
cellent clerkis in sindry partis of the warld: as Quinti- 
liane, oratoure ; Serapio, medcinar ; Philo Jew, philo- 
sophour and oratour; Caius Plenius, secundus, that 
wrait the History Naturall, in xxxviii bukis, with na les treuth than 
eloquence ; Cornelius Tacitus, writar of historyis, quhom we have 
followit in this Averke ; Cecilius Plenius, secundus, oratoure ; Sue- 
tonius Tranquillus ; Ptolomeus, maist excellent in mathamatik, 
quhilk brocht the cosmography of Ptolomy, afore rehersit, to ane 
better knawlage, with mony new additionis ; L. Apuleus, oratour ; 
Aulus Gellius ; Plutercus Cheronius, philosophour. And in thay 
dayis war excellent poetis : as Juvenale, Sillius Italicus, Mercialis, 
with mony otheris. 

About this time the Romane princis persewit Cristen pepill with 
gret cruelte, and brocht gret nowmer of ihaim to marterdome, nocht 
knawing quhat Constance was in the religioun of Crislin faith; quhilk 
incressit ay the more strenthy, that it Aves persewit be tyranny ; and 
agmentit with na thing sa mekle as be scharp persecutioun. Bot 
we will return, quhare we left, to our historie. 

Mogallus micht weill have bene noumerit, in the beginning of his 
empire, amang maist nobill princis : bot, in the end, he wes nothir 
worthy to be king, nor yit ane levand creature, and deservit "Vfeil 
the end that he gat. Forthir, his sonne Conarus, quhilk succedit 
eftir him, had litil better fortoun or maneris; for he instrukit his 
men, with hid waching, to sla his fader, and so be unnatural 1 cruelte 
he succedit to the crown. In the beginning of his empire, he dis- 
similit the vices to quhilkis he wes naturally inclinit. Als sone as 
the realme wes stabillit to him in sicker peace, he waistit al the pub- 


lik rentis pertenand to the crown, In his infamit kist; and gave 
braid landis and riches to maist vile and diffamit creaturis, becaus 
thay lovit his corruppit maneris and vice : and be counsall of thir 
wickit schrewis he governit his realme, detesting all nobill and vir- 
tewis men of his realme ; and set him to induce his peple to super- 
flew and riatus bankettis, contrar the temperance of his anteces- 
souris. At last, quhen he had waistit all his treasour and substance 
in mony schamful wayis, he convenit his nobillis to ane counsal; 
in the quhilk he schew, be lang orison, the honest and triumphant 
cheir of his hous, as na litill glore suld be gevin thairto. And be- 
caus his rentis and treasour wes nocht sufficient to sustene the 
samin as he usit, he desirit ane generall stent to be tane throw the 
realme, of ilk person eftir his faculte, to sustene his hous and ser- 
vandis according to his estait riall and honouris. It wes answerit 
be his nobillis, that thay micht nocht gif ane haisty deliverance in 
sa gret ane mater ; becaus he desirit certane thingis, quhilkis wer 
nevir desirit be ony othir prince afore : and for that cause, thay 
suld degestlie avise, and schaw to him thair mind concerning the 
same, on the morow. Thir nobillis, in the nicht following, convenit 
to thair secreit counsall. And becaus thay fand the king of evill 
governance, thay concludit to degraid him of his auctorite and king- 
dome. On the morow, thay convenit Avith thair king in counsall, 
and said to him, that thay had na litill wounder, that the rentis 
pertenand to the crown micht nocht suffice als weill to him, havand 
his realme but ony trubill, in peacp, as it did to othir maist nobill 
princis, his progenitouris, afore, baith in weir and peace. The no- 
bill Galdus, that recovcrit his realme, desirit nevir stent of thaim, 
for na maner of chargis that he sustenit aganis his ennimes ; knaw- 
ing weil how odius it was to the pepil, to seik ony new exactionis on 
thaim. And yit the governance of Conarus was unlike to the nobill 
Galdus. For Galdus, be counsall of prudent men, removit all pro- 
vocatioun of lustis fra his army, with all othir thingis that micht 
maik thaim effeminate ;' gevand his lauboure to defend his subdittis, 
and to resist his ennimes. Be contrar, Conarus was drownit in lust, 
passing his life amang maist vile and abhominabill creaturis; pre- 
tending ay to governe the realme, qulien hieast besines occurrit, be 
thair unhappy counsall ; disherising the nobillis of the realme, to 


maik up his mischevous limmaris. And flnaly, efter sa mony im- 
portabill wrangis done be him, he had socht ane thing richt uncouth 
and odius to thaim, to be ane preparative to othir kingis, his suc- 
cessouris, in times cuming, to seik new exactionis on thaim, that all 
thair riches and guddis micht cum finaly in his handis. Bot his 
unhappy counsalouris, and misgidaris of the realme, sail nocht one- 
ly be frustrate of thair intentionis, bot brocht to sic estait, that thay 
sail mister htill reward or riches fra him in times cuming. For thay 
war profoundlie resolvit, baith to degraid him of his kingdome and 
honouris, and to punis his wickit consalouris to the deith ; that all 
pepil of vile and obscure hnnage may take exempill to abuse realmes 
and kingis, and that kingis may understand quhat dangeir is to 
thaim to be injurius tyrannis to thair subdittis. 

Conarus, heirand thir wourdis, said, " How dar ye, mischant 
" fuhs, pretend sic thingis aganis me and my servandis ? This trea- 
" son, that ye have devisit aganis me, sail turne in dammage of 
" yourself; and ye sail be punist in maist cruell maner that may be 
" devisit." The nobillis answerit, that he was unworthy to be thair 
king; for he sufFerit the realme to be distroyit be insolence of vicious 
hmmers. Incontinent rais ane huge nois and clamour amang thaim ; 
and in the mene time, certane wicht and rank men tuke him be the 
middill, and bure him, perforce, to ane quiet chalmer: quhare he 
remanit, the residew of his dayis, in miserie. His servandis, that 
wer occasioun of his corrupit life, nurisand him in vice, wer tane 
and hinggit on jebaittis, as thay deservit. 

Hoio Argadus was maid Governour of Scotland, during the time of 
Conarus in presoun. And of his life and governance. 

Onarus beand degradit in this maner, the nobilhs 
chesit Argadus, capitane of Argyle, to be governour of 
the realme, sa lang as Conarus wes in presoun. This 
Argadus, in the beginning of his auctorite, tuke gret 

VOL. I. 



laubour for ornament of commoun weill ; and stancliit thift, reif, 
and slauchter, and all otliir sic exhorbitant crimes, with mervellus 
craft and prudence : havand sic moderatioun, that he semit nothir 
to slaw, nor yit to cruell, in administratioun of justice : throwe 
quhilk, he wes traistit to be ane mirrour of virtew to all nobill 
princis. And yit, as oft occurris, gud forton turnit his mind fra 
justice : For he set aside al gud maneris, and governit his realme, 
quhen hieast chargis occurrit, be domistik coiuisall, and nurist se- 
ditionis intestine betwix the gret princis of his realme, to cause 
thaim have the may erandis with him. He maryit the Prince of 
Fiffis douchter, and be affinite thairof drew the Pichtis to his freind- 
schip, that he micht be the more Strang amang his awin pepill. The 
nobillis, impacient to suffer his vicis, callit him to ane counsall : 
quhare he Aves scharply reprevit, that he, chosin governour be thair 
auctorite, for the virtew than appering in him, suld make him nocht 
onelie to follow the vicious tyranny of Conarus, quhom thay de- 
privit for his detestabil dedis, bot als to mary with uncouth blude 
but thair avise ; and giding the realme be privat counsall, to the 
gret dammage of the common weil ; and lies tint schamefully the 
gud name that he conquest afore, in the beginning of his auctorite. 

Argadus, heirand him reprochit in this wise, set furth mony teris, 
and desirit his nobillis to have him excusit for that time be thair 
benivolence, and nocht to punis him according to his demeritis: 
for he promittit to amend al enormiteis done be him, in quhat sort 
thay plesit. The nobillis, movit be his humill wourdis, continewit 
him still in auctorite, and kest al his counsalouris in presoun. 

Argadus, correckit be his nobillis in this maner, governit the 
realme in gud justice, and did na thing, in times cumming, concern- 
ing publik materis, without consultatioun of his nobillis. And be- 
caus divers townis and cieteis of the realme had ouir large previlege 
in administratioun of justice, lie minist mony of thair prerogativis, 
and commandit thaim to punis na thing bot small crimes; all hie of- 
fencis to be replegit to his gret justice. He maid extreme deligence 
to serche thevis, revaris, and oppressouris; speciallie thaim that maid 
heirschippis in Argyle, ilis, and othir partis adjacent: And ay, 
quhare thay wer apprehendit. thay wer hingit, but ony mercy, on 
jebaittis. He commandit all personis, that had ony office or aucto. 


rite of him, to abstene fra sic tliingis as micht mak thalm inebriat 
or dronkin, to cause thaim have sum preeminence and wisdome 
above the commonis. He commandit al scudlaris, tavernaris, dron- 
kartis, and othir sicUke vile pepill, devisit more for lust than ony 
necessar sustenance of men, to be exilit within ane certane day. 
The day beand run, he commandit thair guddis to be confiscat, 
quhare evir thay micht be apprchendit. 

Finalie, the commoun pepil, sum part be benivolence of Argadus, 
and sum part be thir institutionis, wer reformit in gudde maneris. 
Quhill at last Conarus, be lang seiknes and malancoly, quhilk he 
tuke for his incarceration, deceissit the xiv yeir of his regne; An- 
thonius Aurelius beand than Empriour. 

Of King Ethodius the First, and how he peci/i/H the Ills: Hoio the 
Scottis and Pichtis brak down the wall of Adriane ; andjaucht 
aganis the Romanis, xoith sindry chancis of victory. 

Ftir deith of Conarus, the nobillis, be generall con- 
vention, maid Ethodius king: for he wes nepot to 
Mogallus, gottin on his sister. Ethodius, eftir his co- 
ronation, revvardit Argadus, governour, with landis 
and riches, for his gud ministration of justice during his tune; and 
maid him generall lieutenand of his realme. 

This nob ill prince past in His, and pecifyit the same of all de- 
baitis. At his returning in Albion, he wes advertist that the 
Romanis had brokin down the wal of Adrian, and in place thairof 
hes beildit gret strenthis of treis, stanis, and devaitis ; and be the 
samin, maid mony heirschippis in the landis of Scottis and Pichtis, 
of quhom ane gret nowmer wer slane, in defence of thair awin 
guddis, and the remanent discomfist. 

Als sone as Ethodius hard thir novellis, he send ane herald to 
Victorine, desiring redres to be maid within xv dayis ; Avith certifi- 
catioun, gif the samin wer nocht done within the said time, he suld 


I — 


recovir the samin be force of battal. It was answerit be Victorine, 
that this last pray of guddis was takin be Romanis, to recompens 
sindry othir heu-schippis maid afore be Scotis and Pichtis; for 
thay war ane seditious pepil, and confiderat only for dammage of 
thair nichtbouris ; as apperit cleirly, becaus thay brak first the said 
wall of Adrian, and beildit sindry strenthis fornens the samin, to 
trubill the Romanis and Britonis, but ony sicht to peace afore con- 
trackit. Ethodius, movit be this answer, send his ambassatouris to 
the King of Pichtis, and desirit him to cum, with his folkis, agane 
ane certane day, to recover thair guddis, tane be Romanis. The 
King promittit to be reddy, as was desirit. 

The Romanis, weil advertist of thir materis, providit ane huge 
ordinance of battall aganis thair ennimes. The confiderat pepil 
rasit thair armyis at the day prefixt, and brak down the wall of 
Adrian in mony partis, and enterit, with maist cruell heirschippis 
and slauchter, in the landis of Romanis. In the nicht following, 
the Romanis slippit by the tentis of Scottis and Pichtis, and come, 
baith in Mers and Berwik, to draw thaim out of the Romane landis. 
The confiderat kingis, weil advertist thairof, come, with gret dili- 
gence, on the morrow, to rescours thair landis. Incontinent, baith 
the armyis ruschit togidder, and faucht, with sindry chance of vic- 
tory: for the richt wingis war victorius on ilk side, and the left 
wingis discomfist. The mid batallis faucht ithandly, quhil the 
nicht bereft thaim thair sicht. And sa baith the said battallis se- 
verit, on thair awin will, but ony victory. On the morow, al the 
wemen that foUowit the Scottis and Pichtis to this battal, seing the 
feild desert, gaderit the spulyeis of slane men, and returnit with 
the samin in Scotland. 

This battall was sa sorowful, that the yeir nixt following was in 
quiet, but ony motioun of weiris. 


How Victor ine was deprivit of auctoriie, and Calphurnius Agrkola 
send in his place. How Calphurnius reparit the wed of Adrian, 
and returnit to Rome. 

IcTORiNE, seing his army brokin in this maner, wrait 
to Aurehus, Emprioure, and schew all this trubill that 
fell to Romanis be this last battall, with every circum- 

__^ stance afore rehersit. 

The Emprioure, traisting this trubill fallin to Romanis be febill 
curage of Victorine, deprivit him of all auctorite, and send Calphur- 
nius Agricola, quhilk was nepot to Juhus Agricola, afore rehersit, 
in his place. 

Calphurnius, at his cuming in Britane, assemblit ane large power 
of Britonis and Romanis at York, to invade the confiderat pepill : 
and first maid sacrifice to the goddis, to have victory on his en- 
nimes ; sine rasit his camp, and come beyond the wall of Adrian : 
quhare he fand, be frequent weiris, al the landis waist, but ony 
cornis or frutis ; all the townis brint be Scottis, that na lugeing 
suld remane to thalr ennimes. Calphurnius, nochtwithstanding thir 
direptionis, went forthwart with his army, and invadit baith Mers 
and Pentland with irrecoverabil skaithis, and slew the inhabitantis 
thairof, in al partis, but ony mercy or ranson. Sic thingis done, 
he returnit to York, and remanit thair, the winter following, with 
the residew of his army; makand provision to invade the Scottis and 
Pichtis agane the nixt simer. 

In the mene time, he gat letteris, that Welchemen, with sindry 
othu: pepill of Britane, wer rebellit ; and, be the said rebellioun, 
mony cieteis and townis that stude at the opinioun of Romanis, 
brint and heryit, and the inhabitantis thairof cruelly slane. Cal- 
phurnius, dreidand to tine the landis conquest afore be sa huge dif- 
ficulte, in persewt of new rowmis; left the Scottis and Pichtis, and 
maid him, with all diligence, to renew the wall of Adrian, that the 


samin micht be ane targe, in times cumming, aganis the violence of 
Scottis and Pichtis. Sone efter, he gat sindry craftismen to clenge 
the fowseis, and to repair the said wall in all partis, with touris and 
bastailyeis rising in the strangest maner that micht be devisit. 
And quhen the wal was reparit in all partis, he left ane band of 
weirmen to debait the samin fra violence of ennimes, and went Avith 
the residew of his army on the AVelchemen : and thay, with na les 
diligence, met him in arrayit battal. Nochtheles, thay Avar finaly 
vincust and chasit. 

Skarsly Avas this battall pecifyit, quhen haistely folloAvit ane othir, 
be rebelliovm of the He of Wicht The inhabitantis thairof come 
with proude baner aganis the Romanis, and A\^ar vincust on the 
same maner as afore. The confiderat pepill, seand the Britonis 
dantit in this Avise, held thaim in thair awin roAA mes, but ony inva- 
siounof Romanis; dreidand the samin chance of victory, in this Cal- 
phurnius Agricola, that Avas afore Avith Julius Agricola, quhilk sub- 
dewit sa mony regionis of Scottis and Pichtis to Romane empire. 

Calphurnius, heirand, be thir exploratouris, how the confiderat 
pepill Avar slcalit, but ony molestatioun done to his pepil; maid him 
to meis al seditionis, gif ony war rising, amang the Britonis. And 
quhen he had pecifyit thaim on all debaittis, he returnit, be com- 
mand of Anthonius Commodus, Empriour of Rome. 

H<yw Trebellius was send in Brifanc, and was vincust be the Scottis 
and Pichtis. Of the rebellion of' Britonis aganis him; and qf'his 
message send to the Emj)riour. 

Fteu the departing of Calphurnius, ane ncAv capitane, 
namit P. Trebellius, Avas send in Britane be the Em- 
prioure. This Trebellius governit Britane mair be 
benivolence and favoure, than ony auctorite. He usit 
the counsall of Britonis in his hie besines ; and did gret honour to 
Lucius, King of Britonis, commending him oftimes, be liis Avritingis, 





to the Emprioure, that he was baith lufFer of the commoun well of 
Rome, and ennime to all thaim that hatit the empire thairof. Tre- 
bellius come in sic favour to Lucius, King of Britonis, be thir com- 
mendationis, that he belevit na thing micht succede to his dammage 
in Britane ; and began, thairfore, to schaw his fenyeit mind, as man 
of insaciabill avarice ; for he slevs^ mony riche men in Britane, only 
to confisk thair gudis, and otheris banist, to the same effect.- Thir 
cruelteis maid him sa odius, that he had bene oftimes invadit and 
slane, war nocht he was ithandly supportit be the said Lucius. 

The confiderat pepil, knawing the hatrent of Britonis aganis Tre- 
bellius, thocht the time expedient to revenge auld injuris. And 
efter that thay had gaderit ane army, with all provisioun that micht 
be devisit, thay brak down the wall of Adriane, quhilk was reparit 
afor be Calphurnius, and wrocht intollerabil cruelteis on the Bri- 
tonis that obeit to Romanis. TrebelUus, movit be thir displesouris, 
went with ane army of horsmen and futemen aganis the Scottis and 
Pichtis. At his first juning, the Britonis and Frenchemen, quhilkis 
wer ane gret part of his army, left him : throw quhilk he was esaly 
vincust, and all his army put to flicht. And thocht the victory suc- 
cedit to Scottis and Pichtis in this battall, yit innowmerabil slauch- 
ter Avas maid on thaim, als well as of Romanis. Trebellius, discom- 
fist on this maner, colleckit the residew of his army, and returnit to 

The Scottis and Pichtis become richt insolent efter this victory : 
And to revenge the slauchter sa mony yeris maid on thaim, thay 
slew al the presoneris quhilkis war takin in this last feild; and 
come with new army on the pepil that dwelt in Westmureland and 
Kendale, and invadit thame with sic cruelte, that thay war disparit, 
but refuge. Howbeit Trebellius was gretumly commovit at thir 
offencis, he durst nocht assailye his ennimes with battall ; for he had 
na les suspection aganis the Britonis than aganis the Scottis and 
Pichtis. Nochtheles, be frequent jeoperdyis, he slew his ennimes, 
ay quhare he micht apprehend thaim, but ony miseration. 

In the samin time rais mekill trubill in Britane : For the com- 
monis, seing thaim ilk day mair iiijurit be the Scottis and Pichtis, 
but ony esperance of redres ; chesit Caldorus, ane vailyeant knicht 
of Pichtis blude, to be thair capitane in thair rebellion : for he was 


mony yeris accustomit with thair maneris, liavand na thing in mair 
hatrent than tyranny of Romanis. Trebellius, knawing the gret 
dangeir appering be this trubill, tuke lang consukation, be quhat 
industry and laubour he micht best resist thairto. Efter degeist 
advisement, he tuke purpos to fecht with Britonis ; for gif thair 
power war midht with Scottis and Pichtis, the samin micht not be 
dantit but gret slauchter of Romanis. The Bi'itonis, becaus thair 
army was colleckit of commonis, wer astonist be his cumming : 
nochtheles, be impulsion of Caldorus, thair capitane, thay junit with 
thair ennimes in gret ferocite and spreit. Followit ane bludy and 
terribill battall, fochtin with doutsum victory : bot at last the Bri- 
tonis war vincust. Caldorus eschapit out of this battal with cer- 
tane his freindis, and returnit in Pentland, rejosing in his mind that 
sa mony Romanis and Britonis wer slane be his industry. Mony 
nobiUis of Britane wer in this feild aganis the Romanis, howbeit 
thay wer cloithit under landwart habit ; and quhen thay saw the 
Romanis be rageand fury sla sa mony of the commonis, thay disco- 
verit thameself to Romanis, traisting, becaus thay wer nobillis, to be 
the erar saiffit, and tane presoneris. Quhen Trebellius wes advertist 
how thay dissimulit thair habit, and Aver the caus of this rebellion, 
he gart hing thame, in presens of al the pepill, on jebaitis. This 
cruelte maid Trebellius richt odious to the Britonis: for on the mor- 
row thay tuke als mony Romanis, and hangit thaim on the samin 

Trebellius, dreding gret dangeir appering in al partis, complanit 
to the Emprioure of the treason of Britonis, and injuris done be 
Scottis and Pichtis ; and desirit support to be send haistely, or ellis 
the Romanis suld be doung schamefully out of Britane. 

CommodusAnthonius,Empriour, to dant this rebellion of Britonis, 
Scottis, and Pichtis, send ane vailyeaunt knicht, namit Pertenax, in 
Britane ; quhilk, eftir his cuming, dantit the ennimes of Romane 
Empire mair be benivolence than ony preis of armis : howbeit, ane 
certane of thaim, that wer of smal reputatioun, wer punist to the 
deith. Eftir this, he rasit his camp, and com beyond the Avail of 
Adriane, quhare he invadit the Scottis and Pichtis with heirschippis 
and slauchter. Bot quhen he suld have procedit forwart, he gat 
writingis, that Commodus, Emprioure, wes slane be treason of his 


familiaris ; and, sone eftir, he returnit to Rome, quhare he wes cho- 
sin Emprioure. And eftir his coronatioun, Trebelhus wes send agane 
in Britane. 

How Argadus, L'leutenand to King Ethodius, zoas slane, and his- 
Army discomjist^ in the His. Of sindry lazois and actis maid be 
Ethodius ; and of his slauchter. 

Uhil sic thingis wer done in Britane, succedit gret tru- 
bill to Ethodius in Scotland. For sindry gret Clannis 
of the Ihs, to revenge tlie slauchter of thair freindis. 
quhilkis wer slane be Argadus, quhen he wes gover- 
nour, arrivit, with ane gret power, in Argyle ; and maid slauchter 
and heirschippis in all partis thau-of, but ony miseratioun of estait. 
Ethodius, to punis thir attemptatis, send Argadus, his lieutenand, 
wdth ane cumpany of chosin men, in Argyle ; and come with ane 
army, baith of Scottis and Pichtis, to the wall of Adriane, to fecht 
with Romans and Britonis, gif thay wald invaid him. The Clannis 
of the His, knawing the cuming of Argadus, convenit suddanlie 
with thair capitane to meit him ; and left mm Irelandmen, quhilkis 
come with thaim for spulye, hid inider craggis and covis of that 
land, to take Argadus, gif thay micht, at sum avantage. Als sone 
as thir Irelandmen persavit Argadus cuming by thaim, thay ruschit 
al at anis apon him Avith ane sellout. Argadus, seing him invadit 
on athir side, turnit all dredour in maist fury, and faucht with in- 
credibill manheid to the deith ; and wes finalie slane, ^\A\h ii thou- 
sand men of his army, and the residew put to flicht. 

King Ethodius become richt displesant to the Clannis of the Ihs 
for this offence ; for he come, sone efter, with xx thousand men, in 
Argyle, The Clannis of the Ihs, advertist of his cuming, pullit up 
salis, to have fled in the His ; nochtheles, thay wer drevin agane in 
Argyle, with contrarius windis. King Ethodius, knawing thaim 
disparit men, and nocht abill to be vincust but hie dammage and 
VOL. I. 2 a 


slauchter of his pepil ; brak thaim mair be wisdome than ony violence 
of battall, and brocht thaim to sic necessite, that thay wer constranit, 
for fak of vittaUis, to seik peace ; quhilk wes grantit to thaim, un- 
der thir conditionis: The principall capitane, and twa hundreth, 
quhom the king wald cheis of thair cumpany, sal be deliverit, to un- 
derly the wil of him and his nobillis ; and the remanent to return 
hame, but thair swerdis, in the His. Thir Clannis, and men of the 
His, seing na refuge, tuke peace on the samin condition, and deh- 
verit sa mony as the king plesit ; quhilkis wer justifyit, and put to 
deith. The residew, seing thair capitane and thair freindis slane, 
come with ane huge nowmer of stanis, becaus thay wantit thair 
swerdis, on the kingis army, as rammist and wod creaturis, to have 
I'evengit the slauchter of thair freindis; nochtheles, ane gret end 
of thaim, with litill lauboure, wes slane, and the remanent put to 

The His dantit on this maner, and the Britonis levand in servi- 
tude under Romanis, Ethodius had his realme in peace, but ony 
uncouth or domistik weiris, mony yeris eftir. And, eftir that he had 
visit all boundis thairof, he chesit sindry prudent men to be jugis, 
for administratioun of justice to his subdittis. And, that he suld 
nocht dull, be approching of age, in sleuth, he gave his ingine to 
hunting, as he wes lernit in his youth ; and commandit the lawis, 
maid afore be his nobill antecessouris concerning hunting, to be ob- 
servit. And, first, he commandit, that na haris be slane, quhcn thay 
ar lyand, with clubbis, arowis, dartis, or ony siclik instrumentis ; 
nor yit tane be nettis or girnis : becaus haris Aver ofiimes murdrist 
be sic maner, but ony game. He commandit als, gif the haris had 
forrun the hundis be lang renk, to be na forthir persewit : siclike, 
that na man sla ane baggit hind, nor yit thair calffis. It wes defen- 
dit als, to sla ane hair with ony othir ingine than chace of hundis : 
and na hunting to be usit during the season of winter and weir ; for, 
in that season, the erd is so ouir coverit with snawis, that the deir 
ar constranit to discend fra the montanis to the planis to serche thair 
fude, and oftimes murdrist but ony game. Thir lawis wer maid be 
Ethodius ; for he detestit na thing mair, than the honorabill game 
of hunting, quhilk wes ordanit for his nobillis and gentill men, to 
be distroyit be sic febill slichtis, but solace. Attoure, quhen this 


prince vakit fra his hunting, he wes gevin to honest pleseiris ; and 
nurist with him crafty menstrahs of all sortis. Bot, at last, he wes 
treasonably slane, under nicht, be ane menstrale of the His, quhome 
he had in gret delite. This menstrale wes finalie tane be the kingis 
gard ; and, quhen he wes accusit, quhy he slew his native prince, 
that wes so familiar and tendir ^ith him, he answerit, that he slew 
the king, becaus the king slew mony of his freindis afore in Argyle ; 
and, sen he had so condingly revengit the slauchter of his freindis, 
quhilk he wes determit mony day is afore to do, and his vehement 
affectioun satifyit be his vailyeant deid, he desirit to leif na langar : 
and bad thaim use quhat cruelte thay list for his offence ; for his 
6urage was na les reddy to sustene the deith, than it was to sla the 
king : attoure, thair was na kind of deith sa cruell to be devisit on 
him, that micht cause him to repent the kingis slauchter, sen he, be 
the samin, hes so condinglie revengit the slauchter of his deir freindis. 
Skarsly wer thir wourdis said be the said menstrale, quhen his body 
wes drawin sindry with wild hors. 

Ethodius wes slane, the xxxiii yeir of his regne; and beryit in 
Dunstafage, amang the sepulturis of his progenitouris. His regne 
come to the empire of Severus, Emprioure. 

C6ap« CtoelftD. 

OfmonijnohillClerkis. How Britane tuke the faith of Crist. Of 
the vicious King Satrahell ; and of his deith. 

Bout this time flurist mony nobill Clerkis, in sindry 
partis of the warld : as, Galiane and Ipocrates, medci- 
naris ; Appollonius, oratoure, quhilk wes martyrit be 

_^ Gentilis, for making of ane orisone in loving of the glo- 

rius Virgin Mary. 

Mony pepill began, in this time, to detest the errouris of Gentilis, 
and tuke the sicker faith of Crist. Lucius, King of Britonis, heir- 
and, be the Romanis under Trebellius, of the mirachs and religion 
of Cristin faith, send writingis to Elethurius, quhilk wes the xrv 


Paip fra Sanct Peter, to gif the Cristin faith to him and his pepill. 
Sone efter come in Britane, two haly men, Fugatius and Damanius ; 
quliilkis brocht the said Lucius and his pepill to the sacrament of 
baptime, and put doun al vane superstitionis and idolitris. The yeir 
that Britane tuke the faith of Crist, wes, fra his incarnatioun, ane 
hundi-eth lxxxvii yeris. Bot we wil return to our history. 

Eftir deth of Ethodius, his sonnis wer of so tender age, that thay 
micht nocht succeid; and, thairfore, Satrahell, his brothir, wes 
maid king. This Satrahell Aves ane man of sle and fals ingine ; and 
gevin to sic cruelte and treason, that he slew, be fenyeit causis, mo- 
ny of all the freindis of Ethodius, to defraude his airis of the crown. 
He wes so unmerciful to the commonis and nobillis, that he spulyeit 
thaim baith of thair guddis and landis ; -and mony of thame, for 
vane causis, put to deith. Thus grew he ilk day richt odius, baith 
to his commonisj and nobillis. Sone eftir, followit' discord, dissen- 
sion, and domistik weris, amang freindis and nichtbouris, to the gret 
dammage of the common weil. Thir, and mony othir damagis, ap- 
pering in plane exterminioun of the pepill, come throw sleuth and 
imprudence of this unhappy tyrane : for he durst nocht cum to 
licht, to punis trespassouris ; becaus the pepill had him in extreme 
hatrent for his cursit tyranny. Quhil, at last, he wes slane be ane of 
his familiaris, within the nicht ; the fourt yeir of his regne. 

CDap. Cl)Uteent&. 

Of King Donald the First. How the Britonis zoer inhibit he the Ro- 
manis to have ony King of thair llude. And how thay solistit the 
Scottis and Pichtis to assist to thair rebellion. 

Atrahell slane in this maner, Donald, brothir to 
Ethodius the First, avcs maid king ; ane just and humil 
prince, richt far discordand fra the maneris of the last 
tyrane: nocht gevin to slichtis nor falset, bot settand 
iiis mimllo'meis all contentionis and truble amang his liegis. And 
quhen he had peacifyit his realme of all debaitis, he began to vesy 


all boundis thairof ; makand residence oftinies in his lionorabil cas- 
tellis with his nobilhs, and doing justice to his subdittis but ony re- 
spect of the party ; and punist all crimes, effering to the offence 
thairof : thro we quhilk the pepill, that wes wild and undantit afore, 
be necligence of eviU princis, wes brocht to civill raaneris, and abill 
to withstand thair ennimes quhen dangeir occurrit. This nobil 
prince had ane gard of chosin men, reddie for all chargis, baith in 
time of weir and peace. 

About this time, Lucius, King of Britonis, deceissit. The Ro- 
manis, eftir his deith, knawing the kingis of Britane wes occasioun 
of sa frequent seditioun in times bygane, inhibit, that ony of thair 
blude suld regne in times cuming : throw quhilk gret trubill succe- 
dit in Britane. For Fulgencius, quhilk wes discendit of the blude 
riall of Britane, richt commovit that the nobhs thairof suld be dis- 
herist of the crown, convenit mony of the nobillis thairof to ane 
counsall; and complenit the gret tyrannyis done be Romanis, in 
plane eversioun of thair native lawis and liberte ; thair virginis, 
wedowis, and matronis, fulyeit be insaciabill lust of Romanis ; tliair 
guddis escheitit ; new tribute and exactionis ilk day desirit, beside 
mony othir infinite oppressionis ; and, last of all, the nobill blude 
disherist of the crown : and, thairfore, gif the samin wer nocht hais- 
tely reparit, na nobill blude, but onlie conimonis, suld be left in 
Britane. The Britonis, movit with thir reasonis, set ane day to 
meit him in thair best maner, to invade the Romanis. 

Sone eftir, Fulgencius send ane herald to Donald, King of Scot- 
tis, schawing the rebellioun of Britonis aganis the Romanis, and de- 
siring support to expell thaim out of Albioun ; for the samin micht 
be done that time with les truble than ony time afore : for the em- 
priour wes agit, and brokin Avith sa mony calamiteis, that he wist 
nocht quhat wes to be done ; attoure, sa mony pepill wer rebellit 
aganis him in France, Almanye, and the eist partis of the warld, 
that na help micht be send fra him in Britane. King Donald, re- 
josing of thir tithingis, and glaid to have occasioun of battall, be- 
caus his pepill micht nocht leif but civil weris amang thaimself, 
quhen thay have na externe weris on othir pepil ; promittit to cum, 
at ane prefixit day, with his power, to invaid the Romanis. The 
Pichtis promittit thair support in the samin maner. 


Fulgentius, knawing the punitioun of Scottis and Pichtis maid 
to the effect foresaid, come, with ane army of Britonis, to the wal 
of Adriane, fornens the Ireland seis ; and brak doun ane gret part 
thairof, agane the cuming of Scottis and Pichtis : and thay, with na 
les dehgence, met the Britonis. Als sone as the Albianis had mengit 
thair armyis togiddir, thay come forthwart to York, traisting to 
have found Trebellius, with othir sindry Romane capitanis, in it. 
At last, quhen thay had line lang time at the sege of this town, and 
understude the principal Romanis, quhom thay desirit maist, fled in 
Kent, thay left the sege ; and rnaid incursionis, vnth heirschippis 
and slauchter, on all pepill that obeit to Romanis. 

The commonis, astonist be thir cruel teis, and nocht of power to 
resist, past to the confiderat kingis in thair plesand maner ; and res- 
savit thaim within the portis of thair town. Thair armyis wer lugit 
utouth the town so lang, as ony thing micht be gottin to thair sus- 
tentation ; and than thay went to othir placis, ay makand sic like 
heirschippis as afore, nocht ceissing fra thair cruell fury : quhill 
the intollerable and cald stormis of winter constranit thaim to skaill 
and returne hame. 

How SeveruSf Emprioure, come in Britane, to revenge the oppres- 
skmis done to Romanis. Hoxo the Britonis Jled in Scotland. 
Hoxo the Scottis and Pichtis, fechtand in support of Britonis, voar 

Rkbellius, impacient to suflfir thir ofi^encis, wrait to 
Severn s, Emprioure, how the Britonis nocht onlie wer 
rebellit, bot als hes invadit the Romane landis with sic 
cruel tie and heirschippis, that it wes necessar othir to 
send ane new army, or ellis to cum himself in Britane. 

Sever us, Emprioure, glaid to have occasioun of battall, that he 
micht conques siclik honour in subdewing of Britonis as he had 
won afore in subdewing of baith the eist and north partis of the 


warld, tuke his wayage on ane hors litter ; and come finalie, with 
gret lauboure and dihgence, howbeit he was agit, and pinit with the 
gout, in Britane : and brocht with him baith his sonnis, Anthonius 
and Getas ; to that fine, that he micht draw thaim fra corrupit and 
sensuall plesouris, to merciall werkis. At his cuming in Britane, 
he gaderit the residew of Romanis, with his new army, to invaid 
the Britonis. 

Fulgentius, and the remanent Britonis of his opinion, astonist be 
suddane cumming of the Emprioure with ane huge power, send ora- 
touris to excuse thaim, and desirit peace. The Empriour dipeschit 
thir oratouris with plane repuls. Than Fulgentius, frustrat of 
his desiris, convenit the nobilhs to ane counsall : perswading thaim, 
be lang orisoun, to recover thair hberte, and to restore the blude 
royall of Britane to the crown ; revengeing the intollerable outragis 
sa mony yeris done be Romanis : and declarit how na thing micht 
move him to take this maist dangerus mater on hand, bot onlie to 
recover the hberte of Britane, and to banis uncouth blude fra the 
croun. And thocht he persuadit thaim sumtime to battall, sayno-, 
the Romanis wer ane army gaderit of divers opinionis and mindis, 
and micht thairfore be the soner vincust, fra Scottis and Pichtis, 
quhilkis wer maist ennimes to Romanis, wer cumin to thair sup- 
port : yit he thocht mair proffitable to brek the Romanis with smal 
incursionis, than ony set battal ; traisting, gif the goddis wer propi- 
ciant, that Britane micht be perpetuallie deliverit of Romane servi- 
tude. The Britonis, movit be thir wourdis, come out of Britane, 
with thair wifRs, children, and guddis, to the montanis beyond the 
wall of Adriane. 

In the mene time, Fulgentius gaderit ane cumpany of the noblest 
Britonis of his opinion, with purpos erar to defend thaimself than 
to invaid thair ennimes : and sone eftir, the Scottis and Pichtis come 
to him, reddy to assailye all maner of jeoperdeis for thair common 

Severus, Empriour, knawing all the wayis of the Albianis, left 
na thing undone that micht pertene to the provisioun of his ordi- 
nance: and quhen al thingis wer providit as he desirit, he left his 
yongest son, namit Getas, to governe the Britonis under Romane 
lawis; and come with al his ordinance to York, quhair he wes res- 


savit with gret honour and triumphe. Eftir his intres, he went to 
the temphs, and maid his sakitationis to the goddis ; sine past to the 
castell, quhair Trebelhus wes, with sindry Ilomane sodjouris, and 
tuke lang avisement how the barbar pepill micht be best dantit. 
Nocht lang eftir, he rasit his campe, and come forthwart with dis- 
play it baner. 

The Britonis quhilkis wer of Fulgentius opinioun, seing na re- 
fuge, tuk purpos to fecht aganis the Romanis, and othir to de maist 
vailyeantly, or ellis to leif with victory and honour : yit quhen thay 
saw thair ennimes, with sic multitude of pepill, in sicht, thay changit 
purpos. Nochtheles, thay junit with maist fury, and faucht lang 
time with uncertane victory ; quhill at last thay wer vincust, and 
the Scottis and Pichtis put to flicht on the sarain maner. Fulgen- 
tius wes brocht out of the feild be his freindis, in esperance of bet- 
ter fortoun. 

The Scottis and Pichtis, eftir this discomfitour, gaderit the resi- 
dew of thair army, and returnit hame. In this unhappie battall wer 
slane of Scottis, Pichtis, and Britonis, xxx thousand. 

C&a]?* JFifteentfj. 

Of gret cruelteis done be Severus, Emprioure, aganis the nohillis of 
Britane. Of his xcer'is aganis the Scottis and Pichtis. Hoza 
Anthonius reparit the Wall of Adi-iane : and of the Empriouris 

He Scottis and Pichtis, brokin with this calamitie, 
send in Ireland, Norway, and Denmerk, for support of 
freindis, to resist the Romanis ; and Fulgentius, on the 
tothir side, ceissit not to hire all pepill that he micht 
get for money. 

Eftir this battall, the Empriour Severus past throw all boundis 
of Britane, and slew all the nobillis thairof, quhom he micht ap- 
prehend ; havand miseratioun onelie on the commonis, for thay did 
no offence, bot followit thair maisteris. Als sone as he had reparit 


all dammagis done be necligence of febill captanis, he retournit to 
York ; and left his army in thair winter schelis. 

In the nixt simer, the Scottis and Pichtis, seand na support come 
fra Ireland, set thaim erar to defend thair awin, than to invade thair 
ennimes. Fulgentius, with the Britonis that stude at his opinioun, 
in esperance of better fortoun, fled to the Scottis and Pichtis. 

Sone efter, Severus, Emprioure, rasit his campe, and come be- 
yonde the wall of Adriane : throw quhilk foUowit ithand incursionis, 
be sindry chancis of fortoun ; sumtime the Scottis, sumtime the 
Romanis victorius: for the strait montanis and mossis of the cuntre 
war gret defence to the Scottis and Pichtis, fleand thairto in time of 
dangeir, and invading thair ennimes quhen thay saw occasioun. 
Thus war the Romanis lang taryit fra battall. 

In the mene time, the Empriour fell in sic infirmite, that he was 
constranit to returne hame, with Getas, his youngest son, and to 
leif Anthonius, his eldest son, to governe Britane, Avith all chargis 
pertenand thairto. 

Anthonius, litill astonist of his ennimes, maid his residence, with 
his campe, nocht far fra Tyne ; and commandit the wall of Adriane, 
quhilk was than brokin down, to be beildit agane, with mony Strang 
touris and bastailyeis rising in it : ilk toure na farrar fra uthir than 
the sound of trumpat micht be hard. He put, als, trumpatouris in 
ilk toure, that, be the sound of trumpat, the cuntre suld be warnit 
to withstand thair ennimes, quhen dangeir occurrit. 

Als sone as this wall was reparit with sindi'y ingine of craftismen, 
Anthonius set his besines to governe the Romane army in sic maner, 
that thay micht knaw him, and nocht his brothir Getas, as lord and 
senyeoure above thaim. Bot Getas was sa sorrowfull, be conipas- 
sioun of his faderis infirmiteis, that he tuke litil sollicitude of the 
empire ; and seand his fader incres ilk day with mair pine, he solis- 
tit the medcinaris to haist his fader to the deith. Quhill at last his 
fadir, the Emprioure, brokin mair with dolour than ony lang yeris, 
deceissit; maist vailyeant Emprioure in gloreof merciall dedes, that 
was afore his dayis. 

VOL. I. 


How Anthonius slew his hrothir Getas, to make himself Empriour. 
How Scotland tulce the Ja'ilh of Crist, and cunye'it money. Of 
mony noh'ill Clerliis in sindry partis of the Warld, and of King 
Donaldis deith. 

EvERUs deceisslt on this wise, Anthonius, his eldest 
Sonne, solistit the capitanis of Roniane army to give 
onely the empire to him, that he micht succede but ony 
colleig. Howbeit he culd nocht purches the samin; 
for thay had baith him and his bruthir in equall afFectioun and ho- 

Anthonius, frustrat of his desiris, maid confideratioun with Scottis, 
Pichtis, and remanent Briionis of Fulgentius opinioun; sine re- 
turnit to his moder and brother at London. The moder, desiring 
to bring hir sonnis to concord, tuke freindis to intercommone on 
thir debaitis : and efter that scho had aggreit thaim, mair be vio- 
lence than ony gud luf, scho devidit the empire, with equal honouris, 
betwix thaim; and departit out of Britane to Home : berand with 
hir the powder of thair fader, in ane goldin poke, with mony aro- 
matik odouris. Efter thair cumming to Kome, Anthonius, impa- 
cient to have ane fallow equall to him in dominioun, slew his bro- 
thir Getas in presence of his moder ; and succedit, be his slauchter, 
to the haill empire. Bot we will returne to our history. 

Quhen Donald had reparit all faltis in his realme, and brocht the 
samin in better estait, he passit the remanent of his dayis in gud 
peace, be inspiratioun of Crist, our Salviour, Prince, and Lord of 
peace. For in the time of the said Severus, Emprioure, King Donald 
send his oratouris to Sanct Victore, the xv Paip fra Sanct Petir, 
and purchest certane devoit and religius personis to cum in Scot- 
land, to instruct him, his wif and barnis, in the Cristin faith ; and 
to geif thaim the sacrament of baptisme. Than King Donald res- 
savit the Cristin faith, and all the Scottis on the same maner. The 


yeir that Scottis tuke the faith of Crist, our Salvioure, God and 
Man, was fra his incarnatioun cciii yeris ; fra the beginning of the 
realme of Scotland, d.xxxiii yeris; fra the beginning of the warld, 
v.M.cccxcix yeris. And thocht the Britonis tuke the faith of Crist 
afore us, yit thair has bene ay ane braid diflFerence betwix us and 
thaim : for efter that thay tuke the faith, thay have sindry times 
left the samin, be persecutioun of Gentilis ; bot we bene evir sicker, 
but ony roust of heresy, sen oure first beginning thairin, to thir 

King Donald was the first King of Scottis that prentit ane penny 
of gold or silver. On the ta side of this money was prentit ane 
croce, and his face on the tothir. The Scottis usit na money, bot 
marchandice, quhen thay interchangeit with Britonis and Romanis, 
afore thir dayis ; except it war money of the said Romanis or Bri- 
tonis : as may be previt be sindry auld hurdis and treasouris, found 
in divers partis of Scotland, with uncouth cunye. For in the yeir 
of God M.Dxix yeris, in FifFe, nocht far fra Levin, war certane 
penneis found, in ane brasin veschell, with uncouth cunye : sum of 
thaim war prentit with doubill visage of Janus; otheris with the 
stam of ane schip ; otheris had the figure of Mars, Venus, Mercu- 
rius, and siclike idolis ; on otheris war prentit Romulus and Remus 
sowkand ane wolf; and on the tothir side war prentit S.P.Q.R., 
quhilk signify is, Senatus pop ul usque Romanus ; that is to say, the 
senat and pepil of Rome. Siclike, in Murray-land, beside the see, 
in the ground of ane auld castell, the yeir of God m.cccclx yeris, 
was found ane veschell of merbill, full of uncouth money ; on quhilkis 
war prentit the image of ane ganar fechtand with edderis : this ves- 
chell of merbill was in na les admiratioun to the pepill than the un- 
couth cunye. Be thir exempillis may be provin that uncouth mo- 
ney hes bene amang us. 

At last King Donald, richt illuster in civill and religious werkis, 
deceissit, the xxi yeir of his regne ; and wes buryit be religious men 
and preistis in ane kirk, efter the maner of Cristin princis, with de- 
voit cerimonyis. His regne come to the time of Alexander Seve- 
rus, Romane Emprioure. 

In the time of King Donald war mony nobill clerkis ; as, Ulpia- 
nus, the floure of legistis in his dayis ; Origenes, ane singular man 


of piete and doctrine, with sa properant ingine, that he wald dite 
fastar than sevin practicianis micht suffice to write. This Origenes 
wes after brocht out of Antiochia, be instance of Mammea, moder 
to Alexander, Emprioure; and turnit hir efter to the Crislin faith; 
throw quhilk tlie Empriour began, nocht allanerly to favoure the 
Cristin pepill, bot als inhibit ony persecutioun to be maid on thaim; 
and kepit the crucifix in the maist secret partis of his chalmer. In 
the samin time was Plotinus, with mony othir clerkis of singular 
eruditioun, sum Gentilis, and sum of thaim Cristin pepill. This 
was the first time that the Scottis began to leir theologe and haly 
writ, be clerkis quhilkis war send be Victor, the Pape, for thair 
eruditioun, in Albion. 

Of King Etiiodius the Seciind ; and how the nobillis, Jind'mg him 
unabill to gide the realme, governit the samin be thair auctorite, 
in gret justice. 

OiVALD deceissit in this maner, Ethodius, the secund 
of that name, Sonne to Ethodius the First, was maid 
king. He was nurist in the He of Man, under the wise 
preceptouris thairof : howbeit, it was uncertanein quhat 
maneris he wald incres, quhen he was put to liberte ; for quhen he 
was declarit king, and frely deliverit of his preceptouris, he apperit 
of dull ingine, mair abill to gadder riches be his insaciabill avarice, 
than to governe ane realme. And becaus the nobillis persavit him of 
evill governance, thay gidit the realme be thair prudent constitu- 
tionis. Gude justice followit; and prudent men put in every schire, 
baith to punis criminall personis, and to kepe the pepill but ony ex- 
torsionis. Sic diligence was maid, that misdoaris war punist, and na 
man punist bot according to the lawis. It was defendit be the samin, 
to speke for ony criminall personis in jugement; and he that spake 
for the said personis war reput as participant with thair crime. 


Attoure, quhare ony trubill apperit be seditioun, the samin was 
haistely mesit. 

The Britonis levit al this time in gude peace, under tribute of 
Romanis ; and durst pretend na rebellioun aganis thaim : for Seve- 
rus, Emprioure, tuke sic pleggis of thaim afore his deith, that thay 
war constranit to leif in peace. Siclike, the Scottis and Pichtis, 
during the time of Ethodius, nothir did nor tuke injure of Romanis 
nor Britonis. Quhill at last King Ethodius was slane be his gard, 
the XVI yeir of his regne, becaus he was ouir mekill gevin to avari- 
cious gadering. 

And sa endis heir the Fift Buke of thir Croniklis. 

%\it ^tj:t Mult. 




Cljap* Jfirist* 

Hoia Athirco was maid King of Scottis. How the nobillis conspirit 
agayiis him^for his cursit tyrannyis ; and how he slew himself be 

OciiT lang efter the slauchter of Ethodius, 
the nobillis convenit to pubhk counsall, and 
maid Athirco, sonne of Ethodius afore de- 
ceissit, king: and thocht he was young, yit 
lie was dispensit be the nobillis, notwithstand- 
ing his age. He apperit, in the beginning of 
jj his empire, prudent and gratius to his sub- 
dittis; deliting in doctrine of letterit men, sic as knew the haly writ, 
or the history of his progenitouris He was weill exercit in wers- 
ling, and all othir corporall exercltion cuming be ingine or strenth 
of body ; and sa liberal, that he tyistit the pepill to his favoure : 
and yit he grew nocht in virtew as he grew in age ; for efter that 


he had roung viii yeris, he become ilk day mair unplesand, and ay 
the mair vicious, that he procedit in yeris ; like ane monsture, de- 
generat fra al honest exercitionis ; gevin to unsaciabill avarice ; and 
doing ilk thing mair be ire or dredur, than be benivolence or gud 
counsal. Thus tint he, be avarice, al the freindis that he conquest 
afore be his liberalite : and nocht onely was he involvit with thir 
crimes, hot with all kind of corruppit vice and lust that micht make 
him efFeminat ; and tuk sic delite in singaris, sportouris, and men- 
stralis, that he eschamit nocht to pas in sicht of al the pepill, play- 
ing on ane flute. 

The nobillis thoucht unworthy to be governit be sic ane mon- 
sture, that desirit erar to schaw him ane fidlar than ane virtuous 
prince : and war commovit, eik, that young men, be his wikit ex- 
empli, war ilk day mair drownit in lust, to the dammage of thair 
commoun weill, and laik of justice; seand thair king sa involvit 
with every kind of vice, that he tuke na solicitude of the governance 
of his realme, bot gaif occasioun ilk day mair and mair aganis him. 

Than was in Argyle ane man of gret auctorite, namit Nathalak, 
quhilk had two douchteris of excellent beawte. Athirco, advertist 
of thaim be his corruppit rutouris, ceissit nocht quhill he had de- 
florit thaim baith ; and quhen his lust was saclat, he causit his mis- 
chevous rebaldis to fulye thaim on the samin maner. Nathalak, 
herand thir cruelteis done to his dochteris, seirchit his ingine be 
quhat way he micht best revenge the samin : and in the mene time 
he maid consolatioun to his douchteris, knawing weill thair bodyis 
mair violat than thair mindis. On the morrow, he convenit his 
freindis to ane counsal, and complanit hevily the defloration of his 
dochteris : incontinent, all his allia and freindis ruschit to harnes, 
and maid solempne votis to punis this tyrane for his demeritis. On 
the morrow, mony of al the nobillis assistit to thair opinion ; and 
com to Dounstafage, quhare this vicius king remanit for the time. 
The nois and ratling of armit men maid na litil effray amang the 
commonis, at thair first cuming : nochtheles, fra the caus wes mani- 
fest of thair assemblance, the pepil gaderit fast out of all partis 
to assist to thaim. Few was than in that army, that thocht nocht 
baith this tyrane worthy to be degradit of auctorite, and punist to 
the deith. 


Athirco, advertist of this conspiration, was sa astonist, that he 
wist nocht quhat was to be done : yit he gaderit the pepill, that he 
micht rais for that time, and went forthwart with displayit baner ; 
traisting that his nobilhs, fra his baner war displayit, suld geif 
bakkis : and quhen he fand thaim htil afFrayit, and his awin cum- 
pany havand him in contemptioun for his unhappy dedis, he raif of 
his coit armour, and maid him with all diligence to fle in the His, to 
eschew the dangeu* appering. Incontinent, the pepill, that was ar- 
rayit to fecht in his opinioun, war randerit to Nathalak, becaus he 
left thaim in that extreme dangeir. 

Athirco, in this maner discomfist, gat ane bait to pas in the His ; 
bot he was drevin agane, be contrarius windis, to the land, quhare 
his ennimes war : and quhen he saw na way to eschaip, he slew him- 
self, the XII yeir of his regne, in the iv yeir of Valeriane, Empriour. 
This Valeriane maid ane miserabil end, howbeit he had na les ex- 
perience in morall doctrine than chevelry : for he was tane be Sa- 
pore. King of Pers, and his army discomfist ; and eildit in sa mise- 
rabill servitude, that Sapore maid ane stule of his bak, to leip on 
his hors. 

How Nathalak usurpit the crown, and persexoit all tlie linnage of 
Athirco xoith gret crnelteis ; and Jinalify was slane be hisjhnnliar 

Thirco slane in this maner, his brothir Dooms, havand 
litill confidence in the nobillis, fled with Findok, Ca- 
rance, and Donald, the sonnis of Athirco, in Pentland ; 
dredand to be invadit be Nathalak. And as he dred, sa 
followit : for Nathalak send his traist servitouris in Pentland, baith 
to sla Dooms, and thir thre sonnis of Athirco. Thir men, that war 
send to this effect, slew ane man nocht unlik, in habit, visage, and 
yeris, to Dooms. Nathalak, traisting Doorus, as he belevit, slane, 
couvenit his nobillis to ane counsall ; and efter that he had brocht 


ane buschement of armit men to fortify his desiris, he said on this 
maner: " I am rejosit, gud freindis, of the recent slauchter of 
" Athirco, quhilk he maid be just punitiovui on himself. Nane is, 
** I beleif, amang yow, nocht knawing the motive and just occasion 
" of our rebellioun aganis him. Now sail it be your part to concurre 
" with me, erar to revenge the cruelteis be him done, than to suffer 
" the samin proceid ony forthir. Howbeit his slauchter be schame- 
" ful and odius, ye ar innocent thairof ; and hes victory but ony 
" blude. The treason wrocht be this odius tyrane was na les re- 
" pugnant to your singular than commoun weill : nochtheles, the 
" samin is punist condignely, as he deservit, sen he was burio to 
*' himself mair schamefully than we micht devise. Necessar it is 
" to punis the invasour of the commoun weill ; for our eldaris pu- 
" nist the treason of Durstus and Ewin, effering to thair demeritis : 
" siclik, the cruelteis of Lugtak war nocht lang unpunist. Monv 
" otheris wikit princis hes bene amang us, and ay put down, fra 
" thay war injurius to the commoun weill. Now suld ye nocht 
" only geif thankis to the Eternal God, that hes deliverit yow, youre 
*' wiffis and barnis, fra tyranne of Athirco ; bot to take degeist 
" advisement, be quhat way al otheris tyrannis, in times cuming, 
" may be maist esalie eschcwit. Bewar, I pray yow, to suffer ony 
*' of Athircois linnage to regne above yow : othirwayis ye sal be 
" uterly distroyit, for the hatrent thay bere aganis yow; or ellis 
" constranit to seik a new habitatioun, your guddis confiscat, and 
" de in misire." 

Thir wourdis movlt mony of the nobillis to his opinioun ; otheris 
understude his dissait, and war richt sorrowfull that the sonnis of 
Athirco suld be disherist : for thocht thay war gottin be ane wekit 
fader, thay maid na offence; and sen thay war just heritouris, 
outhir suld the crown be gevin to thaim or sum of thair blude, that 
it micht remane haill to thaim at thair perfite age. Utheris, that 
war corruppit be Nathalak, thocht expedient nane of Athircois lin- 
nage to succede, for causis afore rehersit ; and declarit all his sonnis 
rebellis, and ennimes to the commoun weill : syne ordanit Nathalak 
to be king. The residew of the nobillis, constranit mair be force 
than ony kindnes, assentit thairto. 

VOL. I. 2 c 


Nathalak, maid king in this raaner, tuke the aithis of fidehte fra 
his nobilhs, in presence of the messe ; and went to Dounstafage. 
And to stabill the realme in mair securite, he gaif his guddis, with 
gret HberaHte, amang thaim that he suspeckit. And efter that he 
had conquest thair benivolence, he began to do sindry thingis per- 
tenand to ane gud prince. He schew, eik, how he tuke the charge 
of the empire for na proffet to himself, bot onely to make the no- 
billis of the realme different fra the commonis in honour and riches; 
and that men of vile and obscure linnage may knaw thaimself thirllit 
to servitude of the nobillis. Alwayis, sa lang as he governit the 
realme in honest constitutionis, few war repugnant to him : noch- 
theles, unstabill fortoun brocht all his felicite unto ane drery fine ; 
for within ane schort time efter, he tuke ane Avoman be adventure, 
quhilk usit to pas betwix the nobillis and Athircois sonnis; and 
fand sic writingis with hir, that he understude perfitly Doorus, 
quhome he traist slane, on live, with all the sonnis of Athirco : 
throw quhilk he wox sa tene, that he gart drown this woman nocht 
far fra the place quhare scho was takin, and kepit the writingis se- 
creit, quhil he saw his time ; and finallie, slew all the nobillis quhom 
he suspeckit be thir letteris. 

The freindis of thir nobillis, quhilkis war slane in this wise, 
ruschit haistely to harnes, to revenge thair slauchter : and sa this 
Nathalak, traisting to make the crown sicker to him and his airis 
be slauchter and tyranny, maid it maist unsicker. 

Als sone as he understude his nobillis conspirit aganis him ; be 
counsall of his familiaris, he fled in the north partis, to gader ane 
army out of Murray and Ros, to dant this rebellion. At last, seand 
himself frustrat of support, he turnit him to wichis, divinouris, and 
spaymen, to inquire quhat suld be the end of his life ; or gif ony 
dangeir war approcheand to him be occult hatrent of his familiaris. 
To dres this mater with mair diligence, he send ane of his maist 
tender and secreit servandis, namit Murray, to Comkill, quhare ane 
crafty wiche was dwelland for that time. This Murray, efter his 
cumming, demandit the wiche of every point in ordour, as he was 
commandit : and scho, be craft of necromanchy, gat knawlege of all 
his petitionis, and said, " The empire of King Nathalak sail have ane 
" haisty and miserabill end, be ane of his maist familiaris." This 


Murray, nocht content of sa general responce, prayit hir to schaw 
his name in speciall, that suld sla the king : scho answerit, " Thou 
" sail sla him." Than this IVIurray began to chicle Avith the wiche, 
saying, " Thow can devine nocht, bot sayis as thow pleis, be flattery 
" or malice. Thow sail be fals ; for I sail refuse na kind of deith, 
*' or I attempt sa odius cruelte." 

This Murray, havand na othir answer, was richt astonist, and maid 
him to return to the king. Yit afore his cuming to the king, he 
changit purpos ; oft revolving in his mind quhat dangeir micht fol- 
low, gif he revelit the answer, as the wiche schew, to the king ; oft 
musand the gud and the evil thairof, and knawing weill in quhat 
dangeir he stude, gif the king tuke ony suspitioun of him. Efter 
lang musing, he was fullely resolvit erar to sla the king, as tlie Aviche 
schew, than ay to leif in dangeir of his life. At last, quhen he was 
cumin to the kingis secrete chalmer allone with the king, he began, 
be lang circumstance, to schaw the wounderful slichtis and opera- 
tioun of this wiche. In the mene time, the king was sa trublit be 
flux of Avambe, that he Avas constranit haistely to pas to his eis. 
Als sone as this INIurray saAv the king at quiet, he pullit furth his 
dageir, and drave the king to the hart, suspeckand na thing les than 
sic treason, and kest his body doAvn in the closet ; sine stall aAvay be 
ane private postrome, and Avas the first man that schew the deith of 
the king to his conspiratoviris. 

This end maid Nathalak, the xr yeir of his regne; fra the incar- 
natioun, cc.lii yeris : in the time of Gahenus, the maist febil Em- 
priour that was afore him ; for in his time, xxx tyrannis iuA^adit the 
commoun Aveill of Rome Avith gret afflictionis, but ony resistance in 
the contrar. 




Of King Fyndok ; and hozc he dantii the lUs, and was slane he twa 

men thairqf. 

Athalak, the tyrane, slane on this maner, the nobillis 
send this IMurray in Pentland, to bring the thre sonnis 
of Athirco to Dounstafage ; and the eldest of thaim, 
namit Fyndok, ane lusty and vailyeant prince, was 
maid king. He kepit gud peace with his nichtbouris, the Romanis 
and Britonis ; and conquest freindis mair be benivolence, than ony 
feir of minassing. Bot, as oft fallis amang us, lang peace intertenit 
with uncouth pepill, generis civill contention! s amang ourself. 

Donald of the His, to revenge the slauchter of Nathalak, come 
with ane gret power in ]\Iurray and Ros, to the gret heirschippis 
and slauchter of the pepill ; becaus thay favorit the slaaris of Na- 
thalak, his freind. Fyndok, to punis thir attemptatis, come haistely 
in the His, and faucht with Donald, and put him to flicht. Donald, 
discomflst in this maner, fled to the sees, quhare he fand ane bait ; 
and enterit with sic multitude of folkis, that scho sank within ane 
mile to land, and all the pepil in hir perist. Howbeit the men of the 
His war brokin be this chance of battal, thay ceissit nocht fra thair 
undantit malice ; bot chesit Donald, quhilk was sonne to Donald 
afore perist, to be thair capitane ; and invadit the cuntre Avith mair 
trubil than afore. 

Fyndok, to punis thir conspiratouris, returnit in the His, and slew 
all that war apprehendit of thair opinioun ; syne kest down the 
strenthis of the cuntre, that na refuge sail rem ane at thair return- 
ing. Donald, afore the kingis cuming, fled in Ireland ; and efter 
the kingis departing, returnit in the His : and seand the cuntre heryit, 
and his freindis slane, he kest him to do the thing be slicht, that he 
micht nocht do be force ; and send ane messingeir, as he had bene 
penitent of all offence, to Fyndok, and desirit grace. The king, 
movit of piete, condiscendit to thir desiris : sa the said Donald 


come, with the principal movaris of this rebellion, but wappinnis, 
to Dounstafage, to underly his will. 

Donald, nocht content to have peace in this maner, chesit erar to 
underly the chance of fortoun, than the kingis will : and thairfore, 
to complet the treasonabil purpos be him devisit, he send two men 
of subtile ingine to Dounstafage, to await sum ganand time to sla 
the king. Thir two men fenyeit thaim gentillmen of the His, and 
ennimes to Donald : and at thair first cumming, thay gat litill cre- 
dence ; bot at last, be menis of Carance, the kingis brothir, thay 
war admittit to the kingis presence, and maid sa familiar, that thay 
war deput be the king to sit baith on his privat and pviblik materis. 
At last, qvihen thay persavit Carance set in slauchter of the king, 
to conques the crown, thay opinnit thair mind to him ; and he na 
thing suspendit thair purpos, bot with large promes tyistit thaim 
mair to the samin. 

Within schort time efter, the king went to ane hunting, beside 
Dounstafage, to sla ane wolf; and sat down on ane mote, nocht 
knawing how thir limmaris war set for his slauchter. At last, 
quhen the faid had brocht in the wolf afore the houndis, the skry 
arals, and ilk man went to his gam. Thus wes the king left his 
alone, but ony cumpany except thir two His men. Than ane of 
thaim began to hald the king in talk, quhill the tothir tratourusly 
come behind him, and drave him throw the body with ane hounting 
staffe. Als sone as thir tratouris had slane the king, thay left the 
staf stikand throw his body. The huntaris returning fra thair game, 
and finding the king slane, folloAvit sa fast on his slaaris, that thay 
war baith takin, and demandit, be scharp punitioun, for quhat oc- 
casioun thay slew the king. Thir tratouris, with spreit litill affrajdt, 
confessit pertly the crime, schawing how thay war instruckit be 
Donald of the His, and Carance, to sla the king. And qvihen thay 
had discoverit the treason, as said is, thay war baith put to maist 
terribill deith. 

King Fyndok was slane, the x yeir of his regne, quhilk was in the 
time of Floriane, Empriour. His body was buryit efter the use of 
Cristin princes, with gret lament of pepil, in ane riche sepulture, 
nocht far fra Dounstafage. 


HotO Carance teas hanlst for Ms hrotke?-is slauchtei' ; and Donald 
the Secund maid King. Of his deith ; and qfsindry nohill ClerMs. 

Arance, the secund sonne of Athirco, herancl the trea- 
son sa manifestly confessit be the slaaris of Fyndok, fled 
in Italy, quhair he wan gret fame and honouris in the 
weris of Dioclesiane and Aurelius, Empriouris : as we 
sail eftir schaw. Fyndok, slane in this maner, his brothir Donald, 
the secund of that name, and thrid sonne to Athirco, Aves maid 
king. This prince Aves takand avisement of his nobillis, be quhat 
maner he micht maist esalie revenge the slauchter of his brothir Fyn- 
dok : quhen suddanlie come tithingis, that the said Donald of the 
His wes cumin in Ros, and invading the pepil thairof with heir- 
schippis and cruelteis. 

King Donald movit for thir attemptatis, come haistelie in Mur- 
ray with ane certane chosin men : and commandit be generall pro- 
clamatioun, under pane of deith, al fensabill men to follow him, but 
ony tary. At his cumin in Murray, becaus he wes bot ane few now- 
mer, he partit his army at ane gret strenth, to abide the cuming of 
the remanent army. 

Donald of the His seing the king of small power, tuke purpos to 
jeopcrd him to the chance of fortoun : and, but more tary, he come 
with sa scharp battall on the king, that the king micht nocht use his 
ordinance of bowis and speris, bot constranit haistelie to fecht with 
swerdis. Followit, ane terribill and scharp bargane. Quhil at last, 
King Donald, ouirset with gret multitude of pepill fechtand aganis 
him, wes tane, with mm men of his army, and in thousand slane. 
King Donald finalie tuke sic malancoly, that he deceissit ; the thrid 
day eftir that he wes tane, in the first yeir of his regne. 

In thir dayis wer mony clerkis of singulare eruditioun : as, Quin- 
tus Tertulianus, that Avrait mekil aganis the errouris of Gentilis : 
Pylocratis, Bischop of Ephesei ; in quhais time wes gret contentioun 


concerning the cerimonis of Pasche : Cipriane, oratoure, quhilk re- 
nuncit the errouris of gentilis, and become Cristin ; and eftir, wrait 
sindry bukis for the eruditioun of Cristin pepill. 

How mony holy men rear martyritfor the faith of Crist. Hoio Do- 
nald of the His, the thrid of that name, usurpit the Crozvn, and 
was slane he Craithlint. 

He Cristin faith sufferit gret persecutioun at this time. 

Mony haly men and wemen martyrit : as, Cipriane, 
ip Sextus, Laurence, Hipohtus, Barbara, Ceciha, Agatha, 

with mony otheris, throw tyrany of Decius, Empriour. 
And in this time the Scottis began to be richt profound in theologie 
and haly writ, be doctrine of certane monkis quhilkis wer callit, in 
thay day is, Culdei ; that is to say, the honoraris of God : for tlian 
al priestis that honorit God war callit Culdei. Thir prestis, be ge- 
neral vocis, chesit ane bischop, to have auctorite and jurisdiction 
above thaim ; and he wes callit the Bischop of Scotland. Bot we 
will return to our historic. 

Eftir deith of King Donald, gret truble followit in the realme ; 
for Donald of the His had sa mony nobillis tane in this last battall, 
and held thaim in sic captivite, that nothir thay, nor thair freindis, 
durst attempt ony thing aganis his desu'is : throw quhilk he tuke 
the crown, and nocht onlie habandonit all the cuntre, bot thirllit the 
nobillis to his assistance. Howbeit, thay lay ay in wait to sla him, 
quhen time and place micht appeir. Donald, knawin thair hatrent 
aganis him, tuke sic feir of his life, that he gaif na man credit ; bot, 
as the use of tyrannis is, had every man in suspitioun and dredour. 
Thus grew he, ilk day, more terribill and odius to his pepill, and 
governit the realme with na better yeil than he gat it. At last, his 
dredour procedit sa far, that he durst cum in na opin place but gard 
of armit men about him, with halbertis and axis ; and inhibit, that 
ony othir man beir wappinnis saiffing his awin gard. Finalie, he 


culd nocht be satlfyit in his minde, quhill he had slane all thaim 
that he suspeckit, and confiscat thair guddis, in favour of thame that 
assistit to him ; intending, as ane bludy monstoure, to conserve the 
crown with siclike cruelte as he gat it. He slew als mony othir no- 
billis, be vane causis, to promove men of vile and obscure linnage to 
riches and honouris, but ony sicht to virtew : and rejosit in na thing 
sa mekill as to gener frequent seditionis amang his subdittis ; traist- 
ing, be thair seditioun, to have felicite ; and, be thair concord, to 
have trubill in his crown. 

It wes said, this ci'uell tyrane Icuch nevir bot quhen he hard dis- 
cord and slauchter of his nobillis : and als sone as he hard the same, 
he confiscat all thair guddis, but ony sicht to wrang or reason : and 
said oftimes, amang his familiaris, Na sicht micht be mair plesand to 
him, than to se men murdir othir ; attour, the slauchter of nobillis 
and riche men ar richt necessar to the tranquillite of all realmes, be- 
caus thay ar ennimes baith to the king and commoun weil. 

And quhen this tyrane had roung xii yeris in maist cruelte above 
the pepill, but ony titill, he come to Enverlochte, with purpos to 
pas in the Ihs ; bot he wes slane, the first nicht he come thair, be 
Craithlint, sonne to King Fyndok, afore reheirsit, the xii 3^eir of his 
regne. Craithlint, eftir the slauchter of this tyrane, schew to the 
nobillis how he had put doun the tyrane, Donald of the His : restit, 
thairfore, ganand occasioun to revenge the gret oppression and cruel- 
teis done so mony yeris be his unhappy counsalouris. The nobillis, 
glaid of this tyrannis slauchter, ruschit haistely to harnes, and slew, 
that samin nicht, cc of the principall assistaris to his opinioun, and 
the remanent chasit in Athole ; quhilkis wer all slane sone eftir, be 
the pepill, quhen thay wer advertist of Donaldis slauchter. 


Of King CraitJilhit ; and hoxv the Scott'is and PicMsfell in conten- 
tioun be t hair hunting, andfaiicht with gret slauchter on all sidis. 

O XALD, the tvrane, slane in this maner, the crown wes 
restorit to the blude of Athirco ; for Craitlilint, son to 
Findok, becaus he slew this last tyrane sa vailyeantlie, 

^ ^ "^^ "^aid king. Craithlint, glaid of this feliche, gaif 

thankis to his subdittis; and detestit, belang orison afore the coun- 
sal, the tyrany of Donald of the His, usurpar of the crown, but ony 
titill ; apd giding the samin with treason, falset, reif, and slauchter 
of nobiUis : and exhortit the pepill, sen this tyrane, be his prudence, 
wes distroyit, to rejose, and to suffir nane of the said Donaldis blude 
on live, in aventure thay nuris sic displesour to thaimself, be thair 
non advertence, as sum time did King Donald, fechtand unwarly 
with the said Donald of the His : quhairthrow, the nobilite of Scot- 
land was oppressit xii yeris with sic tyrannyis, that na man micht 
resist the samin. And for thir reasonis, he desirit thaim to assist to 
him to repare all oppressionis done be cruelte of the said Donald of 
the Ihs : quhilk thingis beand done, all materis micht succede, within 
schort time, as thay desirit. 

The nobillis, na les movit be his excellent beawte, and lustines of 
person, than be his wordis, swore to take his part in al materis 
Nocht lang efter, al the linnage of Donald His was socht in aU partis 
and slane, but ony difference of thair estait. ' 

Sic thingis done, Craithlint chesit wise and prudent men to do 
justice throw al boundis of his realme ; syne past, with ane certane 
his nobilhs, to the montanis of Granyebene, to pas his time in hunt- 
ing. In the mene time, come to him, the ambassatouris of Thelar- 
gus King of Pichtis, schawing him rejosit, that the tyrane Donald 
of the Ihs was slane, and the crown restorit to the native blude • 
and desirit, thairfore, the auld band of peace to be renewit, for the 
VOL. I. 2d 


Weill of baith thair realmes. Thir deslris war plesandly grantit, and 
the ambassatouris honorably depeschit. 

Nocht lang efter, certane nobillis of Pichtis come to hunt with the 
king in Granyebene. The Pichtis, in thair hunting, stentit Strang 
nettis on lesuris and medois, and drave the hertis apone the nettis 
with thair hunlis : and quhen the beistis escliapit, thay cloithit thaim 
with branchis and levis of treis, like stalkaris ; sine slew the deir 
with braid aiTowis and dartis, quhen thay war lyand wery. The 
Scottis, na thing content of this game, becaus it was contrar thair 
lawis ; gart remove thair nettis, and hunt on thair maner, takand the 
pray be swift houndis allanerly. The Pichtis, seand thair houndis 
of les reputatioun than the Scottis, baith in bewte, swiftnes, lang 
renk, and hardiment ; desirit ane certane of every kind of houndis 
to be gevin to thaim, that the samin micht be bred amang thaimself. 
And quhen thay had gottin every kind thairof gevin to thaim, as 
thay desirit, thay stale ane certane houndis, and Avent hame with 
the samin, but ony advise of Scottis. Amang thir houndis tane, as 
said is, be thir Pichtis, was ane quhite hound, plesand, and mair 
spedy than ony othir, quhom Craithlint had in maist delite. The 
maister of huntis, astonist throw the wanting of this hound, follow- 
it sa scharply, that he fand the samin ; and was sa fervent in reco- 
vering thairof, that he was finaly slane. 

The skry arrais efter this slauchter, and maid the nobillis and 
commonis of Scotland to returne in maist fury to revenge the same 
The Pichtis, on the samin maner, gaderit on the tothir side, with 
na les fury to resist : throw quhilk followit ane haisty and mische- 
vus battall, Avith gret slauchter on ilk side ; nane of thaim knawing 
the motive nor occasion thairof. In this unhappy bergane wer slane, 
Lx Scottis gentilmen, with gret nowmer of commonis ; and of Pichtis 
mo than ane hundreth. 

The fame of this unhappy battall, divulgat in the cuntre, movit 
the freindis of thaim that war slane, to seik vengeance Avith mair 
hatrent than afore. Thus gaderit thay agane on al sidis, and faucht, 
but capitane, baner, or ordour of chevelry, neir to the uter distrac- 
tion of thaim baith. Alwayis the Scottis war discomfist, mmm of 
thaim slane, and mm Pichtis. 


Be this slauchter, thir two pepill, that -was sa lang confiderat to- 
gidder, fra the time of Fergus, the first King of Scottis, to thir 
dayis, ay rising under ane blude, amite and kindnes ; grew in maist 
hatrent aganis otheris, for ane sponk of small occasioun of unkind- 
nes ; throw quhilk nane of thame apperit to ceis fra uter extreminion 
of othir. Followit, sa mony bludy incursionis, day and nicht, that 
na houssis, nor respect of age, micht be defence or refuge contrar 
thair cruelte and slauchter on athir side. 

Hoii) Carance, brothtr to FindoJc, returnit out of Italy ^ xvith gret 
riches, in Albion, How he conquest Westmureland, and maid 
peace hetioix Scottis and Pichtis. 

Helargcs, King of Pichtis, richt agit, and nere con- 
sumit be yeris, was sorowfull for this contention falling 
betwix the two pepill sa lang confiderat, cumin be sud- 
] dane pertinacite of undantit personis : and send his ora- 
touris to Craithlint, schawand him na les displesit for the slauchter 
and trubill falling to Scottis, than to his awin pepil ; for the same 
tendit to the dammage of baith thair commoun welis : attoure, na 
crime micht be impute to him; for he nevir consentit thairto. And 
sen the said trubill was cumin mair be privat than publict auctorite, 
he thoucht that pepill sa lang confiderat, suld put end to thair weris, 
and have peace with othir : for, gif thay perseverit with ire and hatrent 
aganis othir, nocht sal follow bot uter ruine of baith thair realmes, 
and the samin to fall in pray to Romanis. Forthir, he was reddy 
to repair al offence and injuris done be his pepil to Scottis; and de- 
sirit to have peace, that baith the pepil micht erar returne to con- 
cord, for defence of thair realmes, than to Derseveir in battallis, to 
the finall eversion of thaim baith. 

The Scottis war sa impacient for the recent slauchter maid on thaim 
be Pichtis, that thir oratouris micht skarsly parches licence to schaw 


thair message. Nochtheles, thay gat finaly presence, and schew thair 
desiris to Craithlint, in maner afore rehersit. 

It was answerit be King Craithlint, that na thing micht cum sa 
displesand to him, as suddane trubill falling amang thay pepil, 
quhilkis hes bene so lang confiderat togidder in amite and blude. 
And thoucht peace war mair plesand to his pepill than battall, yit, 
the recent slauchter is sa deip ingravin in thair breistis, that thay 
refuse to gif peace. Nochtwithstanding, he wald gif, of his awin 
auctorite, thre monethis trewis; that the nobiUis of baith thair realmis 
may be profoundly resolvit to pas and repas, to decerne quhat is to 
be done. 

The trewis, tane in this maner, war plesant to the King of Pichtis, 
beleving ihairthrow to put ane end to thir debaittis, and to all dis- 
plesouris following be the same. Yit, nochtwithstanding thir trewis, 
sindry incursionis war maid on athir side. 

Quhill sic thingis occurrit betwix Scottis and Pichtis, Carance, the 
secund brothir to Findok, quhome Ave schew banist afore for his 
slauchter, wan gret honouris in Italy. This Carance, efter his pro- 
scripption, was ane man of armis in the Romane weris, howbeit nane 
knew his nobil blude ; and Avan sic fame be his manlieid and proues, 
that na capitane was repute mair worthy to haif chargis be the Em- 

Nocht long efter this, Carance was send be Dioclesiane, Empriour, 
with ane flote of schippis, to defende the costis of Normandy and 
Picardy fra injure of Saxonis, Franchemen, and othir pirattis, 
quhilkis invadit the samin with frequent injuris. At his cuming, 
he wald nocht jeopard him aganis his ennimes, quhil thay war ladin 
ful of riches and guddis ; to that fine, that fra the pray war tane, he 
micht be enrichit thairwith. Yit, becaus he nothir deliverit the 
pray thairof to the Empriour nor his capitanis, he was haldin sus- 
pect, and persewit to the deith. Als sone as Carance understude 
the Empriour movit with sic hatrent aganis him, he pullit up sahs, 
and come, with his weirmen and riches, be the Ireland seis, in West- 
raureland, ane part of Britane nocht far fra the landis of Scottis and 
Pichtis, traisting to have sum rescours of thaim aganis the Romanis. 
Sone efter, he set his army on land, and Avith smal difficulte gat all 
the pepil thairof randerit to him. Sic thingis done, he send his ora- 


touris to Craithlint, his nepot, schawand, thoucht he was banist for 
suspitioun of the slauchter of his brothir Findok, be invy of wikit 
personis, and brocht in gret misery and trubii thairthrow ; yit he 
was innocent thairof, and had governit him sa wisly, efter sindry 
chargis gevin to him be the Empriour, that he was send with ane 
flote of schippis to pecify the occiane seis ; and, be the samin, hes 
won gret honour and riches. Yit, becaiis the Empriour was movit 
aganis him be invy of detractouris, he was cuming Avith sic army 
and riches in Westmureland, that he hes broclit the inhabitantis 
thairof to his opinion. Thus had he ferme esperance, gif the Scottis 
and Pichtis wald concur with him, to ding the Romanis out of Al- 
bion : for the power of Romanis was daily wastit in Britane ; and 
sa gret rebellion maid aganis thaim in all partis, that thay micht 
send na support in Britane. Thus micht the Scottis and Pichtis 
have ane ganand time to ding the Romanis out of Britane, and to 
kepe him, thair native blude, in the empire thairof; swa thay wald 
remove all hatrent and sedition risin amang thaim, and have peace 
with othir. 

Craithlint thocht the kindnes of his eme Carance nocht to be re- 
fusit, seand him cuming in Britane with sa gret pissance, and reddy 
to support him in all dangeris ; and thairfore answerit to thir era- 
touris, that he, mony yeris gone, had foryet all offence, gif ony was 
maid to his fader, and rejosit nocht htill of the present felicite fall- 
ing to his eme Carance ; and wald fulfil his desiris, sa far as he micht, 
at al pointis, aganis the Britonis, gif he micht have peace of Pichtis. 
And thocht he micht have nane, he suld send in his support, ane 
cumpany of chosin men ; bot his self behuvit to abide at hame, for 
defence of his realme aganis the said Pichtis. 

Carance, glaid of this answer, stuffit al the strenthis of Westmure- 
land ; and come, with ane cumpany of weill accuterit men, to the 
wattir of Esk, nocht far fra the wall of Adriane, quhare he met 
Craithhnt, and fell on kneis at his first meting ; declaring him, be 
mony evident reasonis, innocent of Findokis slauchter : and desirit 
the king to have him in na suspitioun ; for thocht he was bannist, 
be invy and hatrent, among uncouth pepell, yit he behavit himself 
in sic maner, that he wes returnit in Albion, baith to the honour of 
himself and his freindis. Craithhnt embrassit his eme Carance maist 


tenderly, and prayit him to stand gud freinde, as he suld do to him ; 
and to leif na thing of his purpose, sen gret lionour and profFet, gif 
fortoun war propiciant, micht succede be the samin : and promittit, 
gif the Piclitis weris war nocht impediment to him, he suld nocht 
faill to support him with his uter pissance. Carance, rejosing of the 
kingis benivoience, said, he had sufficient army to expell the Ro- 
maiiis out of Britane, and to transfer the crown thairof in the lin- 
nage of Scottis, gif Scottis and Pichtis wald assist to him. 

Finaly, be prudent industry of Carance, baith thir two kingis war 
brocht togidder, accumpanyit with ane few nowmer on ilk sid. And 
to bring thaim to the mair sicker concord, Carance began to remem- 
bir thaim, how the auld affinite betwix thaim was commodius : be 
contrar the violatioun thairof, full of dammage to thaim baith. And 
rememberit thaim of thair frequent chevelryis, sa lang continewing 
aganis the fury of Romanis and Britonis, in defence of thair realmis 
and liberteis, with sic amite and kindnes, that injuris done to ony 
ane of thaim war repute equale to thame baith. For thir reasonis, it 
was necessar to thaim othir to haif peace with othir for thair com- 
moun Weill, or ellis to perseveir in battall, to the distruction of thaim 
baith. Be thir and siclike wourdis, the two kingis war persuadit to 
haif peace, and to repair injuris on athir side. 

Sone efter, viii newtral personis, of gret prudence, war chosin 
with baith thair consentis, be quhome the peace was finaly roborat, 
and al injuris plesandly redressit. 


Hoxo Carance, be support of Scottls and PicJitis, slew Bassiane, 
Capitane of Britane, and hike the croicii thairqf; and of his deith. 
And how the crown of Britane was restorit to Romanis. 

OcHT lang eftir, Quintus Bassianus, capitane of Britane, 
rasit his camp to invade the said Carance : for he was 
cummin to York with thre gret buschementis of Scottis, 
Pichtis, and otheris, his freindis, and gottin the samin 
randerit to him but ony offence of the inhabitantis. Bassianus, 
nochtwithstanding the frequent rebelhon maid aganis the Romanis 
in all partis, yit, to revenge the attemptatis done be Carance, rasit 
his army, and parkit the samin within the nicht, betwix two mossis, 
on ane strait ground. Carance, nocht x mills fra him, and well ad- 
vertist of his doingis, come forthwart in the samin maner to gif him 
battall. On the morrow, Bassianus arrayit his folkis, and exhortit 
thaim to remembir how thay war to fecht for defence of equite aganis 
certanefals conspiratouris; specially aganis the treasonabil murdresar, 
Carance, maist odius creatour to God for his detestabil offence. And 
forthir, prayit thaim to have respect to the Romane virtew, quhilk 
hes ben ay of sa gret estimatioun, baith afore immortall goddis and 
men ; that thay micht have, be reward of victory, nocht only infinite 
riches, bot perpetuall loving be thair posterite. 

On this othir side, Carance was na les diligent, exhorting his army 
to battal : saing, Thair ennimes had gret disavantage to fecht mth 
thaim, becaus the maist part of thame wer Britonis, havand na les 
hatrent aganis Romanis than he hes, and wald leif thame quhen thay 
saw ony dangeir occurring : and thairfore, victory wes present in 
thair handis, gif thay, with manheid and prudence, fershe ruschit on 
thair ennimes. 

Als sone as baith the armyis, be blast of trumpat, junit, the Bri- 
tonis left the Romanis, and went, as thay had bene fleand, in gud 
array to the nixt hill. The Romanis, seing thair sidis nakit be 


fleing of Britonis, wer astonist, and more mindfull of thair singular 
Weill, than ony glore of victory. Finalie, tliay wer sa dejcckit of 
thair curage, that thay wer put to flicht : on quhom followit Carance, 
with all his army, in maist hatrent ; and slew thame ay, quhare thay 
wer tane,but ony miseratioun. Carance, seand sa huge slauchter maid 
be the chace, callit his folkis, be sound of trumpat, to the standart. 

In this battall wer slane, Quintus Bassianus, capitane of Britane, 
and Hircius, procuratour, with mony othir nobillis and commonis 
of thair blude. The residew of Britonis, quhilkis wer eschapit fra 
diis battall, wer randerit to Carance ; and gaif pledgis of the noblest 
that wer in thair realme, nocht within xx yeris, nor above i.x yeris, 
to be his trew subdittis in times cuming. Als sone as the praye of 
guddis faUing be chance of battall wes devidit amang the victorius 
pepill, Carance past to London : quhair he wes rcssavit with gret 
reverence, and tuke the sceptour and diademe of Britane, contrar 
the empire of Romanis. Eftir that, it wes maid tributar to Julius, 
cccxLvi yeris. 

Carance, crownit in this maner, held mm Scottis and Pichtis con- 
tinev>^ally about him, in maner of ane gard. The remanent Scottis 
and Pichtis returnit hame, richit with the spulye of this last battall. 
Than Carance, in more princely reward of thair laubouris, gaif all 
the landis lyand betwix the wall of Adriane and Yorke, namit West- 
mureland and Cumber, to thair perpetuall dominioun. And throAv 
this liberahte, he come in gret hatrent, baith to llomanis and Bri- 
tonis. And howbeit he wes oftimes assailyeit be thaim with scharp 
battallis, yit he wes victorius at all jornays, and brukit the crown of 
Britane be crafty prudence ; quhil at last he wes slane, the vii yeir 
of his regne, be Alectus, Romane capitane. This Alectus, eftir the 
slauchter of Carance, set his extreme besines, to bring the Britonis 
agane to Romane lawis. And quhen he saw thay micht na wayis 
be brocht thairto, for the cruell hatrent thay had aganis Romanis, 
he maid laubouris to have thair benivolence, and finalie applaudit 
to thair opinioun, and tuk the crown of Britane contrar the auctorite 
of Romanis. And yit he rang with na better fortoun than did Ca- 
rance ; for he wes slane in the samin maner, be Asclepiadotus, the 
thrid yeir of his regne : eftir quhais deith, the crown of Britane wes 
restorit, as it wes afore, to the Romanis. 


Ofgret crnelte done he Diocleslan, Empr'ioiire, aganis Cristin pe- 
pilL Hozo Coell vhicust the Romanis, and conquest the crown of 
Britonis. How he was alliat with Constantius, Empriour ; and 
of the nativite ofgret Constantine. 

loCLESiANE, Emprioure at this time, be vassalage of 
Constantius, Maximianus, and Galerius, dantit the 
warld Avith sindry chances of battall, and wes the first 
Romane Emprioure that wes adorit with kingly reve- 
rence ; lor, afore thay day is, the Emprioure usit nocht hot saluta^- 
tionis. This Emprioure causit riche perle and precious stanis to be 
set in his schone, in mair taikin of insolence than ony ornament. 
Afore that time, wes na difference betwix Empriouris and uthir pe- 
pil, except the rob rial. This Dioclesiane wes sa odious and bludy 
tyrane, that xvii.m men and wemen wer martyrit be him, for de- 
fence of Cristin faith. This cruelte nocht onlie enrao-it in the eist 
and west partis of the warld, bot als in Britane. And, above thir 
cruelteis, infinite nowmer of thame wer condampnit to the galionis, 
winning of qucrrellis and minis. Be him also wer brint, innoumera- 
ble bukis of Cristin faith, contenand the evangelUs of Crist, -with 
the actis and epistillis of his appostollis ; traisting thairthrow, that 
the faith of Crist suld all uterlie expire. Throw quhilk, the Cris- 
tin faith, ouirthrawin with new scurgis and perseverand cruelte, wes 
neir perist. Mony haly and relligious men, for feir of thir cruelteis, 
fled in desertis and elraige placis ; quhair thay wer exonerit of all 
truble, and leiffit ane haly life. 

This dispitfull tyrane, Dioclesiane, eftir sindry his triumphis maid 
in Rome, for victoryis of divers pepill of the warld, wes trublit, be 
punition of God, with mony uncouth infirmiteis, and for slauchter 
of sa mony innocent pepill. He become furious at Salonas, and 
slew himself be drink of vennome, the xx yeir of his regne ; to be 

VOL. I. 2 E 


exampill, that na man put confidence of felicite and eternall live in 
vane favoui- and assentatioun of pepil. Quhil sic thingis wer done 
be Dioclesian, Coel, discending of the anciant and nobill blude of 
Britonis, wes sohstit be thaim to rebel aganis the Romanis. Ascle- 
piadotus, advertist heirof, met him with the army of Romanis, and 
othir that stude at his opinioun. Followit, ane aufull and dangerus 
battall, lang fochtin with dovitsum victory : bot at last the Romanis 
wer discomfist, and Asclepiadotus, thair capitane, slane. 

Coel, eftir this victory, wes maid king : and to stabill the realme 
to him in sicker peace, he commandit, be generall edict, all Romanis, 
and otheris of thair opinioun, to be slane, quhare ever thay micht be 
apprehendit. Constantius, Emprioure, to meit this rebellioun, come 
in Britane with mony Romane legionis. Aganis quhome went King 
Coel, with ane army of Britonis, to defend his realme and liberte : 
nochtheles, he wes vincust, and his army put to flicht. On the mor- 
row, Constantius wes informit be the Britonis, that King Coel wes 
native prince of Britane, and discending be lang progressioun of the 
blude riall thairof : and thairfore, be commiseratioun, he send ane 
herald to him, schawing, gif he wald be randerit, as othir Briton 
kingis wer afore, to Romanis, he suld be sufFerit to remane in his 
auctorite. King Coel wes this time trubillit with gret infimnite, 
cumin be surfet cavild and walking, in his weris aganis the Romanis. 
Constantius, heirand of his infirmite, past to mak him consolatioun. 
Eftir maist tender embrasing, the said Constantius continewit King 
Coell in his auctorite ; and tuke his douchter Helene, ane virgine of 
maist excellent bewte, in mariage. This affinite maid Romanis and 
Britonis to beleve ane finall end to al thair weris. Sic thingis done, 
Constantius went to vesy the Romane strenthis in Britane ; and nocht 
onlie reparit thame quhare thay wer ruinus, bot stuffit thaim with 
new provisioun of men and vittallis : syne commandit the cieteyanis 
of every town quhare he come, to be obeisant to King Coell during 
his life, becaus he wes freind of the senat and pepill of Rome. 
Schort time eftir, Constantius had ane Sonne, gottin be this new 
affinite, namit Constantine ; quhilk, for his singulare manheid and 
prudence, succedit, eftir his faderis deith, to the diademe imperial], 
and wes the first Empriour that gaif peace to the Catholike kirk ; 
and dotat it with mony riche templis, landis, and jowellis, be horta- 


tioun of the haly Paip, Silvester. Bot we will returne to the marciall 
dedis that Constantius did afore this time in Britane. 

Constantius, eftir the deith of Dioclesiane, havand Britane, France, 
and Spanye, peacifyit to his empire ; gaderit ane army to expell the 
Scottis and Pichtis out of Westmureland and Cumber, quhilkis wer 
gevin to thaim afore be King Carance. Eftir his cumming to York, 
he wes advertist, that Scottis and Pichtis wer stronglie gaderit to 
resist him. And becaus he knew thay micht not abid lang togidder, 
he thocht best to brek thaim be lang tary. And, to the samin ef- 
fecte, he abaid still with sindry Romanis at York, and commandit 
the Britonis to pas hame, and be reddy to return quhen thay wer 
chargit. Finalie, quhen he had remanit certane dayis in York, ge- 
vand his extreme deligence to brek the Pichtis fra the Scottis, he 
tuke sic malancholy, becaus he micht nocht bring his purpos to gude 
fine, that he fel in ane hait fever, and, the vii day eftir, deceissit. 
Quhais powder wes gaderit in ane goldin veschell, with mony smell- 
and odouris, and brocht with funerall triumphe to Rome. 

This Constantius, as we have schawin, Aves richt thankfuU to 
Cristin pepil. Nochtheles, sindry Britonis, traisting him to persew 
the faith of Crist with sic cruelte as Dioclesiane did afore, come in 
Scotland : quhare thay wer plesandly ressavit be Craithlint, and or- 
danit to raaik thair residence in the He of Man, with kirkis ereckit 
to thaim in Catholik maner, for devine service. Thus wer the auld 
ritis and cerimonis of Gentilis, quhilkis indurit to thay dayis, abro- 
gat. The first bischop that wes amang thaim in this He, wes ane 
Briton namit Amphibolus : quhilk prechit the evangellis throw all 
the boundis of Scottis and Pichtis ; and nocht onlie removit al vane 
superstitionis, bot laid the sickir foundement of the Cristin faith. 
Craithlint, King of Scottis, dotat this kirk, be his singular devo- 
tioun, with mony jowellis and precious ornamentis of gold and silver ; 
and maid ane alter of copper, craftely closit with lokkis, in quhilk 
wer gaderit, the rentis and malis of sindry landis, quhilkis wer gevin 
be the king for sustentatioun of divine serAace. This wes the first 
kirk that wes dedicat amang us in Catholik maner ; and first sait of 
bischoppis callit Sodoren, howbeit the reason thairof be tint be 
roust of yeris, quhilk distroyis every thing. Craithlint, passing his 
time in this maner, with rehgious and civil materis, wes ane nobill 


prince ; and finalie deceissit, the xxiv yeir of his regne : the first 
yeir of the empire of gret Constaiitine, Empriour ; fra the incarna- 
tioun, cccxxii yeris; fra the beginning of the warld, v.M.ccccxc 
veris ; fra the beginning of the realme of Scottis, dclv yeris. 

Cljap* Centlj* 

How Fincormak ivas maul Xing of Scottis ; and Octavhis, King of 
Britonis. Hotsj Heraileus, Romane Capitane, isoas slane be Oc- 
tavius; and the Romanis vincust. How the Scottis and Pichtis 
come in support of Octavius, and chasit Traherus in France. 

RAiTHLiNT deceissit on this ^nse, succedit, his cosing, 
Fincormak ; for thay wer brethir sonnis. This Fin- 
cormake wes crownit in the first yere of gret Constant 
tine. In quhais time rais gret trubil in Albion : for the 
commonis of Britane, havand extreme hatrent aganis the tyranny of 
Caius Herculeus, capitane of Britane, chesit Octavius, Prince of 
Wahs, to be thair king. Caius Herculeus, to dant this rebellion, 
rasit his camp aganis Octavius ; bot at last he wes slane, and his ar- 
my discomfist. Octavius, traisting na thing sa gud as to use his 
victory with maist rigoure, come to London ; and eftir that he had 
gottin all the strenthis thairof randerit to him, he slew sindry nobill 
men of Britane, for thair assistance to Romanis : syne persewit the 
Romanis to the deith, quhair evu* thay micht be apprehendit. 

Constantine, Empriour, to punis this rebellion, send ane vailyeant 
capitane, namit Traherus, Avith mony legionis, in Britane ; be quhom 
Octavius wes put to flicht, and chasit amang the Scottis. Traherus, 
insolent eftir this victory, chargit Fincormak to send Octavius, the 
invasour of Romane province, bound to him, to be punist for his 
rebellion; uthirwayis he suld be repute ennime to the senat and 
pepil of Rome. It wes answerit be Fincormak, that he resset nocht 
Octavius to be injurious to Romanis; bot allanerlie, for the auld 
amite betwix Scottis and Britonis. Attoure, it micht obscure his 
honour and majeste to condiscend to sa manifest prodition, and ran- 


dir the man to his ennimes that socht refuge at him. Forthir, gif 
Traherus invadit him onehe for that cause, he suld resist the best 
way he micht ; bot yit gud wer, afore he movit weir, to degeistely 
avise, quhiddir Homanis hes gottin mair schame or honour, mair 
profFet or skaith, in thair weris aganis Scottis in al times bygane. 

Traherus, na thing satifyit be this answer, come with al his or- 
dinance to York ; quhair he wes advertist that Fincormak wes 
gaderit, with lx.m Scottis, Pichtis, and Britonis, in support of Oc- 
tavius : nochtheles, he went forwart, quhill he come in sicht of en- 
nimes. Fincormak, quhen baith the armyis wer arrayit in otheris 
sicht, send ane herald, inquiring Traherus, quhat movit him, but 
occasioun of injuris, to invaid the confiderat pepil, as thay wer en- 
nimes to Romanis. Traherus maid litill answer thairto, bot com- 
mandit the Scottis and Pichtis to pas haistely out of all landis per- 
tenand to Romanis, and to pay ane yeirly tribute to thair procura- 
tour, as the senat and pepill of Rome thocht expedient; and, but 
ony more tary, deliver Octavius, to be punist for his conspiration : 
othirwayis, thay suld have sone experience, quhat foly is to con- 
tempne the empire of Romanis. 

Fincormak, havand thir chargis at diffiance, come forthwart with 
his army. Followit sone, ane dangerus battall. Alwayis the Ro- 
manis had bene victorius, wer nocht ane multitude of landwart men 
hapnit to come rinnand doun ane hil, drivand away thair bestial 
fra dangeir of ennimes ; and apperit to the Romanis as thay wer 
cumin on thair bakkis : and so the Romanis wer finalie discomfist. 
In this battal wer slane xv.m Albianis, and xvi.m Romanis. The 
chace continewit be Fincormak and Octavius on the Romanis, 
quhill thay come to York ; quhair the two kingis wer plesandly res- 
savit be the nobillis of Britane, and Octavius restorit to the crown 

The nobillis of Britane gaif to Fincormak, for his assistance to 
Octavius in the said feild, all the landis of Westmureland and Cum- 
ber, with clame and kindnes thairof perpetually, and sweir nevir to 
cum in the contrar thairof. 

Traherus, knawing na place sicker to remane in Britane eftir this 
victory, fled in France. 


Hoxo Ocfavius was putjra the crown of Britane be Traherus, Ro- 
mane Cap'itane. How the said Traherus was slane, and Octa- 
vius restorit to the croun ; and of Fincormdk'is deith, 

Hk Romanis vincust on this wise, ane counsal wes set 
at York, in the quhilk the nobillis of Britane concludit 
to defend thair reahne and hbertie fra injure of Ro- 
manis, and to suffir na uncouth blude to beir auctorite, 
in times cuming, above thaim. Attoure, it wes concludit to extend 
the marchis of Britane to the wal of Adriane ; and to expell the 
Scottis out of Westmureland and Cumber, nochtwithstanding the 
aith and promise maid to thaim afore. 

Quhil sic thingis wer done in Britane, Octavius come, with x.m 
Britonis, on the Scottis and Pichtis dweUing in Westmurland ; bot 
at last he wes discomfist, and his army put to flicht. 

In the mene time, Traherus, Capitane of Britane, quhilk wes 
chasit, as we schew afore, in France ; returnit, with two Romane le- 
gionis and xx.m wageouris, in Britane : be quhome Octavius wes 
discomfist, and destitute of all support and freindis. Finalie, this 
Octavius, havand na confidence in the Scottis nor Pichtis, for vio- 
latioun of his faith ; come to the mouth of Humber, quhair he puUit 
up salis, and went in Nori'oway. 

Traherus, eftir this victory, ilk day incressit in sic pissance, that 
the Britonis wer randerit to him : nottheles, he exercit gret cruel- 
tes on al the nobillis and commonis of Britan ; and finalie, restorit 
the crown thairof to Romane empire. And quhen he had stablit 
the realme in this maner; throw corruppit insolence efter sahie feli- 
cite, he become the maist vicious tyrane that evir had ony charge 
afore in Britane ; and invadit the nobillis and commonis thairof with 
ithand heirschippis and slauchter. Throw thir tyrannis, followit sic 
rebellioun aganis him in al partis, that he wes finalie slane. 


Octavius, heirand the slauchter of Traherus, returnit fra Den- 
mark in Britane ; and persewit the Romanis with sic cruelte, that 
na kirkis nor sanctuaryis micht be refuge to thaim : and maid distri- 
butioun of his officis and auctoriteis to his freindis and nobiUis, as 
he thocht maist expedient to keip his subdittis in justice, and to 
defend thaim fra injure of Romanis. And thoucht seindil ar found 
men but insolence, quhen thay find feUcite efter trubill ; yit Octa- 
vius was alterit in sic maner, that quhare he was sumtime maist fals 
and treasonabill in his werkis, he become maist faithfull and nobill 
prince. And sone efter, he send ambassatouris to King Fincormak, 
with sindry jowellis, desiring him to have na respect to the offence 
maid be him aganis the Scottis and Pichtis in times bygane, bot to 
leif in amite and freindschip with him and Britonis in times cuming : 
and to haif liis sicker kindnes, he was content that Westmureland 
and Cumber war perpetually annixit to the empire of Scottis and 
Pichtis, on the samin maner as Carance gave thaim afore to King 
CraithUnt. Mony yeris efter, Octavius governit Britane in gud jus- 
tice. Quhill at last he was sa brokin with frequent weris, that he 
randerit all the strenthis of his realme, to have peace with Romanis 
in his eld ; and was content to pay the auld tribute. 

Folio wit sicker peace mony yeris efter, amang the Scottis, Pichtis, 
and Britonis in Albioun : in quhilk time, Fincormak, richt illuster 
in glore of chevelry and civill materis, be lang infirmite generit of 
catare, deceissit, the xlvii yeir of his regne ; fra the incarnatioun, 
cccLviii yeris. 


HoTdi) the heresyis of Arrius wes condavipnit. How Ireland tuJce'the 
faith of Crist. How RoviaTc, Fethelmalc, and Angusiane contendit 
for the crowne. Hoxio Romaic zoas maid King ; and slane efter, 
for his tyranny. 

Uring this time, the Cristin faith apperit to rise in 

eret dignite : nochtheles, the cursit heretik Arrius be- 
et o ^ 

gan to poison it with vennimus doctrine ; saying, Crist 
was nocht the verray Sonne of God, coequall and co- 
eternall to the Fader, bot different fra him in substance. Efter 
degeist consultatioun, all his opinionis war condampnit in Counsall 
of Nicia, with mony othir vane errouris, quhilkis I wil not rehers 
at this time : for I have maid this translation mair for pleseir of 
lawit men, than ony vane curius clerkis, be quhom all heresyis be- 

Ireland, about this time, tuke the faith of Crist, be ane woman of 
the Pichtis blude, quhilk instruckit the Quene of Ireland in the 
faith ; and scho instruckit hir prince, the king : and sa within schort 
time, all the regioun thairof tuke the faith. Mony othir pepill. in 
the eist and west partis of the Avarld, tuke the faith in the samin 
maner. Bot w-e Avill returne to our history. 

Fincormak left behind him two sonnis, Eugenius, of xviii yeris 
of age, and Ethodius, nocht ane yeir of age. Thir sonnis of Fin 
cormak, for the lawis afore rehersit, micht nocht immediatly suc- 
cede to the crown; and thairfore ane counsall was set in Argyle, to 
cheis the king : quhilk day, comperit Romak, Fethehnak, and An- 
gusiane, contending for the crown ; for thay war nepottis to Craith- 
lint, gottin on sindry his brethir ; al thre nere equal in yeris, freindis, 
and gudis. Romak clamit the crown as maist nobil ; for he was 
not only cumin of the blude rial of Scottis, bot als of Pichtis, and 
had thairfore mony of the nobillis assisting to his opinion. Angu- 
siane clamit the crown with consent of Fethehnak, and alledgit he 


wes ane man of more reason, experience, and wisdome, than wes 
Romak; and wes abillar, thairfore, for the ministration of the 

In the mene time, Romak gaderit ane band of armit men, to sla 
his two cousingis, traisting the more esahe to succeid to the crown. 
Thus rais na thing bot ire and hatrent araang the thre cosingis ; 
every ane of thaim cruellie set in otheris slauchter, and lauboring 
to draw moniast of the nobiUis to thair opinioun. Alwayis the maist 
nowmer of nobiUis assentit to Angusiane : for Romak wes ane man 
of mair ferocite than wisdome ; be contrar, Angusiane wes more 
reasonable, havand nocht sa mony subtel and fals shchtis as Romak 
had. The nobilhs, seing thaim abil na wayis to be brocht to concord, 
tuke final purpos to devide the realme betwix thaim. Yit otheris, 
more prudent men, thocht the samin unproffitable; for it micht rais 
perpetual sedit-ioun, in dammage of thair commoun weill, 

Finalie, Romak, impacient of lang tary, be birnand desire to have 
the crown, gaderit ane army of Pichtis ; and come ^rith arrayit bat- 
taU aganis Angusiane, and his othir cosing, Fethelmak. Than An- 
gusiane send his oratouris to the King of Pichtis, praying him to 
foster na seditioun amang the Scottis and Pichtis, and to solist his 
cosmg Romak erar to concord than battall, sen he micht have all 
thing according to reason, but ony plee. The King of Pichtis, 
thinkand thir desiris reasonabil, tuk purpos to returne hame • 
nochttheles, be evill counsall of freindis, he abaid, and gaif unple- 
sand answere. This unplesand answer wes nocht onlie occasioun to 
the nobiUis of Scotland to assist to Angusiane aganis Romak, bot 
als to have the Pichtis at extreme hatrent. Sone eftir, Angusiane, 
advertist that Romak lay in wait of his slauchter, gaderit ane army' 
with purpos erar to end the mater be swerd, than ay to leif in dan' 
geir of his life. Romak, impacient of lang tary, met him on the 
same maner. FoUowit ane sorowfull battall. Nochtheles, Angu- 
siane wes discomfist, and baith himself and his cosing Fethelmak 
chasit in the His; and finding na securite thair, thay fled in Ire 
land. -^ 

Angusiane doung out of Albioun in this sort, mony of the no- 
billis assistit to Romak ; and declarit him king. Yit, as the custom 

VOL. I. O ^ 


of tyrannis is, he conquest the realme wekitUe, and governit it on 
the same maner ; and had nane familiar with him, bot sa mony as 
wer ennimes to Fincormak and liis sonnis. Sic thingis done, he 
maid him to vesy all boundis of his realme, doing justice in his ma- 
ner. This tyranny of Romak beand divulgat throw the cuntre, 
causit Eugenius and Ethodius, the sonnis of Fincormak, to fle in 
Westmureland ; and thair finding na securite, thay fled to the He 
of Man. Than foUowit gret truble in Scotland ; as proscriptioun, 
slauchter, and oppressioun on all the nobillis that favorit Angusi- 
ane, but ony difference of age. 

The nobillis, impacient to suffer sic cruell tyrannyis, convenit to- 
gidder, be secret writingis, to redi-es al oppressionis and wrangis 
done be him ; syne gaderit ane army with sic diligence, that this 
tyrane Romak knew nocht of thair assemblance, quhill thay Aver 
cuming on him in ane arrayit battall, within x milis. 

Romak, astonist be thair cumming, fled in Pentland : nochtthe- 
les, he was sa ferslie invadit be ane buschement of Scottis that fol- 
lowit on him, that he was slane, with sindry otheris Scottis of his 
opinion, the thrid yeir of his regne ; his heid borne on ane staik 
throw al the army. 

Monv gentillmen of Pichtis war slane at this time with Romak, 
sic as favorit his governance, and causit him to rage with gret cru- 
elte on the Scottis. 


E 1 


CJia^» Cljuteentlj. 

^ozy Angusiane was maid King of Scottis. How Maxinncs suh- 
deixH the Britonis be sindry vktory'is. How Scottis and Pichtis 
invadit otliir with set battall. How baith thair Kingis zvar siane, 
and the Scottis discovifist. 

Omak, the tyrane, slane in this maner. Angusiane re- 
turnit in Albion, and was maid king. Quhill sic thingis 
war done in Scotland, the Britonis grew insolent be 
slauchter of Traherus, Romane capitane, and restorit 
the crowne of Britane to Octavius, quhilk was than far run in aige : 
throw quhilk thay recoverit baith thair munitionis, landis, and li- 

Constantius, Emprioure, and sonne to the gret Constantine, send 
ane vailyeant knicht, namit Maximus, in Britane, to dant the Bri- 
tonis. This Maximus, sone efter his cuming, faucht aganis the 
Britonis, and put thaim to flicht. Be this victory he was put in es- 
perance to subdew the Britonis, as thay war afore, to servitude. 

Octavius, King of Britonis, heirand thir tithlngis, take sic malan- 
coly, that he deceissit, the thrid day efter ; and efter his deith, Oc- 
tavius, his Sonne, fled in the He of Man : quhare he remanit with 
Ethodius and Eugenius, unknawin quhat he was. The Britonis, 
nocht mekill astonist be this discomfitoure, gaderit ane new army, 
with mair pissance than afore : nochttheles, thay war vincust, and 
chasit on the same maner. Maximus, efter thir victoryis, past throw 
sindry boundis of Britane, and gat mony of the pepill randerit to 
his opinioun : otheris, quhilkis war repugnant, war put to wraik, 
and thair strenthis cassin down. 

Quhill sic thingis was done in Britane, rais gret trubil in Scot- 
land : for Nectanus, King of Pichtis, to revenge the slauchter of his 
cosing Romak, wastit the landis of Scotland be sindry incursionis. 
The Scottis, to resist this violent dereptionis, war constraint to rise 
in battall aganis the Pichtis. Nochtheles, the Pichtis drew ane gret 


nowmer of Scottis, quhilkis war movit for slauchter of Romak, to 
thair opinioun, and provokit the residew of Scottis, ilk day, to bat- 
tal. Nochtheles, Angusiane send his ambassatoui'is to thaim, schaw- 
ing him desirus of peace, and gevin to the weill of baith the realmes ; 
and desirit thaim to devoid all injuris, and concur togidder in amite, 
as thair faderis did afore, for defence of thair realmis. At last, 
quhen Angusiane saw his desiris repellit, that his sleuth suld nocht 
be occasioun of insolence to his ennimes, he gaderit his folkis, and 
went furthwart in gud array. Efter mony singulare battallis of 
vailyeant men, baith the armyis junit, and faucht with gret ire and 
hatrent on athir side. At last, the Pichtis war discomfist, and mony 
of all thair nobillis slane. King Nectanus was chasit, quhill he 
come to Camelon ; and sone efter his cumming thairto, he convenit 
the residew of his nobillis to ane counsall, and complanit, be lang 
orison, baith the slauchter of his cusing Romak, and the noblis of 
his realme that war slane with him ; and desirit ane new army, to 
revenge the schameful injuris done laitly be Scottis. The Pichtis, 
mair set for the kingis foly and plesour, than for thair common 
Weill, concludit ane new army to be rasit aganis the Scottis, out of 
all boundis under thair empire ; and sone efter, thay come with the 
said army to the wod of Calidon. 

Angusiane, richt provident in all his doingis, and knawing the 
Pichtis sa awfully gaderit aganis him, assemblit his folkis out of all 
boundis of his realme, erar to draw the Pichtis to concord, than to 
have battall with thaim ; for he dred the Britonis, be perswasion of 
Romanis, to cum in support of Pichtis. And for that caus he send 
his plesand letteris to the King of Pichtis, praying him to remem- 
ber the anciant amite and kindnes sa lang continewing betwix the 
two pepill; and to put end to thair weris, and to geif peace to Scottis, 
but ony battal, on that samin maner as he war victorius above thaim, 
sen peace was necessar to baith thair ariTlyis ; for Maximus, *Ro- 
mane Capitane, was wirkand, ilk day, new attemptatis in Britane, 
and purposit, als sone^as he hes subdewit Britane, to conques baith 
the realmes of Scottis and Pichtis, efter that thay have distroyit 
othir with civill weris. 

The King of Pichtis, contempning this profitabil counsal, and 
havand na thing in les estimalioun than peace, rasit his army aganis 


Angusiane. On the tothir side, Angusiane arrayit his army : and 
becaus it was necessar othir to jeoparde him to the chance of for- 
toun, or ellis to geif backis to his ennimes, with irrecoverable schame; 
he exhortit his men to have curage, and set asid al dredour, gif 
thay had ony ; remembring the gret spreit and manheid of thair 
eldaris, that thay may acquite thair deith ; and thocht thay faucht 
vnth. unfortunat chance of battal, that thay de nocht unrevengit of 
thair ennimes. Attoure, he prayit thaim to be nocht movit, thoucht 
thay be now to fecht aganis the pepill that was sa lang confiderat 
with thaim in amite and blude ; sen thay gave na occasioun of bat- 
tiJ, and hes left na thing undone, that micht have recounsalit thaim 
to concord : for quliilk thay suld beleve, that God, the lufFer of 
peace, suld favour thaim in thair just defence. On the tothir side, 
the King of Pichtis ceissit nocht to solist his army to battal. Incon- 
tinent, the archearis schot on all sidis ; and efter thaim followit men 
with licht harnes, and schot incredibill nowmer of stanis and ganyeis, 
with corsbowis and slongis : incontinent, thay junit with speris, axis, 
and svverdis. Followit ane terribill battall, fouchtin lang time ^vith 
doutsum victory. At last, Angusiane, seand the victory inchne 
to Pichtis, raif of his coit armoure, and come amang the commonis, 
quhare he faucht with perseverant hatrent to the deith. The 
Scottis, traisting thair king erar fled than slane, gaif bakkis ; otheris, 
perseverant with mair obstinat mind, faucht quhill thay war slane : 
and thocht the victory succedit to the Pichtis, yit it was unplesand 
to thaim ; for baith the kingis war slane in this feild, with infinite 
nowmer of nobillis and commonis slane on ilk side. 

The residew of Scottis and Pichtis, quhilkis war eschapit out of 
this feild, returnit hame, and wary it thaim that was the first occa- 
sioun and motive of battall betwix the two pepill sa lang afore con- 
fident togidder in blude, amite, and freindschip. 


How Fethelmafi was maid King of Scottis ; and how he slew Nee- 
tane. King qfPichtis ; and was slane efter he ihair treason. And 
ofmony nohil Clerkis. 

Ngusiane slane in this maner, Fethelmak, the third 
nepot of Craithlint, was maid king. He gaderit the 
residew of Scottis togidder, with htill better fortoun 
than his two cosingis did afore : and in the seciind yeir 
of his regne, he rasit his army to revenge the injuris done be Pichtis ; 
and come in Angus, invading the inhabitantis thairof with gret 
heirschippis and cruelteis. The Pichtis, rageand in hatrent for thir 
extorsionis, ruschit in thair maist fury to harnes ; and the Scottis, 
nocht abasit thairof, met thaim in the samin maner, and put baith 
thair wingis to flicht ; sone efter, discomfist the naiddillward in the 
samin maner, with gret murdir maid on thaim in al partis. Necta- 
nus, King of Pichtis, brothir to King Nectanus afore rehersit, was 
brocht out of the feild ; and deceissit, the thrid day efter, be wound 
of ane arrow. 

The Scottis, insolent efter this victory, waistit Angus and FifTe 
with ithand incursionis. The Pichtis, brokin be this last discom- 
fitoure, set thaim erar to stop the Scottis fra taking of thair muni- 
tionis and strenthis be Hcht berganis, than ony set battal : and to do 
al thingis with mair prudence, thay chesit Hergestus, ane man of 
sle and fals ingine, to be thair king. This Hergestus, knawing his 
pepill sa brokin wath continewal weris that he micht nocht revenge 
the injuris of Scottis, kest him to do the thing be slicht, that he 
micht nocht do be force ; and conducit two men of Pichtis to dis- 
simil and fenye thaim Scottis, that thay micht mair esaly wait ane 
ganand time to sla the Kinge of Scottis. Thir Pichtis war crafty 
in casting of dartis ; and becaus the King of Scottis tuke delecta- 
tioun in that game, thay war maid the mair familiar to him : noch- 
theles, thay socht ay ane ganand time and place for his slauchter. 


King Fethelmak hapnit to pas to Carrik, quhare he was in gret 
sollicitude all that day. At evinhe went to his bed, and commandit 
ane harpar to sing ane soft sang, to draw him out of hevy materis 
on sleip. Als sone as he Avas fallin on sleip, the two Pichtis afore 
rehersit was convoyit be the harpar quhare he lay, and slew him 
sleipand in his bed, the thrid yeir of his regne. The wache herand 
the granis of ane deand man, enterit haistely in the chalmer quhare 
the king Avas Hand bullerand in his blude : incontinent, thay followit 
on his slayaris sa scharply, that thay Avar all tane ; and quhen thay 
had confessit all the maner and circumstance of this treasonabill 
slauchter, thay AA^ar all punist maist cruelly to the deith, and draAAdn 
sindry Avith Asold hors. This slauchter of Fethelmak hapnit in the 
fift yeu' of Constantius, Emprioure. 

About this time, war mony clerkis profound in every science: 
as, Victorine, oratoure; Donatus, gramariour, and preceptour to 
Sanct Jerome ; Alcinus and Delphidinis, philosophouris ; Avith mony 
otheris, quhilkis war ouir prolixit to rehers. 

Cfjap* jfifteentB. 

How Sanct Reule hrocht Sanct Atidrotcis arme in Scotland; and 
how the Jfirl- of Sanct Androwis was dotat be Hergest, King of 
Pichtis ; and of the loving thairof. 

^ Anct Rkule, the haly abbot, arrivit about this time 
in Albion, A\ith Sanct AndroAA'is arme. This Reule 
was ane monk of Grece, borne in Achaia, and abbot in 
the town of Patras, quhare mony religious men Avar 
obeisant under his cure. He was ane of thaim that Avas send be 
Constantius, Empriour, to vesy the bhssit reliquies of Sanct Andre. 
And quhen the said Reule had done his de\'otioun with maist reve- 
rence, he was commandit, be ane hevinly visioun, to take the arme 
of Sanct Andro, Avith in fingaris, and in tayis of his fut ; and to 
pas with the samin in the far nuke of the warld, namit Albion. 
Reule, monist be this visioun, come, with the said rehquies, throw 
the seis Mediterrane to Portingale ; and Avith huge pine and trubil. 



1 ^ 








he come throw the Spanye, Franche, and Almane seis, and arrivit 
in the town quhilk is now callit Sanct Androwis : quhare thay war 
schipbrokin, and na thing savit except ane few nowmer of haly 
men, quhilkis come with the said rehquies. Thir tithingis divulgat 
in the cuntre, causit the King of Pichtis and his pepill to cum with 
riche ofFerandis out of all partis, to adore the reliquies of the haly 
appostill, Sanct Andro. The King of Pichtis with his pepil war 
ressavit be Sanct Reule and his fallowis, in thair religious habitis, 
with sangis and ympnis, and othir divine cerimonyis, as afferit. 
Than Hergestus fell on kneis, and with maist reverence kist thir 
blissit reliquies, and gaif his palice riall, richely biggit efter the use 
of thay dayis, to Sanct Andro, Sanct Reule, and otheris his fallowis ; 
and biggit ane kirk, nocht far fra the said palice, dedicat in the ho- 
nour of Sanct Andro. Men sayis, it is the samin kirk that standis 
yit in the common kirk yard of the abbay, and was callit, in auld 
times, the kirk of Sanct Reule ; bot it is now calht the avild kirk of 
Sanct Andro. Hergest dotat this kirk with cowpis, challicis, ba- 
singis, lawaris, and sindry othir riche jowellis of gold and silver, to 
remane thair perpetually in the honour of devine service. The pos- 
terite of King Hergestus succeding efter him, and the Scottis, quhen 
the Pichtis was exilit of this realme, lies had Sanct Andro in maist 
reverence, as patroun of thair realme. 

The abbay kirk was dotat efter be King Malcolne the madin, and 
King Robert Brus, with rentis, landis, and possessionis, mair large- 
ly. This abbay was in governance of ane nobil man, Johne Heb- 
burne, priour thairof, in the time of the first compiling of thir cro- 
niklis. This priour was ane wise prelat, and decorit this kirk in 
with mony riche ornamentis. He biggit ane wall of square stanis 
about the kirk. This wall includis the kirk of Sanct Leonard, 
quhare the novicis of the said abbay, and uthir scolaris, lernis thair 
grammer, logik, theology, with mony othir science of naturall and 
morall philosophy ; and lies sic continewal exercition, that mony re- 
solute and profound clerkis risis daily in gret virtew throw the samin. 
In this kirk, war first preistis calht Culdeyis ; bot now in it, ar Chan- 
nonis Regular efter the institutionis of Sanct Augustine, gevand thair 
ingine in continewall exercitioun of letteris, and professioun of thair 
religioun. Heirfore, gif thow wil have respect to letteral exercition, 
thow sail find thair general! study in every science : gif thow will 


be contemplative, thow sal find thair maist honorabill service of God, 
with hevinly and delitious sang in maist crafty music : gif thovr 
wU have sicht to magnificence and curious biggin, thow sal find nane 
of mair honestee nor admiration in Ital}'-, France, or Almany, big- 
git curiously be this nobill man : quhilk deceissit the yeir afore the 
cuming of thir croniklis to licht, to na les dammage of commoun 
Weill, than spreding of letteris in this realme. Amang mony othir 
his honorabill werkis, it is gretumly to be lovit, that afore his deith 
he maid hisnepot Patrik, ane man of singular virtew and eruditioun, 
his successoure, to compleit the magnificent werkis that he afore 
began. The yeir that Sanct Reule come with the reUquies of Sanct 
Andro in Scotland, was fra the incarnatioun ccclxix. 

How Eugenius was maid King of Scottis. How Hergest, King of 
Pichtis, was confderat with Romanls for distruction of Scottis. 
How Maximus, Capitane of Britane, invadit the Scottis withgret 
cruelteis and slauchter. 

Ethelmak, slane in maner afore rehersit, the nobillis 
brocht Eugenius and Ethodius, the sonnis of Fincor- 
mak, out of the lie of Man, quhare thay abaid, eschewin 

the fury of Romak, Angusiane, and Fethelmak : and 

the eldest of thaim, namit Eugenius, the first of that name, was maid 
king. Maximus, capitane of Britane, knavving the hatrent betwix 
the Scottis and Pichtis, na les desirus to distroy thaim baith than 
to agment the glore of Romane empire ; devisit sic ane subtill slicht, 
that he micht first distroy the Scottis, and syne the Pichtis. And 
to wirk this mater with mair crafty slichtis, he send ambassatouris 
to Hergest, King of Pichtis, schawing him richt sorrowfull for the 
injuris done to him be Scottis ; and desirit, thairfor, to be confiderat 
with the said King of Pichtis aganis the Scottis : quharethrow it 
micht happin, that his pepil micht rise in sic pissance, be support 
of Romanis and Britonis, that thay micht othir thirll the Scottis to 

VOL. I. 2 G 


maist vile servitude, or ellls expell thaim, gif thay plesit, out of Al- 
bioun, and conques thair landis and roAvmes to tliaim and tliair pos- 
terite. King Hergest plesandly ressavit thir ambassatouris, and 
gave thankis to God, that send to him support, in sa extreme dan- 
geir, aganis his cruell ennimes : and said, It plesit him weill to be 
confiderat vnth the Romanis, sa thay wald concurre with Imn and 
his pepill to revenge the injuris done be the Scottis. Maximus con- 
discendit to thair desiris, traisting the samiu to cum to hie felicite 
of Romane empire. 

Nocht lang efter, it was concludit, be convention of Hergestus 
and Maximus at York, that Pichtis, Britonis, and Romanis, sal be 
confiderat togidder in tendir amite, and the Scottis to be haldin as 
ennimes to thaim all. Efter this conventioun, Maximus send ane 
herald to Eugenius, King of Scottis, chargcand him to I'cdres all 
skaithis done to Pichtis, and deliver the misdoaris to King Hergest, 
to be punist at his plesour ; uthirwayis, he and his pepill suld be reput 
as ennimes to the senat and pepill of Rome. Eugenius answerit. 
He nevir offendit the Romanis nor Britonis be injuris ; and thair- 
fore, he belevit the Romanis wald nocht be sa wrangus, as to invade 
him with battall but reasonabill motive or occasioun. Forthir, he 
understude the Romanis has nocht gottin sic humanite and kindnes 
of Pichtis, to move ony weir aganis 'the Scottis than present, sen 
thay nevir oifendit to Romanis. Alwayis, he was content baith to 
geif and take redres with the Pichtis ; and thay quhilkis invadis 
uthir with injuris in times cuming, to be punist as the crime requirit. 
Forthir, gif the Romanis, be advise of Pichtis, wald invade him but 
ony just occasion of battal, he micht do na thing les, than commend 
his gud actioun to God, the punisar of wrangis, and do the best he 
micht for defence of his realme and liberte : for the Romanis, as 
Weill apperis, ar na les set for exterminioun of Pichtis, than of 

Maximus, efter this answer, assemblit ane large army of Romanis, 
Britonis, and Franchemen, and enterit in Westmureland, ceissing 
fra na maner of cruelteis on the inhabitantis thairof ; and garnist all 
the strenthis of that regioun with Romane sodjouris. And sone efter, 
he come in Annandale, Galloway, and sindry uthir boundis, exer- 
cing gret cruelteis on the same maner. 


The Scottis, herand sa huge multitude of pepill assemblit aganis 
thaim, war afFrayit. Nochtheles, seand na uthir remeid, thay come 
out of all partis of Scotland, be command of Eugenius, with na les 
manlieid than ardent desire to resist thair ennimes, and faucht with 
Romanis beside the watter of Cree : quhare he was put to flicht, and 
Jiis army discomfist. Sa gret slauchter was maid on the brayis of 
» this rever, that the same was fillit full of deid bodyis. The Ro- 
manis followit sa fast on the chace of Scottis, quhill at last thay en- 
terit in ane new bergane with the men of Argyle ; for thay war 
cumin forthwart to support Eugenius army, knawing na thing of 
this discomfiture. And quhen thay saw the Romanis follow with 
sic cruelteis on tlie Scottis, thay ruschit with terribil vissage, noyis, 
and rummising, on the said Romanis ; and maid sic undemus slauch- 
ter on thaim, that the residew of the Scottis, quhilkis war laitly diffait, 
returnit to battall, and chasit the Romanis agane to thair tentis, in- 
vading thaim with continual] slauchter, quhill the nicht put end to 
thair laubour. Thus was the chance of battall variant, the first day, 
betwix the Scottis and thair ennimes. The Romanis, nocht knaw- 
ing the counsall of Scottis, howbeit mony of thaim war slane, stud 
in hovor, nocht knawing quhidder thay wald renew battal in the 
samin nicht, or abide the day. Yit, to have diaim reddy aganis all 
chance that micht follow, ihay stuffit thair tentis with maist crafty 
ordinance. Eugenius seing, on the morrow, his pepill broldn with 
sic innoumerable slauchter, raisit his tentis within the nicht, and 
come to Carrik : quhair he tuk lang consultatioun, how he micht 
arme him best aganis al chance of battal that micht follow. IMaxi- 
mus, on the morow, intending to persew the Scottis with new bat- 
tall, wes advertist of gret seditioun rising in Britane ; speciallie 
amang thaim that dwelt within the Romane provincis. Thir no- 
veUis causit him to desist fra his purpos, and returne in Kent. Eftir 
that, he garnist all the strenhis of Galloway with men, munitionis, 
and vittallis. Thir wer the dedis of Maximus aganis Scottis in the 
first yeris. 


How Maximus returnit in Galloxvay, to revenge the injuris done be 
Scottis aganis PiclUis. How Eugenius come 'with l.m men, to 
resist the Romanis, Pichtis, and Britonis. How he was slane, 
his brothir tane, and Ms army discomfist. 

AxiMUS, in the yeir following, wes !sa ithandlie occu- 
pyit with this trubill of Britonis, afore rehersit, that 
he micht nocht returne to the weris of Scottis. Noch- 
theles, mony frequent incursionis continewit al the said 
time betwix his Avageouris and the Scottis. At last, quhen the Scottis 
had assailyeit lang time, howbeit it wes in vane, to recover the 
strenthis of Galloway ; thay past throwe Menteith, Striviling, and 
Fiffe, and sindry othir boundis of Pichtis, invading the same with 
sic cruelte, that thay wer left desert. Maximus apperit richt hevy 
at thir oifencis ; howbeit na thing wes more plesand to him, than 
to heir the Scottis and Pichtis invading othir, to baith thair mis- 
cheifEs. Finalie, he come in Galloway, with purpos to pas throw 
all the remanent boundis of Scottis. 

Than wes Eugenius nocht far fra the Romanis, abiding the cum- 
ming of his pepill : to quhom comperit, gret confluence of fensabil 
men and wemen, to the nowmer of fifty thousand pepil, richt desi- 
rus to fecht, and criand atanis with huge nois, othir to de, or elhs 
to have victory ; for thay wer cruelly slane in al partis quhare thay 
micht be apprehendit be Romanis, but ony mercy or ranson. And, 
nochtwith standing thair gret curage, thay wer sumpart astonist, he- 
rand the Romanis cumming in thair landis, with more multitude 
and pissance of pepill, than evir wes sene in ony of thair boundis 
afore. Yet, otheris havand the Romane tyranny at dispite, wer 
rasit in maist fury, regarding na thing thair life in defence of thair 
liberte. Than Eugenius, with gret curage, dissimulit his conti- 
nance, as he wer aff'rayit of na thing les than of the Romanis ; and 
devidit his army in thre battahs : the richt wing wes gevin to his 


brodir Ethodius ; the left wing to Doalus, capitane of Argyle ; and 
ill tlie middilward, wes himself. Thir battallis wer arrayit in sic 
craft, that in the place quhair the battall wes set, he belevit nocht 
onhe to have the river of Munda, deip but ony furd, on the bakkis 
of his army, that thay siild fecht but refuge : bot als to have ye 
Sonne gangand to sichk on thair bakkis, that thair ennimes micht 
nocht hald up thair ein for reflixioun of contrar beimis in thair 
sicht. Sic thingis done, Eugenius went to ane hie mote, and callit 
his army to the standart, and said in this maner : " Our eldaris, 
" that began this realm with continewall laubour, and brocht the 
" samin with honour to our days, forey campionis, commandit thair 
" posterite to defend thair realme and liberie, quhilk is maist dulce 
" and hevinly treasoure in the erd, aganis al invasouris ; havand 
" esperance of victory, quhen time wes to fecht aganis thair en- 
" nimes, in na thing more than in thair handis : and to be obei- 
" sant to the wise and nobill capitanis of this realme ; quh^s 
" auctorite and prudence bene sicker targe, baith to thair guddis, 
" landis, and hffis, aganis all preis and dangeir of ennimes. All 
" our eldaris, that ar passit afore us, wer ay obedient to the com- 
" mand of thair nobillis; and thocht thay have fouchtin oftimes, 
" with sindry chancis of battall, aganis the dantouris of the warld, 
" yit thay wer finalie victouris. Nowe, mon we fecht, maist vail- 
" yeant campionis, with sic manheid and curage, as our eldaris 
" faucht afore us ; or ellis mon we tine oure realme and liberte, and 
" be thirUit to maist vile servitude, at the will of oure ennimes. 
" Now approchis Maximus, our cruell and unmercifull ennimy, to 
" reif baith our landis and guddis, gif we support nocht oureself be 
" grace of God and oure manheid. He is sa ful of fals ingine and 
" slichtis, that he is now confiderat with Pichtis, als weill in perdi- 
" tion of thaim as of us ; intending thairthrow to bring the haill em- 
" pire of Albioun, howbeit the samin wes nevir hard afore, under 
" Romane obeisance. The Pichtis, be mischant foly, passis to bat- 
" tall in support of thair profest ennimes, quhilkis ar richt desirus 
" to reif fra thaim thair kingdome and honouris. Thay come 
" aganis us, quhilkis wer ay thair protectouris, sen first thair realme 
" beganne. It is uncertane be quhat mischeif thir Pichtis bene 
" abusit, nocht knawing the irrecoverabill dammage that is to fal 
" on thame, in eversioun of thair common weill and liberte : and 


" thoucht thay knaw the same, thay gif no attendance thairto. Yit> 
" sa far as pertenis to our aetioun, consider that our ennimes ar to 
" fecht aganis us, quhome we nevir ofFendit with injuris : throw 
" quhilk, thair werkis sal be the more unchancy, and mair odious to 
" God. Be contrar, remember ye ar to resist thair invasiovm ; and 
" in your pure defence, ar to fecht for youre reahne and hberte : 
" and ar the posteritie of thay forcy campionis that sumtime maist 
" gloriously chasit the Romanis out of thir boundis. Now it is 
" cumin to sic point, that we mon othir be vincust, and suffir ex- 
" treme miserie and servitude ; or ellis to be victouris, and stabill 
" oure landis to us with glore, honoure, and permanent eis. I be- 
" seik yow, my gud companyeonis, for the unvincibill manheid, 
*' faith, and virthew of your eldaris, and for thair paill goisiis, 
" quhilkis defendit this youre realme in liberie to thir dayis; to suf- 
" fir nocht yow thair sonnis to be reft and spulyeit of your realme, 
" liberteis, and gudis ; nor yit to be taikin, as cativis, to underly 
" thair tyrannyis. And gif it hapnis yow be advers chance, quhilkis 
" God defend, to de, than do, sa far as in yow, to acquit your deith ; 
" and think, better is to de honestlie, than to leif in schame. Knawe 
" youreself dotat with incredibill manheid and virtew ; and heri- 
" touris, be anciant linnage, als weill to your nobill faderis in wis- 
" dome and chevalrie, as in thair landis : nocht gaderit of divers 
" nationis, bot of ane pepill under ane mind : and servandis to the 
" Eternall God, that gevis victory to just pepill, in reward of thair 
" virtew ; and to fals and wrangus j^epil schame, discomfiture, and 
" slauchter. Belt yow, thaii-fore, lusty gallandis, with manheid and 
" wisdome, to have victory : quhilk sail nocht fail to svicceid, gif ye, 
" with constant curage, have na thing bot schamful fleing in dre- 
" dour; and invaid your ennimes with siclik cruelte as thay in- 
" tend to invaid yow." 

Skarsly had Eugenius rasit the spreit of his army be this horta- 
tioun, quhen Maximus apperit in sicht, with all his army; and come 
forthwart with more deligence than wes belevit : for he come sone 
eftir the sonne rising. The Scottis wer a&tonist be huge multitude 
of ennimes : nochtheles, seand na refuge, thay determit to assailye 
the extreme jeoperde of armis. Sone eftir, thay arrayit thaim, with 
thair bakkis to the sonne ; that the glance and beimis thairof suld 
nocht be impediment to thair fechting : and skarslie wer thay weil 


arrayit, quhen thay ruschit forthwart on thair ennimes. This feirs 
rinning wes impediment to Maximus to do his devore : nochtheles, 
seand the time sa schort, he exhortit his army to remember the 
Romane vjrtew, and to be not aifrayit of barbar pepil, quhom thay 
recently discomfist. Incontinent, baith the armyis, be sound of 
trurapat, junit, Avith huge nois and clamour on all sidis. At the 
first contering, it wes so cruelly fochtin, that it wes uncertane to 
quhat party maist dangeir succedit : than followit sindry chancis of 
fortoun. For the Scottis that faucht in the richt Aving under Etho- 
dious, to win na les honour than glore, set on the Pichtis fornence 
thaim, and chasit thaim throw the waiter of Dune ; quhair mony 
of thame, ouirset with slik and glar thairof, wer slane: than, be proud 
and insolent glore, as thay had bene sicker of victory, thay straguht 
fra thair fallowis, cassin to spulye ; throw quhilk mony of thaim 
wer slane eftir, be ane Romane legioun that wes send be Maximus 
in support of the said Pichtis. In the last wing, quhair Doalus 
faucht, the Scottis met with Franchemen, Britonis, and Almanis: 
quhair thay wer slane, fechtand Avith perseverand manheid to the 
deith, for defence of thair realm. Than all the Romane army, be 
command of Maximus, ruschit on the middill warde, quhair Euge- 
nius faucht with his nobillis, wery, and neir vincust be multitude 
of thair ennimes : howbeit, mony of thaim, feirsly repugnant quhil 
thay micht, failyeit na thing that pertenit to forcy campionis. The 
nobillis that faucht in Eugenius army, seing the victory incline to 
Romanis, desirit Eugenius to saif him be flicht to better fortoun ; 
and incontinent thay raif of his coit armoure par force, to mak 
him unknawin : nochtheles, he abaid, fechtand with perseverand 
maUce aganis the Romanis ; and wes slane, the thrid yeir of his 

Quhil sic terrible murdir wes maid in the army of Scottis, al thair 
careage men, that wer left to keip thair bestiall and vittallis, havand 
na armoure bot swerdis to defend thaim, and seing sa mony nobill 
men slane ; be pietuous commiseratioun, ruschit on thair ennimes, 
and wer al slane, fechtand to the deith. 

Quhill the Romanis wer following in the chace, be gret ire and 
hatrent, on this maner, thay fell in ane uncouth maner of bergane ; 
for the agit and febill personis, that war left at hame as unfensabil 


bodyis, richt desirus to heir quhat chance was fallin to thair sonnls, 
come to the place quhare the battall was : bot quhen thay saw sa 
pietuous and lamentabil slauchter maid on thair sonnis and freindis, 
thay ruschit on thair ennimes like furius creaturis, regarding nothir 
life, reason, nor aige. The wemen come efter, with terribill noyis, 
rummisching as wod rageand beistis, and set on the Romanis. 
Nochtheles, baith the aigit men and wemen war finalie slane. The 
Romanis passit the nicht following with sa huge feir and dredoure, 
that na trinchis nor walking micht be sufficient munitioun to thair 
army; for the hillis, valis, and lesuris resoundit all the nicht with 
maist terribil spraichis of yammering pepill in the deidthraw : for 
nocht was hard bot horribill murning of sobband and deand pepilJ, 
cryand ane vengeance on Romanis and Pichtis, be quhais treason- 
abill slichtis this huge murdir was maid on thaim. On the morrow, 
Maximus partit the spulye of the feild amang his army, and maid 
the deid bodyis to be buryit : and to schaw him nocht degenerat 
fra Romane mercy, he maid thaim that war left on lifFe, and sair 
woundit, to be curit with maist crafty surrigianis : amang quhome 
was Ethodius, brothir to Eugenius, tane, and curit, be reuth of 
Maximus, of all his woundis. 

How the Scottis, he gret cruelte of Pichtis, war exil'it out of Albion. 
How the Ahbay of Cowikil wasfoundit. 

He Scottis discomfist in this wise. King Eugenius was 
found slane ; quhome Maximus gart bury Avith funeraJl 
obsequies : syne went mth his victorius army throw 
sindry boundis of Scotland, and gat mony of the inha- 
jitantis thairof randerit as he plesit. The Pichtis, desiring the uter 
exterminioun of Scottis, tuke hie displeseir, that the said Scottis 
war sufferit in this wise to leif in Albioun. Maximus maid him to 
meis thair indignatioun, saying, It pertenit to Romane majeste, to 
have na les mercy on thair subdittis, than ferocite above thair con- 


spiratouris and rebellis. It was alsua propir to Romanis to conques 
pepili mair be benivolence than tyranny; for na thing micht degraid 
mair the Romane glore, than to use cruelteis on thair subdewit pe- 
pili : and becaus the Scottis war sufficiently punist for thair rebel- 
lioun, thair king slane, thair army discomfist, and thair strenthis 
tane ; he wald invaid thaim with na forthir punitioun, les than thay 
conspirit with new rebellioun. 

The King of Pichtis and his nobillis, na thing satifyit of this an- 
swer, hot erar movit with mair indignatioun, desirit Maximus, be 
mony gret perswasionis, to sla all Scottis, in every part quhare thay 
micht be apprehendit ; saying, Thay war thair profest ennimes, borne 
in thair uter exterminioun, and rejosing onelie in murdir of Ro- 
manis : othirwayis, the Romanis and thair confiderat freindis micht 
have na sicker felicite in Albioun. 

The Pichtis seing thaim frustrat of thair desiris, began to con- 
vert thaim to mair slicht ; and flnalie, corruppit Maximus with large 
money, quhilk mo vis all mortall creaturis to maist terribill fellonyis ; 
and purchest all Scottis to be monist, under pane of deid, to pas 
out of Albioun at ane prefixt day, that thair landis and rowmes 
micht cum in pray to Romanis and Pichtis. The day byrunne, all 
Scottis war exilit, and commandit, under pane of maist cruell puni- 
tioun, nevir to returne in Albioun. Be this proscriptioun, sum of 
thaim went into the His; otheris in Ireland, Orknay, France, Italy, 
Norroway, and Denmark. 

Efter proscriptioun of the men, come sindry ladyis of Scotland, 
arrayit in thair dule habit, for doloure of thair husbandis, quhilkis 
war slane in this last battall ; and desirit Maximus, with lamentabill 
regrait, to suffer thaim leif, as cativis, the residew of thair misera^ 
bill life within thair native land, to pray for thair husbandis, and 
finaly be buryit with thaim in graif. Bot thay couth purches nocht 
with all thair dolorus teris, bot plane repuls : and sa the ladyis and 
gentillwemen war exiUt on the samin maner as the men. Thir 
doingis war occasioun to Maximus to detest the inhumaniteis and 
cruell maneris of Pichtis. The Pichtis, rageand ilk day in mair 
cruelte ; efter the day of generall proscription, murderit all Scottis, 
quhare thay micht be apprehendit, but ony piete, ransoun, or mise- 
ration of thair estatis. 

VOL. I. 2 H 


Quliill sic deligent serching was maid in all partis, Cartandis, 
Quene of Scottis, with two madinnis and ane servand, was found at 
the sepulture of hir husband Eugenius, neir consumit with murning 
and teris: and becaus scho was the Prince of Walis douchter, scho 
was brocht to Maximus but ony displesoure. Maximus than re- 
membring the unsicker stait of man, and havand compassioun of hir 
sorrowfull chance, met hir in his honest maner, and maid hir al the 
consolatioun he micht ; and prayit hir to be of gud confort, for he 
suld treit hir as his sister in times cumming. Sone efter, he cloithit 
hir with honest and semely abulyements, and gaif hir the town of 
Carrik, with sindry rentis and possessionis, to sustene hir rial estait : 
nochtheles, Cartandis, nocht unknawand fra quhat hie felicite scho 
was dejeckit, plesandly ressavit the yok of servitude. And quhen 
scho was returnand to the said town of Carrik, scho was tane, be 
the gait, be ane cumpany of Romanis and Pichtis ; and nocht onelie 
spulyeit of hir hors, clething, money, and jowellis, bot als hir ser- 
vandis slane, and hir madinnis fulyeit. 

Maximus advertist of this outtrage, ceissit nocht quhill the mis- 
doaris war punist, and hir guddis restorit ; syne preservit hir, mony 
dayis efter, fra all injure of ennimes. On the morrow, the Pichtis 
come to Maximus, complaning hevaly that thair men war slane be 
perswasioun of ane cative woman, ennimy to thaim ; and said thay 
deservit othir kindnes of Romanis, fechtand to the deith for ampli- 
atioun of thair empire, aganis the pepil with quhilkis thay war con- 
fiderat to thay dayis : and desirit, thairfore, that Cartandis suld be 
exilit in Britane, amang hir freindis. 

Cartandis heirand thir wourdis, said, Scho was bot ane miserabill 
creature, nakit of hir husband and freindis ; and wald be mair mi- 
serabill, gif scho, beand dejeckit fra hie felicite, was repute sa un- 
worthy, that scho micht nocht be sufferit to leif amang hir ennimes, 
bot commandit to leif in daily schame amang hir freindis : howbeit 
it war mair plesand to hir to be in Scotland, praying for the vail- 
yeant pepil that was slane with hir husband, during hir sobir life, 
than to leif in honoure of ony princely estait. Finaly, quhen scho 
had desirit outhir to be put haistely to deith, or ellis to be suiFerit 
to leif, as scho desirit, in Scotland ; sic commiseratioun rais amang 
the Romanis, movit be hir comploratioun, that scho was licent, con- 


trar the mind of Pichtis, to remane in Scotland, quhare scho list, 
with rentis and possessionis effering to hir estait. 

Sic thingis done, all preistis, monkis, and religious personis of 
Scottis blude, war exilit on the same maner out of Scotland : throw 
quhilk mony of thaim come in Ihs, and biggit the abbay of Colme- 
kill, quhare mony devoit personis remanis yit to oure dayis. Uncer- 
tane quhidder the samin be mair plentuous of haly wemen or men, 
quhilkis leiffis devoitlyin thair secret housis. Quhare throw it hap. 
penit that this abbay, howbeit it began soberly, be devotioun of 
pepill, and princely rewardis, was maid the comraoun sepulture, 
mony yeris efter, of all Scottis kingis. 

And thocht Ethodius, brothir to Eugenius, with otheris pre- 
soneris of Scottis, war evill woundit in this battal ; yit thay war 
exiUt, efter thair curing, on the samin maner ; and sworne nothir to 
pas in Ireland, Orknay, nor Ihs, and constranit thairfore to pas in 

The yeir that Scottis war exiht out of Albion be the weris of 
Romanis, was fra the beginning of the warld, v.mdxlvii yeris; 
fra the incarnatioun of God, ccclxxix yeris ; fra the beginning of 
Scottis in AJbioun, dccxii yeris : in the secund yeir of Juliana, 
Emprioure, quhilk was namit Appostita, becaus othir Empriouris 
afore him war Cathohk princis, and he ane heretike. 

Ofsindry marvelUs sene in Albioun. How the Scottis that Jled in 
Ireland and the His, retumit in Scotland faith gret power; and 
how thay 'war disconifist and slane. 

N the yeir that Eugenius faucht with Romanis, war 
sene mony uncouth mervellis in Albioun, to the gret 
terroure of the pepill. In the nicht, apperit mony 
swerdis and wappinnis birnand in the air ; hot at last 
thay ran al togidder in ane gret bleis, and evanist out of sicht. The 
waiter of Dune ran full of blude, and the brais of it schane all nicht, 


as it had bene full of ithand firis. Mony small foulis fell out of the 
aire, in maner of ane schoure ; and incontinent come ane huge mul- 
titude of ravinnis, and devorit thaim all. Howbeit the devinouris 
and wod wemen schew that thir uncouth and wonderfull prodigies 
signifyit the exterminioun of Scottis ; yit thay war haldin in deri- 
sioun to the pepill, and inhibit to geif faith to sic fretis. 

Sic felicite succeding to Romanis, and the Scottis beand exiht out 
of Albioun, Gillo, Capitane of His, advertist of the proscription of 
Ethodius in Norroway, but esperance of his returning; had sic de- 
sire to recover his realme, that he come with ane gret power in Ar- 
gyle. In the mene time, his folkis, Avide skatterit at tliair incur- 
sionis and spulyeis, hapnit, be adventure, to cum on ane army of 
Pichtis, laid for defence of the cuntre ; be quhome thay war finally 
chasit and slane. All thair schippis and galyeonis war brocht to the 
nixt port, to resist the residew of Scottis, gif thay happinnit to re- 
turne with ony new army. 

The men of Ihs, brokin on this wise with dowbill calamite, baith 
with slauchter and tinsall of thair schippis, had na pissance to per- 
sew thair ennimes with ony forthir battal. The residew of Scottis, 
to eschew the ire and hatrent of Romanis, fled in Ireland, and pie- 
tuisly complanit afore the King and Princis thairof, that thair King 
Eugenius was slane, and all thair freindis, sumtime maist vailyeant 
in marciall dedis, banist out of Albion, be tyranny of Romanis, 
Britonis, and Pichtis ; quhais cruelteis war sa odiously schawin on 
thaim, that na estait nor aige war savit, bot drevin be preis of bat- 
tall in uncouth realmis, to leif in poverte and servitude : Thus was 
thair nobill and anciant realme, sa lang defendit be vailyeant cam- 
pionis to thay dayis, brocht to uter exterminioun be insaciabill 
avarice of Romanis, and gevin as pray to Britonis and Pichtis, in 
reward of thaii- falset and treason : And desirit, thairfore, for the luf 
and tendernes that Nature, the crafty modir of all creatouris, hes 
ordanit the parentis to haif to thair children, to support thaim aganis 
thair unmercifuU ennimes ; that the Scottis, sumtime descending of 
thair blude, and rejosing the realme of Scotland above dcc yens, 
be nocht brocht to uter confusioun be Romane weris ; sen thay ar 
earning to thaim as to thair sicker anker, and last refuge in that 
extreme neid. 


The princis of Ireland, movit be commiseratloun of this sorrow- 
full chance falling to Scottis, thair native pepill, send x thousand 
Irelandmen with thaim in Albion, to recover thair realme. This 
army come in Carrik, Kyle, and Cunninghame, and ceissit fra na 
maner of cruelte on the Britonis and Pichtis that war found in thay 
boundis. Herdurstane, brothir to Hergest, King of Pichtis, afore 
rehersit, hering sa gret cruelteis done to Pichtis, come haistely, with 
ane army, to invaid the Scottis : nochtheles, he was put to flicht, 
and his army discomfist. Than the Scottis tuke advisement, quhat 
wes to be done. Sum allegit, howbeit victory succedit, to assailye 
nocht the chance of fortoun ony forthir : bot, efter this plesand vic- 
tory, to returne in Ireland with the riche spulye of men and guddis, 
takin be thaim in the said battal ; and erar to kepe thaim to ane 
better fortoun, than to abide, be manifest foly, the Romane pissance : 
quhilk had sa hie and singulare preeminence, baith in riches and 
chevalry, that na pepill micht resist thairto. Otheris said. Best was 
to follow fortoun, and recover the remanent landis reft fra thaim. 
Sen thair beginning succedit Avith sa happy chance, thair end suld 
follow with the mair prosperite ; for it is oft times sene, that gret 
multitude of pepil bene vincust be few men : and, thairfore, in 
esperance of better fortoun, best was to rais thair curage, and outhir 
recovir thair native realme, or all atanis to de. This last opinioun 
was apprisit. Than the Scottis and Ireland men tuke full purpos 
to recovir all the remanent landis that pertenit to thaim be ony 
titill or law, in Albion. At last, quhen thay had fochtin with maist 
rageand fury aganis thair ennimes, na better fortoun succedit to 
thaim, than succedit afore to the men of Ilis ; for few of thaim es- 
chapit untakin, or slane with Romanis. 

The princis and nobilHs of Ireland, richt afFrayit of thir tithingis, 
convenit to ane counsall, to have consultatioun how the Scottis micht 
be restorit to thair realme, and the Romanis best resistit. And 
quhen thay saw na sufficient remeid for the samin, thay set aside all 
othir materis ; and concludit, to send thair oratouris to have peace 
of Romanis. The ambassatouris, that come to this effect, war re- 
provit be Maximus, quhy thay supportit the Scottis aganis the Ro- 
manis, considering na realmes in erd, saif Ireland, war fre of Ro- 
mane weris to thay dayis. Yit peace was grantit to thaim under 


thir conditionis : The princis and nobillis of Ireland sail resset na 
ennimes of Romanis within thair realm e, in timis cuming ; and thay 
sal make na support to thaim that movis ony weris aganis the Ro- 
manis or thair confiderat freindis. Na theiffis, nor limmaris of Ire- 
land, sal cum to do erandis, in timis cumming, in Albioun. The 
peace ratifyit in this maner, followit na trubill efter in Albioun be 

And sa endis heir, the Sext Buke of thir Croniklis. 

%\tt ^ebittt Bufee. 




Hon) Maximtis conquest^ be his liberalitey the crown of Britane. 
How he slew Gratiane, Emprioure, and was slane he. Theodosius. 

AxiMUS, havand trubill of ennimes 4antit in 
all partis, with sicker peace ; to make his pru- 
dent maneris mair patent, schew him sa beni- 
volus to the pepil, that na man was denyit his 
presence ; and had Avith him, in daily fallow- 
schip, mony of the gret nobillis of Britane ; 
and tretit thaim sa plesandly, that sindry of 
thaim war drawin to his favoure. For quhen he ceissit fra publict 
materis, he gaif his ingine to tornamentis, warsling, and othir knicht- 
]y exercitioun, Avith Britonis ; and become sa liberall, that he gave, 
on ane day, amang thaim, mair than all the tribute of Britane micht 
extend to for ane yeir. All the weirmen and knichtis in his campe, 
war perswadit to take his part, be his liberalite, aganis quhatsum- 


evir jeoperdeis that micht fall. Maximus, knawing the mindis of his 
army gevin with sic fervent amite to him, set ane conventioun at 
York, and partit all the landis partenand sumtime to Scottis, amang 
the Pichtis and Britonis. Sic thingis done, he garnist al the strenthis 
of Britane with men, munitionis, and vittallis : syne callit afore him 
all his freindis and men of armis, quhom he knew maist favorable 
to his desiris ; and demandit thaim, be quhat inglne or way is he 
micht maist easely conques the crown of Britane. The Britonis, 
knawing his imperial linnage and liberalite, with hie manheid, and 
craft of chevalrie, creat him king. Thocht Paulus Diaconus writtis, 
that he wes maid king contrar his will, I will follow my auctouris 
afore rehersit, erar than uncouth historicianis. Valentiniane, Em- 
priour, knawing that Maximus had usurpit the crown of Britane, 
send divers capitanis and armyis, to dant his rebelHoun. At last, 
quhen he persavit the said Maximus invincibill in battal, and mony 
of his capitanis and armyis discomfist and slane, he condiscendit 
Uchtly to have peace with the said Maximus. 

Thus wes Maximus sufFerit, be the Empriour, to rejose the crown 
of Britane ; quhilk he governit xvii yeris efter but truble, havand 
the hale empire of Albion under his dominion : quhilk hapnit nevir 
afore to levand creature. He hacl the Pichtis in sic familiarite, that 
the strangest of thaim wer chosin capitane in his army, and other 
maid sodjouris in sindry castellis of Britane. And quhen he come 
in thair landis, he cloithit him with mantil bordorit with gold and 
silkin flouris, eftir thair gise ; and of thaim desirit nocht bot ane 
smal tribute, to be ane memorial that thay wer tributaris to him in 
name of Romanis. The Pichtis and Britonis, deliverit thus of al 
deidly feir of Scottis, had Maximus in na les luf than vehement af- 
fection ; and rejosit, that the Scottis, thair auld ennimes, wer exiht 
out of Albioun, and put to uter rewine. Quhen Maximus had go- 
vernit the crown of Britane certane yeris Avith gret manheid and 
prudence, he began, be insaciable avarice, to covate the haill em- 
pire of the warld : and to conqueir the samin, he went in France, 
eftir that he had stuffit all the strenthis of Britane with Strang mu- 
nitioun and w ageouris. At his cuming in France, he wes tenderlie 
ressavit be certane legionis of Romanis, quhilkis wer ennimes to 
Graciane, Eraprioure, and bure him in deidlie hatrent, becaus he 


had uncouth and barbar pepill in more reverence than Romanis. 
Maximus, favorlt, be this mene, be the Romanis in France, gaderit 
ane army, with al pissance that he micht assemble ; and be suddane 
incursionis, slew Graciane, Empriour, the xxix yeir of his empire. 
Eftir this slauchter, Maximus went throw Almany and Italie ; and 
be feir of his onhe fame, he constranit the peple to pay him tribute : 
nochttheles, he w es finalie slane be Theodosius, Emprioure. 

Als sone as the Romanis quhilkis wer left in France knew the 
slauchter of Maximus, thay tuke incontinent his sonne, namit Vic- 
tour ; and spulyeit him baith of his auctorite and hfe : as Paulus 
Diaconus writis at lenth, in the life of Graciane and Theodosius, 

Hem Octavius ivas maid King of Britonis. Hoxv Mercius and 
Victorinc wer send in Alhioun, to dant the Britonis. How the 
Pichtis war thirllit to gret servitude ; and how thair King slew 

He Romane princis beand devidit on this maner amang 
thaimself, Octavius, sonne to Octavius, King of Bri- 
tane, afore rehersit, returnit in Britane ; for he fled, as 
we schcAv, in France, to eschew the tyranny of ]\Iaxi- 
mus, quhen he subde\vit Britane to his opinion; and clamit the 
crown to pertene to him as just heritoure, discending of the blud 
riaU thairof be lang progression : and promittit, gif thay condiscen- 
dit to his opinion, to deliver thaim of Romane servitude, and to 
suffer nane bot thair native blud to regne above thaim in times 

The Britonis, movit be his reasonis, and richt desirus to recover 
thair liberte, maid him king. The Romanis, quhilkis kepit the 
strenthis and munitionis of Britane, wer repugnant to thir doingis. 
Thus apperit gret contentioun: the Britonis set to defend Octa- 

VOL. I. 2 I 


vius, and the Romanis to keip Britane under the empire of Theo- 
dosius, Empriour. 

This rebellion of Britonis wes occasion to the Empriour to send 
new capitanis, with mony Romane legionis, to dant the Britonis : 
bot quhen he fand thay micht nocht be ouirthrawin be force of 
armes, he gaif thaim peace under thir conditionis : Octavius sail 
reraane King of Britane, during his life, and amite with Ro- 
manis ; the munitionis and strenthis of Britane to be kepit be the 
Romanis ; the administratioun of justice to be at the will of Theo- 
dosius, quhome he list depute for the samin : paying siclike tribute 
to the Empriour as thay payit afore to Maximus. Thus wes Bri- 
tane maid tributar, as afore, to Romanis. 

Nocht lang eftir, two capitanis wer send, with mony legionis, in 
Britane : that ane, namit Marcius, to mak his residence at Lon- 
doun ; and this othir, namit Victorine, to remane at York. Be go- 
vernance of thir two capitanis, followit, mony yeris eftir, gret afflic- 
tion to the Albianis ; for Victorine convenit the Pichtis to ane coun- 
sal, and repruvit thame for using of thair awin lawis, in contemp- 
tioun of Romane auctorite, as thay had bene fre pepil, nocht astrickit 
to the Emprioiuis servitude. Efter sindry consultationis, he maid 
actis, That nane of Pichtis sail rcgne eftir Hergest ; na ministration 
of justice to be maid be thair awin lawis, bot onlie be Romanis ; 
and the said Romanis to have above thaim, in times cuming, the 
auctorite of life and deith : and gif thay wer found repugnant to 
thir constitutionis, to be punist to the deith. , 

Hergest, King of Pichtis, thirllit thus to vile servitude in his lat- 
ter age, wes penitent of the weris maid afore aganis the Scottis ; 
seing, eftir thair proscriptioun, sa intoUerable calamiteis appering, 
baith to his peple than present, and to thair posterite : and becaus 
he couth nocht put remeid thairto, for vehement dolour, he slew 

Victorine, knawing this unhappy end of Hergest, commandit that 
na Pichtis blude usurpe the cro^vn in times cuming ; and that nane 
of thame beir office nor auctorite, under pane of deith ; with all 
other chargis to be observat, quhilkis thay wer thirllit to be Maxi- 
mus, quhen he exilit the Scottis. Thus wes the realmc of Pichtis 


spulyeit of thair native lawis, and subdewit to Romanis in maner of 
province, siclik as the realme of Britonis. 

The Pichtis, havand the chargis of Victorine in derisioun, wer 
richt impacient to suffir the crown be reft fra thair native blud ; and 
maid Durstus, the son of Hergest, to be thair king. Victorine, 
movit for thair rebelhon, thocht best to dant thame afore thay 
gaderit ony more pissance, and come haistely in Pentland with gret 

The Pichtis in Canielon, with thair new king, heirand the cuming 
of Victorine, began to garnis thair town a\ ith all provisioun : noch- 
theleSj soner than thay traistit, the Romanis beltit thair town with 
Strang seige, and tuke it finalie be force of amies. In this towne 
wes tane King Durstus, and send to Rome, to underly the juge- 
nient of Romane senatouris. The principal movaris of this rebel- 
lioun wer scurgit with wandis throw the town of Camelon. 

The Pichtis, dantit be Victorine in this maner, wer commandit to 
pay yeirlie to the Romane thesaurer, the fourt part of all the frutis 
growand on thair landis, with the feird part of thair bestial, under 
pane of deith ; for he thocht the Pichtis sa insolent eftir the ejec- 
tion of Scottis out of Albion, that, gif thay wer nocht dantit in time, 
mony hie offencis micht rise be thaim in Albion. And by all thir 
importable chargis, he thirlHt thaim to maist vile servitude; and 
send thaim in Britane, and othir realmes, to vnn mettellis, querrelhs, 
and to mak tild. And above all thir calamiteis, thair come to thaim 
ane mair insufferable injure, devisit in finall distruction of thair 
realme : for within schort time eftir, thay wer commandit to pas, 
with thair wiffis, children, and guddis, under pane of deith, beyond 
the watter of Forth ; and leif behind thame Mers, Berwik, Pent- 
land, Galloway, Strivehng, Carrik, Kyle, and Cunninghame, and 
mekill of all the wod of Calidon ; that the samin micht be perpetu- 
ally inhabit, in times cumming, be Britonis. Attoure, thay wer 
commandit to big ane heich dike, fra Abircorne to Dunbriton, to 
devide thaim fra Britonis ; and gif ony Pichtis transcencht this dike, 
to be punist na les than thay had offendit aganis the majeste of 

The Pichtis, grevit with thir and mony othir intollerabill injuris, 
began to lament thair sorowfull chance, fallin to thaim be thair 


awin offence ; and rasit thair ein to the hevin, humily praying the 
mercifull God to dehver thame of Romane tyranny. 

Of Ethodim, hrothir to Eugenius afore rehersit. Of his governance 
in Denmark; and of his successioun. How Rome icas tane he 
Gothis; and how sindry spulyeis thairof fell to Fergus the Se- 

Uhill the Pichtis wer punist with thir and mony othir 
affliction! s, the Scottis wer vagabound, and banist in 
uncouth realmes, with thair wiffis and children ; sum of 
thaim levand on the laubour of thair handis ; otheris 
beand wageouris, and men of armis, under sindry princis and capi- 
tanis of the warld. 

Ethodius, brothir to Eugenius, banist, as we have schawin, with 
his wife, out of Albioun, wes plesandly tretit be the King of Den- 
mark ; and gat certane landis, quhair he remanit with his wife : on 
quhom he gat ane sonne, namit Erthus. This Erthus, eftir the 
deith of his fader Ethodius, maryit ane nobill lady, namit Rocha, 
douchter to Rorik, quhilke wes gretest prince of Danis, under the 
king ; and gat on hir ane sonne, namit Fergus the Secund : quhilk 
recoverit the realme of Scotland, as we sail now schaw. This Fer- 
gus, in his flurisand youth, past, be command of the King of Danis, 
with ane cumpany of chosin and vailyeant men, to Alarike, King of 
Gothis ; quhilk at that time wes passand, with huge army, to con- 
found and distroy the empire of Romanis. Fergus wes richt glaid 
of this voyage ; for he bure extreme hatrent aganis the Romanis, 
becaus thay slew his eldaris, or elUs banist thaim fra thair native 
realm in uncouth regionis. Finalie, eftir mony battallis, fochtin 
be sindry chancis of fortoun, betwix the Romanis and Gothis ; Ra- 
dagasus, principal Capitane of this army, beand slane, with inHnite 
nowmer of pepill, and the Romanis siclike brokin, with thair army 
and pissance; ane strait seige wes laid about Rome, be the said 


Alarik, King of Gothis. The Romanis debaitit the town lang time, 
be sindry jeoperdyis; quhil, at last, thay laikit vittalhs: throw 
quhilk wes sic hunger amang thaim, that thay abhorrit nocht to eit 
the flesche of men, with othir sindry forbodin metis. " In deplo- 
" ratioun of this calamite, my voce," sayis Sanct Jerome, " asto- 
" nisis, and the sobbing cuttis my wourdis. The town is tane, that 
" tuke al the Avarld, vincust more be hunger than swerd ; and few 
" found on Hve within the samin. Sa far sprang the hungry raige, 
" that it constranit the pepill to eit abhominable meitis : the moder 
" sparit nocht to swelly the frute of hir awin boweUis."" 

Thus wes Rome finalie expugnant be Gothis, the first day of 
Apprile, fra the beginning of it be Romulus, imclxiv yeris; fra 
the incarnation of God, occcxii yeris. 

Als sone as Rome wes tane, the Gothis ceissit fra slauchter of the 
pepill, and fra spulyeing of the tempillis of the Appostillis Peter 
and Paule : throw quhilk mony pepill that fled thairto, wer savit 
of thair guddis and livis. 

Rome, sumtime the Lady of the Warld, wes spulyeit thus be 
cruelte of Gothis ; and the spulyeis of it devidit, be rite of amies, 
ainang the Gothis. It is said, that beside mony riclie jowellis and 
precious geir that fell to Fergus the Secund be the said spulye, ane 
kist Aves gevin to him, full of bukis ; quhilkis he brocht out of Italy, 
with incredibill laubour and deligence, in Almany ; and send it to 
remane in Colmekill, with mony othir Cronikillis and Historyis of 
Scotland ; uncertane be quhayis impulsioun this procedit. It is said 
that Eneas Silvius, quhilk wes send as legat fra Eugenius the Fourt, 
Paip, to King James the First, tuke purpos to pas in the His of 
Scotland, to se gif he micht find ony of the werkis of Titus Livius, 
quhilkis wer distroyit at this time be cruell weris of Italy ; for ma 
notabill thingis bene distroyit be battall, than be roust of yeris. 
Nochtheles, fra the said Eneas knew the passage dangerus, becaus 
the king wes slane, he left his purpos. And we, of that samin 
maner, richt desirus to knaw quhat bukis thir bene, quhais fame 
wes sa divulgat in all partis ; maid sic deligence, that at last five auld 
bukis, writtin in Romane letteris, war brocht to us at Abirdene, be 
industry of ane nobill man, Maister Johne Campbell, thesaurer to 
the King, the yeirof God ane thousand, v hundreth, xxv yeris: in 


the quhilkis war nocht hot brokin leiffis, and few of thaim braider 
than the pahiie of ane mannis hand, writtin craftly on rude and 
hard parchement ; hot thay wer sa blind, we micht nocht reid ilk 
tent wourd. And quhiddir thir bukis wer ane part of thaim that 
wer distroyit be the said Averis of Italie, or gif thay wer brocht to 
the said Abbay out of uncouth and strange placis, it is uncertane ; 
yit, be testimoniall of thaim that red the samin, Ave find tJiay soundit 
mair to the eloquence of Salustius than of Livius. Forthir, at this 
same tune, Aves brocht to us, be the same messengeir, the Averkis of 
Veremund, Archedene of Sanctandrowis ; contenand the historie of 
this realme, fra the first beginning thairof, to King Macolme Can- 
mores time : quhilkis authouris Ave have folloAvit, with the maist wise 
Bischop William Elphinstoun, to the end of this our quhatsumevir 
werk. Bot Ave Avill retourn to our historie. 

Fergus, the sonne of Erthus, departit out of Rome, with Alarik, 
thre dayis eftir it Aves put to sakke ; and Avent Avith him to the ex- 
pugnation of sindry othir toAvnis in Italie. Nocht lang eftir, he 
wes ordanit to pas, Avith certane schippis, in Sicil ; and in the mene 
time, rais sa unmerciful tempest on him, that he wes drevin, be force 
of contrarius Avindis, agane in Italie, and narrowly eschapit of his 

At his retourning, Alarike wes deceissit, and Athalphas maid 
King of Gothis, and generall capitane of thair army : with quhome 
Fergus become sa beluffit for his singular manheid and virtew, that 
als sone as Italie wes dantit be the Gothis, he Aves sufferit to returne 
hame, Avith mony Danis, in Denmark ; full of riches and treasoiu-e, 
gottin the said weris. 




Of sindry ClerJcis and Sanctis Jlurismg in the zcarld. Of the first 
message send be Fichtis to Scottis. 

Ony nobil clerkis flurist at this time in the warld : as, 
Claudian, poete, writtar in sum part of our historic'; 
Apollinaris, confoundar of the heritikis that wer empo- 

sionit be Porphirius; Martin, Bischop of Turuin, in 

h ranee ; with mony resolute and haly men. Amang us wes in thay 
dayis, Sanct Niniane, the first Bischop of Galloway; quhair he biff- 
git ane kirk in the honour of Sanct Martine, his eime. Tn thay 
dayis wes als Sanct Ambrose, Bischop of Millane, quhilk brocht 
Sanct Augustine to the faith and sacrament of baptisme. This 
Augustine was the first beginnar of Channownis Regular, of quohom 
ar now mony abbayis ereckit in the warld be magnificence of sin- 
dry princis. Of this ordour bene xxx Papis, beside mony biscoppis 
and nobill prelatis, quliais nowmer may not be comprehendit Be 
mutation of this ordour, rais the Eremitanis; quhilkis ar incressit to 
so mcredibil nowmer, howbeit thay sufferit gret afihctioun of Gen- 
tihs, that than- is of thaim this day in Europe above two thousand 
and III hundreth abbayis, beside thaim that ar in Affrik and Egypt 
This Augustine was nocht onely commendabiU in his institutioun 
ot religious maneris, bot als for his singulare eruditioun in every 
kind of science : for he had skars xx yeris in age, quhen he red re- 
thorikm Cartage; and lernit b^ith his philosophie and mathemathik 
but ony preceptoure. Efter this, he come to Millane, quhare he 
be preclung of Sanct Ambrose, ressavit the Cristin faith; and was 
sa proffitabill thairto, that he vincust and put down ane c sindry 
opimoms of herisis, and wrait sa huge nowmer of bukis, that na age 
ot man may suffice to reid thame: and deceissit, the lxxx yeir of 
his age. And in thir dayis was als Basilius, the first beginnar of 
monkis; Cyrillus, Bischop of Jerusalem; and Sanct Jerome, the 
Pape, quhilk translatit the BibiU out of Ebrew in Latine, with 


mony othir volomes in that samin maner. His werkis was haldin 
in sic reverence be the Pape Damasus, that thay war commandit 
to be red amang othir devine service. Bot we wil returne to our 

The Pichtis, seing thaim ilk day mair tormentit with Romane 
injuris, and irkit with importabil servitude, send thair secret mes- 
sengeris to the Scottis quhilkis war exiht in the Ihs, Ireland, and 
Norway; desiring thaim to returne in Albion, to recover thair 
reahne: and promittit, be thair gret aithis, othir to restore the 
Scottis to thair realme and landis, or ellis to fecht in thair support 
to the deith, aganis the Romanis and Britonis. 

Quhen Fergus had hard thir desiris of Pichtis, he send, be advise 
of the King of Denmark, his traist servandis in al partis quhare ony 
Scottis war, to explore thair mindis towart him. And quhen he 
fand thaim all of ane mind, to recover thair realme, and revenge the 
injuris done to thaim be Romanis and Britonis ; he conducit ane 
gret nowmer of schippis and weirmen, part with the riches he wan 
in the weris of Italy, and part be support of his gudschir Rorik, to 
cum in Albioun. 

How Gratiane, King of Britonis, and Mercius, Romane Capitane, 
war slane, and Constantine pit in Mercius place ; and of his 
deith. Of the secund message send be Pichtis to Fergus ; and 
how he come in Albioun, and was aggreit isoith Pichtis, and reco- 
verit his realme. 

UmxG this time, Gratiane, Britone, be consent of 
Mercius, Romane Capitane, tuke the crown of Britane. 
This trubil was sone pecifyit ; for sic contention rais 
^^ betwix thaim, that ilk ane of thaim slew othir. 
The Romanis, richt sorrowful for the deith of thair capitane, 
chesit Constantine, but advise of Honorius, Empriour, to succede 
in Mercius place. This Constantine was nocht ane man of nobill 


blude, nor yit of mercial werkis. Als sone as he was chosin capi- 
tane, he went in France, with ane army, to deliver the samin fra 
injure of Gothis and Swissis ; quhare he was vincust be ane nobil 
knicht, namit Constantius, and slane. 

Als sone as Victorine knew the slauchter of Mercius and Constan- 
tine, he went to London, and garnist all the strenthis of Britane 
with Strang munition and weirmen ; and set his ingine mony wayis 
to hald the Britonis at the opinioun of Honorius, Empriour : for 
the empire of Romanis was invadit with grete rebellioun in al partis. 
The Pichtis, seing the Britonis haldin with gret difficulte at the 
opinion of Romanis, belevit fermely, gif the Scottis war brocht agane 
in Albion, and concurring to thair support, to recover thair liberte. 
And for thir causis, thay send thair secund message to Fergus, 
schawing sa gret trubil in Britane amang the Romanis, that na time 
raicht cum sa ganand as than to recover his realme. 

Sone efter, Fergus pullit up salis, and arrivit in Murray, quhare 
he set his army on land. The fame of his cuming divulgat throw 
Albion, causit the Scottis out of all partis to convene to him, with 
thair wiffis and children, on the same maner as thair ennimes had 
bene chasit and vincust, and as thay war to remane perpetually in 
thair native landis, but ony forthir trubill. Than come sindry 
Pichtis, in gret cumpanyis, to Fergus ; thanking him, that he, for 
singulare iufe to recover his native realme, was cumin in Albion, 
nocht astonist of the winter stormes nor dangeir of seis, quhen pas- 
sage bene maist parellus ; and desirit him to set on side all injuris, 
gif ony war in times bygane, betwix Scottis and Pichtis, that thay 
micht be new confiderat, efter the tennour of the auld peace : and 
prayit him to imput na fait to thaim for the wekit offencis committit 
aganis the nobill King Eugenius, his progenitour ; bot to imput the 
same allanerly to thair fore eldaris, quhilkis culd nothir, for that 
time, have experience of the dissait of Romanis, nor yit understand 
quhat vengeance and calamite was appering to thaim be the weris 
maid aganis the Scottis; quhen thay, beand dissavit be plesand 
wordis of Romanis, in dammage of thair commoun weill, brocht 
thaimself to intoUerabil servitude : throw quhilk thay war sa cruelly 
punist, that every kind of deith wes to be preferrit to Romane do- 

VOL. r. 2 k 


To this answerit Fergus, He wald gladly have peace and amite 
with Pichtis, with siclike condicionis as thay war afore confiderat 
with his progenitouris ; and wald jeoperde himself with thaim in 
battall, contrar Romanis and Britonis, thair auld and perpetual en- 
nimes ; and fecht to the deith for thair commoun weill, to revenge 
the injuris done to thaim : swa that the said Pichtis wald plesandly 
depart, with thair wiffis, children, and guddis, out of the landis 
quhilkis war treasonably reft afore fra the Scottis. As to the auld 
injuris of the said Pichtis, he thocht thaim sufficiently punist, be 
just punitioun of God, for thair offence ; sen thay war nocht onely 
reft and spulyeit of thair native landis, bot thirllit to maist vile and 
intollerabil servitude. 

The Pichtis, content of thir desiris, creat ane king, and set ane 
day to meit Fergus. At the day affixit, the Scottis and Pichtis war 
confiderat togidder, efter the avdd band, in maist sover way that 
micht be devisit. Sic thingis done, Fergus ressavit al the landis 
and strenthis that war reft fra his progenitouris afore be Romane 
weris ; and sone efter, he past with ane honest cumpany to Argyle, 
quhare he was crownit in the fatale chiar of merbill. 

The yeir that Fergus recoverit his realme, was the xlv yeir efter 
that the Scottis war expelht out of Albion ; fra the incarnation, 
ccccxxiT yeris; fra the first beginning of Scottis, vii hundreth lv 
yeris ; in the xviii yeir of Honorius, Emprioure. 


How the Romanis, fechtand aganis the Scottis and Pichtis, war 
severit he ane schoure of haill. Of sindry vassalage done he the 
vailyeant Grahame at the Wall of Ahircorne. Of his linage, and 
aUia with King Fergus. 

IcTORiNE, commovit that Scottis war brocht agane, on 
this maner, in Albioun ; assemblit ane army, and come 
to York. Efter his cumming, he send ane herald to 
the Pichtis, solistand thaim, with mony large promissis, 
to dissolve the band maid laitly with Scottis. At last, seing his piir- 
pos cum to litill effect, he began to hait the Pichtis, as fals and 
mainsworne pepill ; and to be wrokin of thair rebellioun, he come, 
with ane army of l.m men, throw Kendell, Mers, and Pentland, to 
the gret dammage of the pepill thairof ; and set down his tentis 
nocht far fra Camelon. 

Fergus, advertist of the cuming of Romanis in this maner, for 
baith he and the King of Pichtis war gaderit with ane gret army, 
come ouir Forth ; and within the nicht set down his tentis nocht far 
fra his ennimes, with deliverit mind to assailye thame in the brek of 
the day. The Romanis, on the tothir side, knew weil the ordinance 
of Scottis and Pichtis ; and at the thrid vigill maid thaim reddy to 
battall, and faucht with the confiderat kingis beside the watter of 
Carron. This battall was richt cruelly fochtin, and sa gret multi- 
tude of pepil slane, that the said watter ran mony milis with pur- 
poure stremis to the seis. Quhill thir armyis war fechtand on this 
maner, with uncertane victory, come suddanly ane scharp schoure, 
sa full of haill and sleit, that nane of thaim micht knaw ane othir ; 
throw quhilk thay war constranit to sever, mair irkit than saciat of 
otheris slauchter. Thus war baith the armyis sa brokin, that mony 
yeris efter, nane of thaim micht invaid othir be battal. 

Victorine, on the morrow, seing his army brokin, retumit in Kent, 
and left behind him mony sodjouris in Pentland, to kepe the samin> 


in inaner of province, aganis the Scottis and Pichtis. The confi- 
derat kingis commandit the residew of thair pepill, quhilkis war left 
on live, to returne hame : and becaus thay fand thameself unabill 
to renew battal, thay set thair ingine to saif baith thaimself and 
thair landis to ane better fortoun. Sone efter, thay convenit in 
Argyle, to se quhat wayis thay micht best resist thair ennimes, re- 
venging the injuris be thaim done, and to lerne thair pepill the art 
of chevalry ; for thay war mony yeris abusit, but ony exercition 
thairof. Efter sindry consultationis, the Scottis, seing the Pichtis 
of mair nowmer than micht be nurist in Angus, Fiffe, Striveling, 
and Stratherne; sufFerit thaim toremane in Athole, beyond the hillis 
of Granyeben, quhill thay micht, be sum better fortoun, recover the 
residew of thair landis, quhilkis war reft fra thaim be tyranny of 
Romanis. The Pichtis spred fast in Athole, and maid sindry 
strenthis and polecyis in it. 

In the raene time, Victorine, Capitane of Britane, commandit the 
Britonis, be general edict, to big the wal betwix Abircorne and Dun- 
britane, with staik and rise, in thair strangest maner, to saif thaim 
fra invasion of Scottis and Pichtis : and to big this dike war assem- 
bHt mony craftismen out of al partis, mth sindiy weirmen, to saif 
thaim quhU the dike was biggit. 

In the mene time, quhen thay war biggand it maist besaly, come 
the vailyeant Graliame, quhais dochter was maryit on King Fergus, 
and slew ane gret nowmer of thir weirmen at the bigging of this 
dike, and the remanent put to flicht : and incontinent, be fers incur- 
sion, he brocht ane huge pray of men and gudis fra the Britonis in 
the Scottis landis. This Grahame wa^ discendit of ane anciant hous 
of Demnark, and gottin on ane nobill lady of that samin cuntre be 
ane of the Scottis that was banist with Ethodius out of Albion ; and 
efter the proscription of Scottis, he maryit ane virgine of the blude 
rial of Denmark, on quhom he gat ane dochter of maist excellent 
bewte, quhilk was gevin to Fergus in mariage. Fergus gat on hir 
III sonnis afore his cuming in Albion, quhais names war Eugenius, 
Dongarus, and Constancius ; of quhome sal be our history follow- 
ing. Uthir sayis, this Grahame was ane Briton, quhilk eschewing 
the Romane tyranny, fled amang the Scottis, and was efter banist 
with thaim in Denmark ; for he was gret ennime to Romanis, seing 


thairn regne with sic tyranny and avarice above thair subdittis. 
Always, of quhatsumevir hous or linnage he was discendit, treuth 
is, he was ane man of hie curage and spreit, baith in weir and peace, 
and strangest ennime to Romanis and Britonis. Of this Grahame, 
discendit the surname of Grahamis. 

Ofsindry consultationh maid he the Scottisfor thair defence aganis 
the Romanis and Britonis. How Viciorine conquest the crown of 
Britane ; and how he was punist thairfore to the deith. 

He Britonis, brokin with sindry battalHs in this maner, 
ceissit mony yeris efter fra battall, content to defend 
thair awin landis. At this time come infinite nowmer 

I; of Scottis out of France, Spanye, Almany, Italy, and 

othir partis, quhalr thay war wageouris, to King Fergus ; traisting, 
becaus sa huge rebelhon wes maid in all realmes aganis Romanis, to 
recover thair landis in Albion. 

Fergus, rejosing of thair cuming, went with thaim in Carrik ; 
quhare he faucht with the Romanis, and gat na les displeseu- than 
he gat afore : throw quhilk he was constranit to leif Carrik, and re- 
turne to Argyle, quhare he remanit all the winter following. Ane 
conventioun was maid be him in the nixt simer ; in quhilk sindry of 
his nobhs perswadit him to rais new army to resist Victorine, for he 
was cumin than in Galloway, and erar to jeoperd him to extreme 
dangeh- of battall, than daily to leif in sic afflictioun : otheris said, 
Best was to tary, and nocht to fecht with the Romanis, becaus thay 
war twyis discomfist ; in adventure, gif thay war discomfist the thrid 
time, thau* realme suld be pray to thair ennimes. Best was, thair- 
fore, to ceis fra battall, quhill thair pissance war convalescit, be 
quhilk thay micht be the mair abill to resist. Attour, sa frequent 
rebellioun was maid aganis the Romanis in all partis, that Victorine 
micht nocht lang abide in Britane : and thairfore, sen the empire of 
Romanis apperis sa manifestlie to dechne, it may happin that Vic- 


tonne be constranit to fle out of Britane, and than the Scottis and 
Pichtis may have ane ganand oportunite to recovir thair reahne, 
but ony gret dangeir. This last counsall was apprisit ; and sa it 
was concludit, that Scottis and Pichtis sail invaid thair ennimes mair 
be scarmussing than plane battall. 

In the mene time, Honorius, Emprioure, tuke gret suspitioun 
aganis this Victorine, traisting that he suld usurp the crown of Bri- 
tane. Thus was it demit be mony pepill, that the Empriovir suld 
exoner Victorine of al auctorite in Britane, Als sone as Victorine 
wes advertist thairof, he tuke the crown of Britane, with incredibill 
favoure of his army : part of Britonis assistit to him, bot otheris 
followit the opinion of Dioneth, sonne to King Octavius afore de- 
ceissit. Apperit thus gret seditioun in Britane. Nochtheles, Ho- 
norius, Empriour, seing sa gret trubill rising in Britane, send ane 
vailyeant knicht, namit Heraclius, to dant thair rebellioun ; quhais 
cumming maid the Britonis, and otheris that assistit to Victorine, sa 
astonist, that thay brocht Victorine bound to this Heraclius, with 
mony otheris quhilkis war movaris of thair rebellioun. Sone efter, 
Victorine was send to Rome, with mony otheris of his opinioun, and 
punist to the deith. 

Thus was Britane brocht agane be Heraclius to Romane empire. 

Hoio Placidus, Romane Capitane, was discomiist^ with his army, 
he Scottis and Pichtis. How King Fergus recoverit all his 
landis, be conditioun of peace, fra Romanis. Of his civil and 
religious industry for the weil of his pepill. 

Eraclius, quhen he had brocht Britane on this maner 
to Romane opinioun ; be command of Honorius, he re- 
turn! t to Rome, and went in Aff'ric, to dant the rebel- 
lion of Athalus, tyranne ; and left behind him in Bri- 
tane ane man of febil curage, namit Placidus: quhilk, throw his 
avarice, was found richt unabill to governe ony province. 


Fergus, knawing weill the febill enrage of Placidus, thocht the 
time ganand to recover the landis reft fra him afore be Romane 
weris. And sone efter, he come with ane army in Carrik, abiding 
the dimming of the King of Pichtis with his army. Als sone as 
the Scottis and Pichtis war met togidder, thay went throw Carrik, 
Kyle, Cuninghame, and Galloway, ceissing fra na maner of cruelte 
on thaim that obeyit to the empire of Romanis : and on the same 
maner, thay come in Pentland, Mers, and Berwik, and left nothir 
Romanis nor Britonis in the same. 

Placidus, Capitane of Britane, herand thir attemptatis, come with 
aiie huge army in Pentland. The Scottis and Pichtis, nocht af- 
frayit of his cuming, met him with gret fury. FoUowit ane terri- 
bill and sair battall. And first the horsmen of Romanis war discom- 
fist ; and sone efter, the remanent legionis war sa opprest with ithand 
schot of arrowis, that thay gaif bakkis on the same maner. Than 
was ane sorrowfull slauchter maid on the flearis. Placidus, nar- 
rowlie eschaping of his lifFe, fled to York. 

The confiderat pepill, insolent efter this victory, tuke purpos to 
sege York : nochtheles, thair army was sa brokin, that thay war 
constranit to desist. 

Placidus, na les astonist be mony othir afflictionis falling to Ro- 
manis in sindry partis of the warld, than be this last discomfitoure, 
dred that Britane suld pas fra Romane dominioun, gif the Britonis 
movit ony new rebellioun ; and, thairfore, he began to seik peace 
with Pichtis and Scottis. Than was peace finaly tretit under thir 
conditionis: Al landis and munitionis reft afore fra Scottis and 
Pichtis, be Romane tyranny, sal be restorit to thaim agane ; na in- 
cursionis nor heirschippis sail be maid, in times cuming, be Scottis 
and Pichtis, in the Romane landis ; the Romanis sail stand content 
with the landis conquest on the Britonis, and sail nocht invaid the 
Scottis nor Pichtis with ony weris in timis cuming. 

Als sone as the confiderat kingis had ressavit thair landis and 
rowmes be this maner, thay gaif thair exact deligence to instruct 
thair pepill in plesand and civill maneris, but ony thirllage of ser- 
vitude. Than Fergus, to incres the Scottis, Danis, and otheris that 
come -mth him to recover thair realme, under ane freindschip and 
blude; gaif sindry landis of his realme amang thaim : throw quhilk, 


mony landis of his realme tint thair auld name, and was callit efter 
the name of the new possessouris. And becaus the name of every 
land in Scotland ar weill knawin to all Scottis, I will schaw na 
thinge thairof. 

Than Fergus reparit all the kirkis that war failyeit be necligence 
of the pepill, and feft sindry preistis with rentis and possessionis 
to do devine service. He brocht all the monkis that war banist, 
agane to his realme; and tretit thaim, Avith gret reverence, to instruct 
his pepill in the faith. He biggit the Abbay of Colmekill, and 
dotat it with sindry landis, rentis, and possessionis ; and commandit 
the samin to be, in times cuming, the comraoun sepulture of all 
kingis succeding efter him. He feft als certane funerall obsequies 
to be done yeirly for thair saulis. 

This Fergus was gevin als weill to civill as religious maneris ; for 
he reparit all the strenthis hand on his bordouris fornentis the Bri- 
tonis, quhare he ordanit his agit sodjouris to remane perpetually for 
defence thairof, on the commoun purs. 

Of the deith of Placidus. Of the message send he Castius, Capi- 
tane of Britane, to Fergus ; and of Fergus answer. How the 
Romanis war discomfist, and Cast'ius slane, 

il Uhen Fergus had recoverit his realme in this maner, 
and restorit his pepil to thair anciant honouris and 
dignite, deceissit Honorius, Emprioure: efter quhom 
succedit Theodosius; quhilk send ane nobill man, namit 
Valentinianc, in Italy, to repare all dammagis done be civill weris. 
And in the mene time, Placidus, Capitane of Britane, deceissit. 

The Scottis and Pichtis, traisting to have gud occasion, be deith 
of Placidus, to invaid the Britonis, (for peace was dissolvit be his 
deith;) come in Westmureland, Cumber, anduthir regionis that war 
tane fra thaim afore be Romane weris, and ceissit fra na maner of 
cruelte on thaim that obeyit the Romanis. IMony of the Britonis 


fled to Castius ; for he was maid Capitane of Britane efter the deith' 
of Placidus. This Castius, dredand, the thing that come efter, that 
Dioneth, sonne of Octavius afore rehersit, suld usurpe the crown of 
Britane be assistence of Scottis and Pichtis, for he maryit Fergus 
sister ; send to Fergus, chargeand him be ane herald, gif he desirit 
peace, and to leif on the auld landis and marchis pertenand to his 
eldaris, to invaid na otheris : and gif he desirit nocht bot battall, he 
maid him to understand he had the samin ennimes that dang his 
eldaris but of Albioun, and thirllit the Pichtis to servitude. To 
this charge was answerit be Scottis and Pichtis, Thay wald have na 
peace with Romanis, quhill Westmureland and Cumber war restorit 
to thaim, with all the munitionis and strenthis thairof. 

Castius, grevit wth this answer, come forthwart with his army : 
and quhen he was cumin throw the Romane provincis nocht far fra 
Westmureland, he was advertist that Dioneth was cummand, with 
ane gret power, out of Walis, in support of Scottis and Pichtis. 
The Britonis, knawing the feirsnes and cruelte of Welchemen, war 
astonist be thir tithingis : nochtwithstandlng, be hortation of Cas- 
tius, thay rasit thair spreit, and come the thrid day efter, richt de- 
sirus of battal, in thair ennimes sicht. Now was Dioneth and the 
confiderat pepill mengit with thair oistis togidder, and weill arrayit 
for battal, quhen suddandly baith the array is junit, and faucht lang 
with doutsum victory ; quhill at last the wageouris that faucht in 
the wingis with licht armour, gaif bakkis. Followit ane huge affray 
amang the Romanis ; and the samin was the mair eikit be slauch- 
ter of Castius, thair capitane : and incontinent the mid battall fled ; 
on quhome followit the Scottis, Pichtis, and Welchemen, with lang 
chace and murdir. Yit, becaus thay keipit na ordoure in thair 
chace, thay gat mair skaith than thay did to thair ennimes. 

The Romanis discomfist on this wise, colleckit the residew of 
thair army togidder, and past in Walis ; and left behind thaim al 
the strenthis of the cuntre, but ony defence. 

VOL. I. 2 L 


Hoio Max'im'iane, Capitane of Britane, come with huge army aganis 
the Scottis and Pichtis. Of Fergus orison to his arviy; and how 
haith the Kingis of Scottis and Pichtis zvar slane, and thair army 
discornfist be Romanis. 

loxETH, efter this discomfitour of Romanis, tuk the 
croun of Britane, and invadit all the pepil thairof with 
gret cruelte and slauchter, that obeit to Romanis. 
Thus apperit Bi'itane, bot gif this trubill war the mair 
haistely dantit, to pas fra dominion of Romanis. 

At this time was in France ane nobill man, namit Etius, general 
Capitane thairof, be auctorite of the Emprioure. This Etius, her- 
ing that Britane was nakit of support, send, be desire of Britonis, 
ane vailyeant knicht, namit Maximiane, to dant all this trubill ap- 
pering be Welschemen, Scottis and Pichtis. Maximiane come sone 
efter with ane army in Albion ; quhom the Britonis ressavit with 
gret triumphe, and prayt God to send him ane gud fortoune aganis 
his ennimes. 

Maximiane, knawing mair trubill appering by rebeUion of Dio- 
neth, than be ony uthir danger occurring, for he was of the blude 
rial of Britane ; thocht lang tary impediment to his weris, and come 
with his army in maist deligence to York ; and sone efter, he come 
in Westmureland. 

The confiderat kingis hering his cuming, come with thair armyis 
in the same maner : and in the mene time come to thaim Dioneth, 
King of Britane, with all his power, out of Walls. At the spring 
of the day, quhen al thair power was mengit togidder, Fergus callit 
thaim be sound of trumpat to his standart, and said on this wise : 
" I wald, wise freindis, that this battall, quhilk we ar now to leid 
" aganis oure maist dangerus ennimes, war fochtin with sa huge 
" manlieid, curage, and spreit, that the samin may be to your ho- 
" nour and proffet, and to my hie pleseir and glaidnes. Suthly, 


" will ye ponder this mater wisely, youre mindis, that bene sa lang 
" distrackit fra eis, and sa occupyit with ithand exercitioun of che- 
" valry, suld be ereckit in gret esperance of victory, seing your en- 
*' nimes in sicht, quhom ye sa oft afore discomfist and chasit. It 
" semis all forcy campionis evir to beleif the best, and haif excellent 
" fortitude aganis quhatsumevir adversite that may occurre : for 
" fortitude is so hie and soverane virtew, that it perswadis every 
*' nobill man, be impulsioun of nature, to resist adversite. This 
" virtew is mair renownit, to resist the injure of ennimes, than to 
" invaid thaim with ony injure. For he that is wrangusly injurit 
" hes ay gud esperance of better fortoun to follow : thus incressis 
" he Strang be esperance, and be his just querall he growis prudent. 
" Be contrare, he that dois wrang is injurius to himself, and hes na 
" esperance of gud fortoun to follow. Maximus, sum time Capitane 
" of Britane, be his treasonabill shchtis was confiderat with Pichtis, 
" na les for the exterminion of thaim than of Scottis: as the end 
" thairof schew. Thay slew my gudschir Eugenius, with mony of 
" your nobill eldaris ; and put thaim to sic affliction, that thay war 
" mony yeris exilit this regioun : throw quhilk he conquest the 
" haill empire of Albion ; and nocht content of that felicite, he 
*' thirllit the Pichtis, our auld confiderat freindis, contrar his band 
" and promes, to vile servitude. Nochtheles, the end of this alli- 
" ance schew to the said Pichtis, quhat dammage cummis to be 
" confiderat with treasonabill pepill, in contemption of thair trew 
" freindis. Sot at last the Pichtis, penitent of the importabill in- 
" juris done to us, began, thoucht it was to lait, to be prudent, and 
" brocht us agane in this realme ; and sone efter our cumming, we 
" vincust oure feirs ennimes with small difficulte. Now ar thir vin- 
" cust tyrannes returnit to invaid us, be advise of Maximiane, thair 
" capitane ; as he wald restore thaim to thair curage, quhilk thay 
" tint afore be slauchter of thair capitane Castius. Thay charge us, 
"as we war under thair dominioun, to pas out of Cumber and 
" Westmureland, quhilkis pertenis to us be just titil. For thir rea- 
" sonis, I think we suld not only be repugnant to thair chargis, bot 
" als persew oure just action aganis thaim with al pissance. Heir- 
" fore, be awalknit, vailyeant campionis, and tak your wappinnis 
" with gud curage and spreit : think na gret difficulte occurris to 


" vlncus thay febiil creaturis, quhilkis sa cowartlj gave place afore 
" to youre armoure. Pas forthwart, joly companyeonis, and have 
" na les memory to your honour, than to the injuris done to your 
" ennimes ; and conques sic glore, that your posterite, be imita- 
" tioun of youre virtew, may lerne to fecht vailyeanthe for thair 
" reahne." 

Als sone as Fergus had said thir wourdls, he gave ane signe, be 
sound of trumpat, to June. The tothir two Kingis of Pichtis and 
Britonis usit na les hortatioun to thair arniyis. Incontinent, baith 
the armyis junit. At the first countering, the Bomanis wer neir 
discomfist ; for sa huge nowmer of arowis and ganyeis come on 
thaim, that the lift micht skarslie be sene above thair heidis. Maxi- 
miane, seing the first bront of Romanis in dangeir, send, haistelie, 
ane legioun of fresche men in thair support. Thus wes the battall 
renewit and cruelly fochtin ; quhill at last the outwingis of Romanis, 
be multitude of pepil, ouirset thair ennimes fornens thaim. The 
confiderat pepill, and Britonis that faucht under Dioneth, maid lang 
debait ; bot at last the wageouris, that faucht in the uter skirtis of 
Romane wingis, come in the same battall quhair thay wer fechtand, 
on thair bakkis. The confiderat peple, howbeit thay wer afFrayit 
with this suddane terrour, ruschit all togidder in ane knot, with 
stout curage, to fecht to the deith. The malst forcy and Strang 
capitanis of our pepill, richt desirus to revenge thair deith ; becaus 
thay saw na othir remeid, maid thaim, with maist violent force, to 
rusche throw thair ennimes : quhair thay wer all slane, to the gret 
murdir of thair ennimes. Quhill the Bomanis wer besalie gevin to 
stop this forcy irruptioun of the nobillis forsaid, mony of all the re- 
manent Scottis come feirslie throw thair ennimes, and wer savit be 
thair flicht ; and yit the chais followit sa cruelly be Bomanis, that 
few wer savit quhome thay micht apprehend : bot at last the nicht 
put end to thair laubouris. 

In this unhappy battall wer siane, Fergus, King of Scottis, the 
XVI yeir of his regne ; and Durstus, King of Pichtis ; with all the 
nobilite of baith thair realmes. Dioneth, Prince of Walls, evil 
woundit, wes brocht to the seeport, nocht far fra the feild ; quhair 
he gat ane bait, and fled in Walls. 


Cfiap« (Blmtntlj, 

Hoiv the Romanis 'wrocht gret injuris on Scottis and Pichtis. How 
Maximiane was alliat ivith Dioneth^ Prince of Waits ; and tuk 
the crown ofBritane, contrar the auctorite of Romanis. 

Ftir this mischevous battall, sic terroure rais throw 
all the landis of Scottis and Pichtis, that nocht wes 
traistit bot uter exterminioun of baith thair realmes : 
and becaus thay had na esperance of support, thair 
maist forcy campionis beand slane, thay thocht na thing sa gud as 
to fle in uncouth realmes. 

Maximiane, thinkand best to use the present fortoun as it oc- 
currit, ceissit fra na maner of cruelte that micht be devisit, in Gal- 
loway, Annandale, Mers, and Pentland ; with sic rage of fire and 
swerd, that na estait wes sa\4t fra his fury. The pepill that fled to 
kirkls and sanctuaryis, wer slane, but ony sicht to God. The town 
of Camelon, with mony othir nobill cieteis and townis of Scottis and 
Pichtis, wer tane, and cassin down to the ground. This cruelte 
ceissit not, quhil at last the Scottis and Pichtis war drevin schame- 
fully ouir the wal that rinnis fra Abircorn to Dunbriton, and sworn 
nevir to returne beyond the samin. 

Ane part of Romanis gaif counsall to Maximiane, sen the Scottis 
and Pichtis Aver sa brokin at this time, and micht be haldin with na 
pepill in faith and peace, to distroy thaim all uterly, or ellis to banis 
thaim out of Albion ; utherwayis na thing micht be done effering to 
the common weill of Romanis. Maximiane refusit this counsall ; 
for the winter wes approcheing, throw quhilk his army behuvit to 
rest in thair winter schelis ; and becaus na vittallis wer amang the 
Scottis and Pichtis to sustene his army, and sic vehement cauld in- 
to thair montanis, that na craft micht withstand the samin ; for it 
wes for the weil of thair army to abide the nixt simer. Attoure, 
becaus Welschemen, his nerrast nichtbouris, rebelUt aganis him, it 
wes necessar to dant thaim first ; in aventure, gif he persewit the 


Scottis and Pichtis, levand behind him sa perrellus ennimes, more 
dammage than proffit micht cum be his weris. For thir causis, he 
returnit with his victorius army to Yorke, quhair he remanit all 
that winter; and brocht vittallis out of all partis to sustene the 

At the spring of the yeir he rasit his tentis, and come with dis- 
play it baner aganis Dioneth, in Walis ; for he wes haldin King of 
Britonis fornentis the Ireland seis. And in the mene time, this 
Maximiane wes advertist be writtingis, that Bonifacius had slane 
twa Romane capitanis in AfFrik, and thair army discomfist : throw 
quhilk Aifrik wes loist fra Romane dominioun, and the said Boni- 
facius maid king thairof. Attoure, Franchemen, quhilk wes that 
time ane pepil of Almany, wes cumming ouir Ryne, and entrit in 
Gallia, quhilk Aves callit eftir France, with more cruelte than evir 
wes hard afore ; and conquest the landis of Orliance and Paris, and 
maid ane king of thair awin blude : throw quhilk it apperit, that all 
the landis callit, that time, Gallia, suld cum under the dominioun 
of Franchemen. 

Maximiane, knawing sa mony rebellionis in all partis aganis Ro- 
manis, thocht best to rebel in the samin wise ; and tuke the crown 
of Britane, contrar the Romane auctorite : and to pecify the realme 
to him of al debaitis, that he micht be the more Strang aganis the 
Romanis, gif thay list invaid him, he tuke the eldest douchter of 
Dioneth, namit Othilia, in mariage ; for Dioneth gat on King Fer- 
gus sister two douchteris, but ony mail childrin. The secund 
douchter, namit Ursula, wes maid ane nun, to that fine, that scho 
suld have na succession. Be this affinite sic tendernes incressit be- 
twix Maximiane and Dioneth, that the said Dioneth wes sufferit to 
haif gretest empire, nixt Maximian, in Britane. 


Of King Eugenius the Secund. Of gret vassalage done he Maxi- 
mian in Britane and France. How Ursula and Mrfallmois war 

Ic thingis done in Britane, the residew of Scottis, 
quhilkis wer eschapit out of the feild afore rehersit, 
convenit in Argyle; and maid his sonne, Eugenius 

the Secund, king : fra the incarnation, ccccxxx yeris ; 

fra the beginning of the realme of Scotland, dcclx ; in the feird 
yeir of Valentiniane, Empriour. 

Eugenius began the administration of his realme be piete ; and 
tuke the bonis of his fader fra the place quhair thay wer beryit be 
Romanis, and beryit thaim, with funerall triumphe, in the Abbay 
of Colmekil. Fergus wes the first King of Scottis that wes beryit 
in Colmekill ; and, thairfore, it wes callit, eftir, the common sepul- 
ture of al Scottis kingis, unto King Macolme Canmoris dayis, 
quhilk biggit the Abbay of Dunfermeling, be perswasioun of Sanct 
Margaret ; quhare mony of all the Scottis kingis bene beryit sen 

King Eugenius, richt desirus to recover the landis reft fra his 
fader be Romanis and Britonis, wrait all the names of his pepill, fra 
sexte to sextene, in ilk town, that micht beir armour and wappinnis. 
Nochtheles, seing thaim, quhen thay wer gaderit, of small nowraer 
and pissance, he supersedit his purpos quhill ane time more ganand. 
And thoucht the Scottis and Pichtis wer brokin on this wise, and 
feblit in thair pissance, yit Maximiane send thaim peace undesirit. 
And becaus this Maximiane saw the empire of Romanis persewit on 
al partis, he set his besines to have ane part thairof ; and tuke the 
crown of Britane, with favour and benivolence of all the pepil. 
Sone efter his coronation, he past in Bertanye, and left behind him 
his gudfader Dioneth, with ane legion of pepil, to governe Britane. 
Fmaly, he dantit the Bertonaris with sic importabil affliction, that 


thay wer randerit to his dominion. Than Maximiane tuke, be 
scharp segeing, sindry townis, sic as lay on the seecostis of Ber- 
tanye. And sone efter, he come, with al his army, to ane Strang 
town of Bertanye, namit Redoun, quhilk was kepit be Sulpicius, 
in the name of Valentiniane, Euipriour. Quhen Maximiane had 
seigit this town lang time, and micht get it na way be force of 
armis, he kest him to invad the cuntre, mair be rubbery than be 
honest weir. 

In the mene time, the Bertaneris gat sic perswasion be Etius, 
Capitane of France, that thay rebelht aganis Maximiane, and not 
only recoverit all thair strenthis and townis, bot slew al his weirmen 
quhare thay war apprehendit. Maximiane, movit be thir injuris, 
returnit, with al his army, to the said town of Redoun. Efter 
mony scharp assaltis, it was be him tane, and every pepil found in 
it, but ony miseration, slane, or banist the cuntre ; for he tuk ex- 
treme ire aganis thame for violation of thair faith. 

Etius, seing France ithandly invadit be the Burgundianis, send 
in Britane, to bring the legion that was left thair be Maximiane, to 
support him in his wcris. Thus was Britane left nakit of support ; 
and gaif occasion to Scottis and Pichtis to invade the Britonis, be- 
caus thay abaid at the opinion of Maximiane. Finaly, quhen this 
Maximiane had conquest Bertanye, and slane the maist part of al 
the pepil thairof ; yit, that it sal not be ane pray to Franchemen, 
thair nixt nichtbouris, he brocht ane gret nowmer of pepil out of 
Britane, to inhabit the said cuntre. Sum authouris writis, thair 
come ane cm men out of Britane, to inhabit the land of Bertanye, 
with Conanus. This Conanus was ane tender freind to Dioneth, 
and maid King of Bertanye ; and sa this land tint the auld name 
Armorica, and was callit Bertanye, fra thir Britonis that come to 
inhabit the said land. 

Than Conanus, King of Bertanye, knawing that every pepil 
failyeis within the age of man gif thay have na succession, send his 
ambassatouris in Britane, to have wemen to be thair wiffis. The 
ambassatouris that come for this effect, gat consent, be the nobillis of 
Britane, that al the dochteris, sisteris, and antis pertenand in blude 
to the Britonis that war than in Bertanye, suld pas to thame en 
haist, togidder with Ursula the Nun, quhilk was tane out of the 


abbay quhare scho was profest, and put in schip, with the remanent 
hir fallowis, that the hnage of Dioneth suld not faill ; becaus hir 
othir sister Othiha, qiihilk was maiyit on IMaximiane afore, was de- 
ceissit but ony childrin. And thocht the passage of thir wemeu 
was unplesand to the Britonis, yit it come, efter, to the gret felicite 
of Ursula and hir cumpany ; for quhen thay suld have passit to 
Bertanye, be tempestious streme of seis, thay Avar drevin, with na 
litil dangeir of thair livis, in the mouth of Iline, quhare thay landit. 
And becaus thay had sic trubill be the seis, thay tuk purpos, than, 
to pas in Bertanye be land. Othiris authouris says, thay tuke thair 
voyage to Rome, be perswasion of this haly nun, Ursula, and war 
tane be the Hunnis ; be quhom thay war al slane, becaus thay wold 
not consent to the polution of thair body is. The kirk, thairfore, 
singis, yeirly, divine cerimonyis, in thair glore and loving. 

Cfjaip. C&tvteentfi. 

How the confiderat Mngis come with gret armyts aganis the Britonis. 
Of Eugenius orison. Of the gret heirschippis maid on Britonis. 
Hozv Gallio Revennas tioas send in support of Britonis ; and of 
his vassalage. 

Ugkxius, knawing Britane, be continewal weris, des- 
titute of Romane sodjoiu-is ; convenit with Durstus, 
King of Pichtis, to ane counsal : in quhilk, efter lang 
consultation, was concludit to maik weir aganis the 
Britonis, with sic providence, that na advertence suld be maid thair- 
of, quhil thay war arrayt within thair realmes. Sone efter, ane day 
was assignit to baith thair pepil to convene, with xl day is vittallis, 
and uthir necessaris, in thair best raancr. At the day prefixt, come 
gret multitude of pepill, out of all boundis of his realme, to the Avod 
of Calidone. 

Eugenius, seing his freindis and subdittis gaderit in this maner, 
said as fallowis : " Nane is amang yow, vailyeant campionis, that 
" will degestlie consider baith the raateris pertenand to us and our 
VOL. 1. 2 m 


" ennimes, bot he sail think all tary unproffitable to us this day ; 
" considering the hie and importable injuris done, thir mony yeris, 
" to us, be Romane tyranny : my vailyeant and nobill fader, the 
" recoverar of this realme, slane ; above infinite calamiteis sufFerit 
" be us. Ye se Carrik, Kyle, Cunningharae, and Galloway, with 
" mony othir landis of our realme, fallin in pray to Romanis. And 
" thoucht the battall, strikin afore be my fadir aganis Maximiane, 
" wes infortunat to us, it wes nochtheles richt unplesand and sorow- 
" ful to our fais. Forthir, the calamiteis falling be this battall hes 
" nocht, as I beleif, feblit your curage ; bot more enkendillit the 
" samin to revenge the auld injuris done, sa mony yeris, aganis us 
" and our progenitouris, be Romanis and Britonis. And under- 
" stand, als mekil as our pissance is minist be Romane weris, sa far 
" ar the Romanis brokin in thair pissance be hatrent of fortoun, 
" quhilk intendis to bring thair empire to nocht : throw quhilk 
" thay ar nocht onlie odius to all pepil, bot als invadit with cruell 
" weris, and thair provincis falling to praye of ennimes in all partis: 
" for the Vandalis hes tane fra thaim, all AiFrik ; the Visigothis, all 
" Spanye ; the Franchemen and Burgundianis hes tane the maist 
" part of Gallia, now namit France ; the Hunnis hes won Panno- 
" nia, Mysia, Thracia, and Macidon : all pepill that is in the eist 
" partis of the warld hes recoverit thair hberte, or ellis randerit 
" thaimself to ennimes of Romanis: Rome, sumtime the Lady of 
" the Warld, hes bene twis tane be the Gothis, heryit and brint. 
" Forthir, the Romanis ar brocht to sic calamite, that thay have na 
" landis nor empire this day, saif only in Italy and Britane ; the 
" quhilk is now nakit of all garnison and weirmen, be weris of 
" Maximiane. Forthir, thair is na Romane capitane that will or 
" may bring ony support aganis us. Now is Britane drery, and 
" nakit of al support ; and sa disparit, that it sail be erar ane pray 
'< than obstakill to your weris. It nedis nocht, heirfore, vailyeant 
" capitanis, to exhort yow to battall, sen knichtly curage mair 
" aboundis than failyeis in yow ; for, sickerly, thair is ane mair 
" huo-e pray abiding yow, than evir was appering afore, be chance 
" of fortoun, to ony of your eldaris. Occasioun, the moder of all 
" werkis that ar to be done, offeris hir wilfully to yow, perswading 
" all impedimentis and tary of battall to be set aside ; and exhortis 


«' yow to follow hir, in adventure, gif ye tine hir be your febill 
" curage, ye sail nocht win hir agane, howbeit ye wald. Be not 
«' movit, I pray yow, to ceis fra your honest vassalage, for ony 
" band that ye haif maid with Maximiane ; for thir Romanis and 
" Britonis hes invadit us with mony cruel injuris sen the said band 
" was maid. And sen our ennimes hes not ceissit to invaid us, in 
" breking of the said band ; how may we do ony thing les than in- 
" vaid thaim on the same maner ? Belt yow, thairfore, lusty gal- 
" landis, with manheid, and tak your wappinnis to this honest in- 
" terpris : follow the spreit and curage of your eldaris, and ye sal 
" nocht faile the glore of victory." 

The army, be thir wordis, war inflammit to battall; and pro- 
mittit to jeoperd thaimself to al maner of dangeir, that thay micht 
revenge the injuris done to thaim; for the affliction of Romanis, 
quhilk was richt patent, maid the remanent wordis of Eugenius to 
have the mair credit. Than ilk man, Avith schill noyis, bad rais 
thair ansenyeis, and proceid forthwart. The Pichtis, in the samin 
maner, war inflammit to battal be exhortation of thair king. Incon- 
tinent, the confiderat pepil invadit the Britonis with fire and swerd, 
in all partis quhare thay come ; and chasit the Britonis out of Pent- 
land, Mers, Berwik, Galloway, and Annandale; and, thairefter, 
thay past to Kendale, Cumber, Westmureland, and York, and tuke 
all the munitionis and strenthis of the cuntre : and quhen thay had 
spulyeit the townis, thay slew al the cieteyanis thairof, and left na 
Britonis on live, except thaim that war savit be flicht. Apperit, 
thus, all Britane to cum haistely under the empire of Scottis and 
Pichtis, gif the samin war not mair haistely resistit. 

The Britonis, impacient to suffer thir displeseiris, send thair ora- 
touris to the Empriour Valentiniane ; and promittit thair perpetuall 
subjection to him, sa that he wald support thaim aganis thair un- 
mercifuU and cruel ennimes. Valentiniane, richt desirus to keip 
Britane under his empire, send ane nobil capitane, namit Gallio 
Revennas, with mony legionis of pepill, in thair support. The 
Scottis and Pichtis, knawing the cumming of this new army, left 
all the landis in Britane quhilk war laitly heryit and distroyit be 
thaim : syne returnit hame ; for thay thocht not profitabill to jeo- 


perd thaim aganis the Romanis, knawand, be frequent battallis 
afore past, tliair gret manheid and ehevalry. 

The Romanis, at thair cuming in Albion, followit be lang chace 
on the Scottis to tlie watter of Forth, and mony of thaim slew, be 
haisty scharmising. And becaus thir Romanis micht not mak lang 
tary in Albion, for extreme dangeir appering to France be inva- 
.sioun of sindry pepill ; thay gart repare. haistely, the wal afore re- 
hersit betv/ix Abircorne and Dunbritane, with gret expensis ; and 
rasit the samin, with faill devat and stanis, xii cubitis of hicht, and 
VIII cubitis of breid, with mony Strang touris rising on all sidis. 
Thir touris and bastailyeis war doung, togidder with sic thingis as 
wald nocht birne, to saif the Britonis fra thair ennimes. On the 
hicht of thir touris thay set fire pannis, to advertis the cuntre quhen 
dangeir occurrit; and thay that come not to the defence heirof, 
quhen the fire was sene, war punist to the deith. 

How the Scottis and Pichiis Tcest doism the Wal of Abircorne, and 
wrocht gret cruelteis on the Britonis. Of the message send he 
Britonis to Etius ; and of his answer. 

Rttane brocht be this maner to Romane servitude, 
Gallio Revennas returnit in France ; quhais departing 
gaif occasion to the confiderat kingis to invaid the Bri- 
tonis with mair cruel te than afore. Than King Euge- 
nius assemblit all his pepill afore him ; and sumtime inflammit thaim 
with huge ire aganis thair ennimes, and suratimes provokit thaim, 
be esperance of pray and riches to be gottin on thair ennimes. And 
the King of Pichtis ceissit not to exhort his pepill on the same 
maner; and promittit, be publik edict, to geif the capitanry of 
Camelon to him that first past ouir this wal of Abircorn, 

The Britonis, knawing wcill the assemblance of Scottis and 
Pichtis, come array it, in thair best maner, to defend this wal afore 
rehersit ; and put ane gret nowmer of weirmen in the bastailyeis 


and touris thalrof, to resist the invasioun of ennimes : aganis quhom 
was send the vailyeant Grahame, with ane cumpany of Scottis and 
Pichtis, armit with corsbowis, slcnges, and handbowis. Als sone 
as this Grahame hcd doung the Britonis fra this wal, incontinent 
come masonnis, wrichtis, and mony otheris craftismen, with sindry 
instrumentis, and kest down the dike unto the ground. Ane gret 
band of Britonis maid thame to withstand the eversion of this wal ; 
bot thay, be obstinate fechting, war all slane. Otheris, that knew 
the crucll furie of confiderat pepill, gaif bakkis, confiding in na 
thing mair than in thair flicht. 

Quhill sic thingis war done at the wal of Abircorn, thair come 
ane othu* cumpany of Pichtis out of Fiffe in Pentland, and did mair 
cruelteis to the Britonis, quhare thay come, than did thir Scottis 
and Pichtis that come afore thaim, Als sone as baith thir cumpa- 
nyis war acsemblit togidder, nocht was but fire and slauchter quhare 
thay come. 

The inha.bitantis, affrayit be thir cruelteis, fled, with thair wiflis, 
barnis, and guddis, beyond the watter of Tyne. Incontinent, all 
gudis betwix Tweid and Tyne, be general proclamation of the two 
kingis, war denuncit frely eschetit and pray to thair army, Fol- 
lowit mony schamefull anrf abhonlinable dedis, be persuasion of ire, 
hatrent, and avarice. The skry and terrible i.oyis arrayis, be furie 
of weirmen ceissing fra na manor of cruelte, throw all the landis 
betwix the Ireland seis on the ta side, and the Almane seis on the 

The Britonis, for feir of thir importable terrouris, reparit the wall 
of Adriane, with huge lauboure and expiensis. The confiderat pepil, 
knawing, becaus the mnter wes approc^.eing, thair aniiy nicht nocht 
abide togidder ; ceissit fra seging of the said wal ; and sat down, 
with thair wiffis and children, in al the landis that wer cotiquest at 
this time be richt of battall. 

The Britonis, dreidand the Scottis and Pichtis, at the cuming of 
the nixt weir, to invaid thame with more cruelte than afore ; send 
thair ambassatouris to Etius, quhilk w^es Capitane of France, as 
said is, and desirit support aganis the confiderat pepill. Alwayis 
this Etius send na support to the Britonis : uncertane quhldder he 
wald send nane, becaus he favorit nocht the Emprioure Valenti- 


niane, as he that purposit to usurpe tlie crown of France ; or gif 
he niicht noclit mak support to the said Britonis, for feir of the 
scharp battall that his ennimes had aganis him. 

Cfjap. JFtfteentlj. 

How ConanuSy Prince of Walls, exhortit the Britonis to taJc peace 
•with Scottis and Pichtis ; and was slane. How the Britonis, 
efter his slauchter, faucht amang tliaimself. 

Ow wer the oratouris of Britonis returnit, with this re- 
pulse of Etius, in Britane. Followit sindry consultationis 
amano-e thir Britonis. Sum gaif counsall to invaid the 
Scottis and Pichtis, als weil be see as land ; and to de- 
fend thair liberte, quhilk wes laitlie recoverit, to the deith : and 
nocht onelie to bring men, bot all fensabill wemen, for defence of 
thair realme; and to convene, with all deligence, at the wal of 
Adriane : and erar to jeoperd thaim to extreme daungeir, than to 
suffer sa continual heirschippis and slauchter ; or to tak peace, how- 
beit it wer necessar, with ony inhonest conditionis. 

In the mene time, Conanus, Prince of Walis, discending, be lang 
progressioun, of the native Kingis of Britane, said to the Britonis 
in this maner : " It is necessar to all pepill, wise faderis, gif thay 
" intend othir to mak conques, or to keip thair a win rowmis fra in- 
" jure of fayis, to have respect baith to thair pissance, and the sea- 
" son, as occurris for the time. Sa lang, suthlie, as we wer sup- 
" portit be Romanis, and wer sufficient to defend this realme aganis 
" our unmerciful fayis, we socht na peace with the treasonable 
" Scottis and Pichtis: bot now, allace ! oure realme abidis ane 
" othir chance ; for we ar attenuat and brokin be tyranny of the 
*' proud Maximiane, quhilk hes bene more noisum to us than ony 
" ennimes micht haif bene, quhen he, be avarice, socht the empire 
" of the warld ; and we ar sa waistit be the same, that we maye haif 
" na confidence of victorie, gif we fecht be our awin pissance. 
" Now we have na esperance be support of Romanis ; and sen we 


'* ar insufficient, be our awin power, to resist our ennimes in times 
*' earning, how may we plesandly debait in sic perrellus aventure ? 
'* Thir cruell tyrannis our ennimes, nocht brokin with lang weris, 
" laubour, nor distres, hes nothir dreid of God, man, nor of deith, 
" to be revengit of the injuris done to thaim, sa mony yeris afore, 
" be us. Amang thaim is na deference of age, nor of kind ; man 
" and wife equale rageand in battall, but ony mercy. Thair che- 
*' vah-y is nocht bot wod fury; for thay rejose in na thing sa mekill 
" as in murdir of agit men and barnis, and sichk febill personnis, 
" with sic insaciable thrist, that thay eschame nocht to drink the 
" blud of thair ennimes ; and dehtis in nocht bot in thift and slauch- 
" ter. Thairfore, we mon othir have peace with thame, or elhs 
" suffer, at thair will, ma importable cruelteis than afore : and 
" thocht peace be richt schamefuU to us, yit better is to have pa- 
" cience for ane time, than to lois our realme and liber te, with more 
" schame. I say thir wourdis for na desire of conques or honouris, 
" bot onlie for the singulare affection that I beir unto your common 
" Weill. Avise, thairfore, quhidder the samin be mair frutefull or 
" noisum thairto." 

The Britonis war richt commovit that Conanus persuadit thame 
to peace; and said, Thay wald have na amite with Scottis nor 
Pichtis, for the sindry cruelteis done be thame. Thay knew als, 
said thay, how he spak nocht for thair commoun weill, bot onlie to 
find sum occasioun, be his slichtis, to usurpe the crown of Britane. 
At last, quhen the nobillis had tane lang consultatioun in this 
mater, oftimes lamentand thair unhappy chance, and knawing the 
estait of man sa miserable, that it tendis more swiftlie to ruine than 
to ony hicht ; be counsall of obstinat and inoportune pepill, thay 
finalie concludit to assemble thair ordinance, baith of men and fen- 
sable wemen, to invaid the Scottis and Pichtis ; and to convene at 
ane prefixit day and place. 

Conanus, richt sorowful for thir doingis, ischit fra the counsall ; 
sayng, " I tak the Eternall God in witnes, I assent nocht to this 
" furius sentence ; and belevis na thing mair, than the anciant and 
" noble realme of Britane to cum to irrecoverable dammage, throw 
" sic fuliche counsal, in our day is."' 


Ane certane of Britonir., Iniiand Conanus regrait thair doingis 
on this sortj said, " Thy auctorite sail nocht be of pissance to stop 
" this sentence :" and efter that thay had pullit furth thair swerdis, 
thay diave him throw the body. The skry arrais haistelie efter his 
slauchter, be freindis of Conanus, and socht his slayaris in thair 
maist furie : tliiow quhilk the peple wes devidit in twa partis, and 
micht nocht be pecifyit be auctorite of the nobillis, quhill ane huge 
nowmer wer slane on athii- sidis. 

Ofgret vassalage done he the nohil Grahame^ at the Wallis of Abir- 
come and Adrian ; and Iww the Scottis conquest al landis betwix 
Tyne and Humber. Of the Epistill send be Britonis to Etius ; 
and of his answer. 

L s sone as the fame wes brocht to London, that the 
Scottis and Pichtis had maid crUell incursionis in the 
Jandis of Britonis, ane huge feir and terrour went throw 
^^^^^___ all the ciete. And quhen the Britonis wer takand 
thair consultatioun, thouht it wes in vane, how thay suld dres al 
materis ; come the vailyeant Grahame, with ane cumpany of chosin 
men, to the wall of Abircorne, and brak doun the same in all partis 
so halelie, that he left na thing thairof standing, more than remanis 
nowe, in thir dayis : and for that cause this wall wes callit, efter, 
Grahamis Dike. 

Sic thingis done, Graliame went to the wall of Adriane, fornens 
the Ireland seis, and kest it down on the samin maner ; and slew al 
the weirmen that wer laid for defence thairof. The residew of 
Britonis, heirand nocht bot rriurdir and rummissing of deand pepill, 
savit thaimself be flicht. 

The wall of Adriane bet doun to the grond in this maner, the 
Scottis, desiring na thing mair than to revenge the injuris done 
afore be Britonis, proclamit. be gererall edict, na fensabill, bot agit 


and febill personis, to be saiffit. Bot this edict wes nocht observat. 
So far enragit wes the army in cruelte, that thay past, with fire and 
swerd, throw all the boundis Hand betwix Tyne and Humber ; and 
wrocht on the inhabitantis thairof sic heirschip and slauchter, that 
thay wer othir slane, or chasit out of the cuntre. 

Thir tithingis schawin to the nobilhs of Britane at London, movit 
thaim to seik new remeid aganis thair ennimes. Finalie, quhen 
thay had lang avisit in this mater, it wes concludit to send two sin- 
dry ambassatouris, for expedition of thair materis : ane of thaim to 
pas to the confiderat Kingis of Scottis and Pichtis, and to gif thaim 
frelie all the landis liand beyond Humber, with large soumis of 
money ; swa thay wald condiscend to peace, and desist fra truble 
of thaim in times cuming: the secund ambassat to pas to Etius, 
Capitane of France, deplorand thair calamiteis ; with this epistill : 

" To EtiuSf thryis Consul, the regrait of Britonis. 

" Quhen our forbearis first randerit thame to Romanis, thay 
" traistit, be mony reasonis, that the senat and pepill of Rome wes 
" the port and sicker refuge of all pepill cuming under thair empire. 
" Bot we, thair posterite, be tresonable slicht of Maximiane agane 
" our common weill, ar sa brokin in our strenth, be our continew- 
" ance at thair opinioun, that we ar bot ane facill pray to our enni- 
" mes : throw quhilk it apperis, that othir the Romanis ar degene- 
" rat fra the manheid and illuster dedis of thair eldaris; or ellis 
" thair braid empire, be vengeance of God, beginnis to decline, and 
" gevin be pray to every pepill. Nochtheles, gif the fatale chance 
" of time and weirdis covatis this our realme to be dissolvit fra 
" amite and freinschip of Romanis, constraning us to servitude of 
" othir barbar peple ; we cure nocht quhat pepill have dominioun 
" of us, sa that we eschew the tyranny of Scottis and Pichtis : 
" quhais bludy swerd hes wrocht on us sic heirschip and calamite, 
" that we knawe nocht quhat way our miserabill livis sal be savit, 
" sen all our guddis ar lost and tint. Thay have no we bet doun 
" the wallis and strenthis quhilkis suld have defendit us fra thair 

VOL. I. 2 N 


" cruelteis : syne entrit in the Romane province, with al maner of 
" cruelteis ; waistit our landis ; brint our townis and casteUis ; bet 
" doun our wallis to the ground ; and slane our wiffis, childrin, and 
" agit personis : beside infinite othir displeseiris, quhilkis we may 
" nocht writ for doloure. We, the residew of thaira, ar chaist and 
*' drevin to the seis : and becaus we may nocht have passage throw 
" the saniin, we ar drevin agane in our ennimes handis ; quhair- 
" throw, na esperance apperis of releif, bot othir to be slane, or 
" peris in the fletand seis. Beseikand the, heirfore, gif thow re- 
" gardis othir our faithful kindnes, or yit the glore of Romane 
" majeste, to quhilk we bene sa mony yeris obeisant, to suffer nocht 
" us, the freindis of the senat and pepill of Rome, to be thirllit to 
" sic undantit cruelte of ennimes ; bot send us support in haist, that 
" we be nocht mair cruelly betrasit be Romanis, than tint be bar- 
*' bar pepitl : othirwayis sic thingis sail be ane perpetual memory 
" to our successouris, to have na confidence nor societe with Ro- 
" manis." 

Etius answerit, That he was richt sorrowfull that the Romane 
empire was persewit sa on every hand, that he micht skarsly defend 
France fra invasioun of barbar pepill ; and, thau-fore, he micht send 
na support in Britane. Nochtheles, he exhortit thaim to maik the 
best defence thay micht, in esperance of better fortoun ; for quhen 
the Romanis had pecifyit all trubill, the Scottis and Pichtis suid be 
condignely punist for thair attemptatis. 


Hoiv the Britonis war vincust, and maid tr'ihutar to Scottts and 
Pichtis ; and of the conditionis of peace gevin to the said Bri- 

N the mene time, qr.hen this answere come fra Etius, 
the ambassatouris returnit fra the Scottis and Pichtis ; 
and schew, that the petitionis of Britonis war na thing 
plesand to the said Scottis and Pichtis : for thay wald 
not ceis fra ithand slauchter and heirschip of Britonis, quhill othir 
thair reahne was conquest, or ellis frely randerit to thaim. The 
Britonis war richt afFrayit be thir wourdis : nochtheles, thay en- 
forcit thaimself to curage, and ruschit haistely to harnes ; detesting 
thair effeminate sleuth, be quhilk thay gaif audacite to thair enni- 
mes, and tint the victory be thair cowartry, that thay conquest 
afore with thair victory and manheid. 

The Scottis and Pichtis, weil advertist that the Britonis war re- 
pulsit be Etius of thair desiris, gaderit thair pepil cTut of all boundis 
under thair dominion ; and come, with displayit baneris, aganis thair 
ennimes. The Britonis, in the samin maner, war advertist be the 
exploratouris, how thair ennimes w^ar cumand on thame, with sic 
pissance, that thay micht not be resistit. Bot than thay began to 
curs and wary thaim that gaif thaim counsall to fecht aganis sa pis- 
sant ennimes, in dammage of thair common weil. Yit, to saif thame 
fra mair displesour, thay send othir ambassatouris to the confiderat 
kingis, desiring peace, as afore: and becaus thay culd purches na 
peace, bot gif thay war randerit, with wiffis, childrin, and guddis ; 
throw extreme ire on the ta side, and disperation on the tothir side, 
thay maid thame all, with ane consent, to battal. Incontinent, be 
blast of trumpat, baith the army is junit. Folio wit ane maist terri- 
bill bergane ; for the Britonis, deliverit to revenge thair deith, and 
to de for defence of thair realm, set on thair ennimes with gret preis, 


and mony of thaim bure unto the ground : than ilk ane, desiring 
to support othir, ruschit togidder with sa obstinat mind, that thay 
semit na thing to regard thair deith : throw quhilk mony of the 
Scottis and Pichtis quhilkis faucht in the first battal, war neir dis- 
comfist. Graham, the vailyeant capitane, seand his freindis in ex- 
treme dangeir, send ane gret cumpany of Ihs men, fra the carage, 
in thair support. Incontinent, the Scottis and Pichtis, that war 
afore woundit and discomfist, renewit battal : than the Britonis, 
ouirset with multitude of ennimes rusching apon thaim on all sidis, 
and disparit of victory, fled to ane mos, nocht far fra the feild. 
The cariagemen, seing the battal discomfist, left thair cariage, and 
slew thair ennimes heir and thair, quhare thay war tane, ouirset in 
the mossis. In this battall war slane iv.m Scottis, and of Britonis 

XV. M. 

The princes and nobillis of Britane war sa halely slane in this 
battall, that the residew of Britonis micht mak na defence for thair 
realme; and thairfore, be generall consent, thay send thair ora- 
touris to the victorius kingis, humely desiring peace under quhat 
conditioun thay plesit. 

The confiderat kingis, na les movit be the sorrowfull chance fall- 
ing to Britonis, than with the present calamite falling to thaimself, 
condiscendit to have peace under thir conditionis : The Britonis, 
in times cuming, sail ressave na llomane capitane with armyis above 
thaim in Britane ; and sail suffer na Romanis, Gallis, Saxonis, nor 
yit na othir pepill that ar ennimes to Scottis and Pichtis, to pas 
throw thair landis. Thay sail nothir treit peace nor alliance, nor 
vit make weir aganis ony pepill, but command of the confiderat 
kingis. Thay sail fecht, quhen thay ar chargit, in support of 
Scottis and Pichtis, aganis all pepil. Al the landis hand beyond 
Humber sal remane perpetually under the empire of Scottis and 
Pichtis ; and the Britonis to pas out of the samin, with thair wiffis, 
childrin, and gudis, but ony tary. Finaly, thay sal pay lx.m pundis 
amang thair weirmen ; and yeirly , in times cuming, xx.m pundis to 
the confiderat kingis, in maner of tribute : and for securite heirof, 
thay sal geif ane c men in oistage, at the will of the confiderat 
kingis ; ilk man na eldar than xxx yeris, and na youngar than xviii 


yeris. Gif ony of thir pointis war brokin, the peace to be dissolvit 
in the self. 

The peace ratify it on this maner, the ile of Albion was brocht to 
better quiet than afore. Britane was tane fra the empire of Ro- 
manis in this maner, and maid tributar to Scottis and Pichtis. 
ccccxcvi yeris efter that JuUus Cesar maid it first tributar to 
Romanis, quhilk was in the vii yeir of King Eugenius; fra the in- 
carnatioun, ccccxxxvi yeris; fra the empire of Brutus, the first 
King of Britane, ane m dciii yeris. Fra thens the Britonis began 
to dechne, baith in thair manheid, landis, and honouris. 

1 knaw weil this history that I have schawin, of Maximus, Ro- 
mane Capitane in Britane ; and of Octavius and Dioneth, Kingis 
of Britane ; and als of the cuming of Saxonis in Albioun, quhilk I 
intend now to schawe ; is richt discrepant fra the Croniklis of Bri- 
tonis, maid be Galfrede. And yit thair suld nane have admiration 
thairof ; for the authouris that I follow, as Eutropius, Paulus Dia- 
conus, Beda, Veremundus, with othir mair recent and expert histo- 
ricianis, concordis with this Galfrede, nouthir in the narratioun of 
the historic, nor yit in the dait of yeris. We think, thairfore, it is 
mair sowndand to the verite, to follow mony provin and attentik 
authouris in discriptioun of oure historic, concurring with the his- 
toric of Romanis baith in narratioun and dait of yeris, than to fol- 
low the said Galfrede, wTitand but ony testimonial! of othir an- 
thouris, and singular m his awin opinioun. 


Ofvrony nohill Clerkis and Sanctis in sindry partis of the World ; 
and of sindry prodigies and mervellis sene in Albion ; and of 

Ony nobil men war in thir days ; as, Anselmus, Phi- 
lippus Hilarius. Amang us wer in thay days Palla- 
dius, quhilk was send be Celestine, Pape, to confound 
the heresy of Pelagius, risin than in sindry partis of 
Albion. This Palladius was the first bischop that bure authorite 
amang the Scottis, and was creat be the Pape. The bischcppis 
afore him war creat be votis allanerhe of the monkis and preistis, 
namit Culdeis. This Palladius purgit the Scottis and Pichtis of 
mony vane superstitionis and ritis of Gentilis, usit in thay dayis ; 
and, thairfore, he was callit the Apostill of Scottis : and deceissit in 
ane town of Mernis, namit Fordoun : quhare his blissit body restis 
yit, haldin in gret veneration amang the pepill. His banis war lait- 
]y translatit be ane nobil man, William Scheves, Archebischop of 
Sanct Andros ; and put in ane silver cais, with mony solempne ce- 
rimonyis : fra the incarnation of God, ane ivr ccccxciv yeris. This 
Palladius maid Sanct Serf bischop, and send him in Orknay, to in- 
struck the rude pepill thairof in the faith ; als, he gaif the sacrament 
of baptem to Tervanus, and maid him Archebischop of Pichtis. 

About this time was send fra Pape Celestine, Sanct Patrik in 
Ireland, to defend the samin fra heresy of Pelagius : throw quhilk 
the Cristin faith began to incres in Ireland and Albion. 

Mony mervellis war sene in sindry partis of Albion, afore the 
Britonis faucht aganis the Scottis and Pichtis. The mone beand 
in opposition, quhen it is maist round, apperit suddanly as it war 
foure nukit. In York war mony schouris of blude. The branchis 
and levis of treis war strokin with thonder, and wederit, in mony 
partis of Albioun. The merkat gait of London raif with ane huge 


gaip, and mony housis beside sank. The pepil preichit, thir signis 
to cum in dammage of the Britonis : nochtheles, the same wes mesit 
be the preistis, quhilk commandit na credence to be gevin to sic 

It is said that Fynmakcoule, the Sonne of Coelus, Scottisman, 
was in thir days ; ane man of huge statoure, of xvii cvibitis of hicht. 
He was ane gret huntar, and richt terribill, for his huge quantite, to 
the pepill : of quhome ar mony vulgar fabillis amang us, nocht un- 
like to thir fabillis that ar rehersit of King Arthure. And becaus . 
his dedis is nocht authorist be autentik authouris, I will rehers na 
thing thairof ; bot declare the remanent geistis of King Eugenius, 
and othir nobillis. 

And sa endis heir, the Sevint Buke of thir Cronikhs. 



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